Peter-Paul van Maanen's research while affiliated with Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek and other places

Publications (55)

Conference Paper
This paper concerns multi-agent models predicting Twitter trends. We use a step-wise approach to develop a novel agent-based model with the following properties: (1) it uses individual behavior parameters for a set of Twitter users and (2) it uses a retweet graph to model the underlying social network structure of these Twitter users to predict tre...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, the influence of interventions on Twitter users is studied. We define influence in (a) number of participants, (b) size of the audience, (c) amount of activity, and (d) reach. Influence is studied for four different target groups: (a) politicians, (b) journalists, (c) employees and (d) the general public. Furthermore, two types of in...
Article
The aim of this study is to better understand social influence in online social media. Therefore, we propose a method in which we implement, validate and improve individual behavior models. The behavior model is based on three fundamental behavioral principles of social influence from the literature (i.e., Cialdini’s principles): (1) consistency, (...
Conference Paper
Many reasons exist for the military to favor unmanned systems and future missions are envisioned that require longer, more diverse and more frequent deployment of UAVs with increased mission precision. This will also result in a much higher demand on operator crews working with UAVs. With the current pressure on operational budgets, a more effectiv...
Article
Full-text available
When considering intelligent agents that interact with humans, having an idea of the trust levels of the human, for example in other agents or services, can be of great importance. Most models of human trust that exist assume trust in one trustee is independent of trust in another trustee. The model introduced here addresses so-called relative trus...
Article
Full-text available
Within human trust related behaviour, according to the literature from the domains of Psychology and Social Sci-ences often non-rational behaviour can be observed. Current trust models that have been developed typically do not incorpo-rate non-rational elements in the trust formation dynamics. In order to enable agents that interact with humans to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper the influence of interventions on Twitter users is studied. We define influence in a) number of participants, b) size of the audience, c) amount of activity, and d) reach. Influence is studied for four different target groups: a) politicians, b) journalists, c) employees and d) the general public. Furthermore, two types of interventio...
Conference Paper
The aim of this study is to better understand social influence in online social media. Therefore, we propose a method in which we implement, validate and improve an individual behavior model. The behavior model is based on three fundamental behavioral principles of social influence from the literature: 1) liking, 2) social proof and 3) consistency....
Article
This study presents a framework for understanding task and psychological factors affecting reliance on advice from decision aids. The framework describes how informational asymmetries in combination with rational, motivational and heuristic factors explain human reliance behavior. To test hypotheses derived from the framework, 79 participants perfo...
Article
Although autonomous systems are becoming more and more capable of performing tasks as good as humans can, there is still a huge amount of (especially) complex tasks which can much better be performed by humans. When making such decisions however, it might show that in particular situations it is better to let a human perform the task, whereas in ot...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This literature review is aimed at examining state of the art research in the field of online social networks. The goal is to identify the current challenges within this area of research, given the questions raised in society. In this review we pay attention to three aspects of social networks: actor, message, and network characteristics. We furthe...
Conference Paper
In this paper we describe the development of a model for measuring consumer trust in certain topics on the basis of social media. Specifically, we propose a model for trust that takes into account both textually expressed sen-timent and source authority, and illustrate it on a specific case: the iCloud cloud computing service of Apple and its recep...
Article
Full-text available
In this chapter, we propose to outline the scientific area that addresses Ambient Intelligence applications in which not only sensor data, but also knowledge from the human-directed sciences such as biomedical science, neuroscience, and psychological and social sciences is incorporated. This knowledge enables the environment to perform more in-dept...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To provide personalized intelligent ambient support for persons per-forming demanding tasks, it is important to have insight in their state of atten-tion. Existing models for attention have difficulties in distinguishing between stressed and relaxed states. To solve this problem, this paper proposes to extend an existing model for attention with a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Problems with estimating trust in information sources are common in time constraining and ambiguous situations and often lead to a decrease of team performance. Humans lack the resources to track the integrity of information and thus tend to over- or under-rely on advice from support systems. Two types of adaptive team support have been developed a...
Conference Paper
Naval tactical picture compilation is a task for which allocation of attention to the right information at the right time is crucial. Performance on this task can be improved if a support system assists the human operator. However, there is evidence that benefits of support systems are highly dependent upon the systems’ tendency to support. This pa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, the results of a validation experiment for two existing computational trust models describing human trust are reported. One model uses experiences of performance in order to estimate the trust in different trustees. The second model carries the notion of relative trust. The idea of relative trust is that trust in a certain trustee no...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses and evaluates an agent model that is able to manipulate the visual attention of a human, in order to support naval crew. The agent model consists of four sub-models, including a model to reason about a subject's attention. The model was evaluated based on a practical case study which was formally analyzed and verified using aut...
Chapter
In this chapter, we propose to outline the scientific area that addresses Ambient Intelligence applications in which not only sensor data, but also knowledge from the human-directed sciences such as biomedical science, neuroscience, and psychological and social sciences is incorporated. This knowledge enables the environment to perform more in-dept...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the idea of an interface agent that is able to manipulate the visual attention of a human, in order to support naval crew in a tactical picture compilation task. The agent will consist of four submodels, including a model to reason about a subject's attention. In a study (not presented here) a practical case study was formally...
Conference Paper
In this paper it is explored whether personalisation of an existing computational model of attention can increase the model's validity. Computational models of attention are for instance applied in attention allocation support systems and can benefit from this increased validity. Personalisation is done by tuning the model's parameters during a tra...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Eye activity measures are utilized to make inferences about human activity. While much is known how to use the eye to infer workload, less is known about inferring higher-level cognitive processes from lower-level eye movements. The main question addressed in the workshop is how to use eye activity measures in order to support higher-level cognitiv...
Article
This paper presents analysis and simulation of meta-reasoning processes based on an agent-based meta-level architecture for strategic reasoning in naval planning. The architecture was designed as a generic agent model and instantiated with decision knowledge acquired from naval domain experts and was specified as an executable agent-based model whi...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper a simulation model for visual attention is discussed and formally analysed. The model is part of the design of an agent-based system that supports a naval officer in its task to compile a tactical picture of the situation in the field. A case study is described in which the model is used to simulate a human subject's attention. The fo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We introduce a support system concept that offers both work-centered and human-aware support for operators in tactical command and contr ol environments. The support system augments the cognitive capabilities of the operator by offering instant, personalized task and work support. The operator obtains support by entering into a collabo rative agree...
Conference Paper
This paper presents an agent model that is able to manipulate the visual attention of a human, in order to support naval crew. It consists of four submodels, including a model to reason about a subject's attention. A practical case study was formally analysed, and the results were verified using automated checking tools. Results show how a human su...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the idea of an interface agent that is able to manipulate the visual attention of a human, in order to support naval crew in a tactical picture compilation task. The agent will consist of four submodels, including a model to reason about a subject's attention. In a study (not presented here) a practical case study was formally...
Article
Within the field of incident management split second decisions have to be made, usually on the basis of incomplete and partially incorrect information. As a result of these conditions, errors occur in such decision processes. In order to avoid repetition of such errors, historic cases, disaster plans, and training logs need to be thoroughly analyse...
Article
Full-text available
Computational models of attention can be used as a component of decision support systems. For accurate support, a computational model of attention has to be valid and robust. The effects of task performance and task complexity on the validity of three different computational models of attention were investigated in an experiment. The gaze-based mod...
Article
Full-text available
1 Abstract. Chatbots and embodied conversational agents show turn based conversation behaviour. In current research we almost always assume that each utterance of a human conversational partner should be followed by an intelligent and/or empathetic reaction of chatbot or embodied agent. They are assumed to be alert, trying to please the user. There...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper addresses the development of an adaptive cooperative agent in a domain that suffers from human error in the allocation of attention. The design is discussed of a component of this adaptive agent, called Human Attention-Based Task Allocator (HABTA), capable of managing agent and human attention. The HABTA-component reallocates the human’s...
Conference Paper
This paper involves a human-agent system in which there is an operator charged with a pattern recognition task, using an automated decision aid. The objective is to make this human-agent system operate as effectively as possible. Effectiveness is gained by an increase of appropriate reliance on the operator and the aid. We studied whether it is pos...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper discusses the use of cognitive models as augmented metacognition on task allocation for tasks requiring visual attention. In the domain of naval warfare, the complex and dynamic nature of the environment makes that one has to deal with a large number of tasks in parallel. Therefore, humans are often supported by software agents that take...
Conference Paper
This paper argues that it is important to study issues concerning trust and reliance when developing systems that are intended to augment cognition. Operators often under-rely on the help of a support system that provides advice or that performs certain cognitive tasks autonomously. The decision to rely on support seems to be largely determined by...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To talk and write about one’s feelings has a beneficial effect on one’s physical and psychological health. More specifically, conversation evoking disclosure of emotions and traumatic events has a positive effect on one’s health, rather than chitchat. Astronauts on a mission are exposed to stressful situations, without the presence of a therapist o...
Conference Paper
In this paper a simulation model for visual attention is discussed and formally analysed. The model is part of the design of a cognitive system which comprises an agent that supports a naval officer in its task to compile a tactical picture of the situation in the field. A case study is described in which the model is used to simulate a human subje...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper an analysis of the notion of attention is described that comprises a differentiation according to five stages of an attentional process related to action selection and performance. The first stage deals with the allocation of attention to external and internal stimuli, the second with examination and analysis, the third with decision...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper a cognitive model for visual attention is introduced. The cognitive model is part of the design of a software agent that supports a naval warfare officer in its task to compile a tactical picture of the situation in the field. An executable formal specification of the cognitive model is given and a case study is described in which the...
Article
It is often assumed that two heads are better than one, but reliance on decision aids is often inappropriate. Decisions to rely on an aid are thought to be based on a comparison between the perceived reliability of own performance and that of the decision aid. Unfortunately, perceived reliabilities are unlikely to be perfectly calibrated. This may...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The management of naval organizations aims at the maximization of mission success by means of monitoring, planning, and strategic reasoning. This paper presents an agent-based meta-level architecture for strategic reasoning in naval planning. The architecture is instantiated with decision knowledge acquired from naval domain experts and is formed i...
Conference Paper
This paper discusses a means for automatically supporting humans in information and task prioritizing. A new generic method based on the Competitive Task Model is described. Its implementation is able to calculate priorities of competing information entities, which provides a way of allocating tasks to the process operator. Due to a combination of...
Article
Future platforms are envisioned in which human-machine teams are able to share and trade tasks as demands in situations change. It seems that human-machine coordination has not received the attention it deserves by past and present approaches to task allocation. In this paper a simple way to make coordination requirements explicit is proposed and f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract—Increasing machine,intelligence leads to a shift from a mere,interactive to a much more complex cooperative humanmachine,relation requiring,a multidisciplinary development,approach. This paper presents a generic multidisciplinary cognitive engineering,method,CE+ for the integration,of human,factors and,artificial intelligence in the develo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The management of naval organizations aims at the maximization of mission success by means of monitoring, planning, and strategic reasoning. This paper presents a meta-level architecture for strategic reasoning in naval planning. The architecture is instantiated with decision knowledge acquired from naval domain experts, and is formed into an execu...
Chapter
Full-text available
Within incident management an important aspect is the analysis of log files describing traces of incident management processes and the errors made in them. Automated support of such an analysis can be helpful. In this paper some results are shown on automated support for analysis of errors in traces of incident management. For such traces it can be...
Article
The project CIM, started in 2003, addresses the problem of automated support for incident management. In this paper some intermediate results are shown, especially on automated support of analysis of errors in traces of incident management. For such traces it can be checked automatically which dynamic properties hold or fail. The potential of the a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The management of naval organizations aims at the maximization of mission success by means of monitoring, planning, and strategic reasoning. This paper presents a meta-level architecture for strategic reasoning in naval planning. The architecture is instantiated with decision knowledge acquired from naval domain experts, and is formed into an execu...
Conference Paper
In this paper a system for visual attention manipulation is introduced and formally described. This system is part of the design of a software agent that supports naval crew in her task to compile a tactical picture of the situation in the field. A case study is described in which the system is used to manipulate a human subject’s attention. To thi...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract—Increasing,machine,intelligence leads to a shift from,a mere,interactive to a much more complex cooperative human-machine,relation requiring,a multidisciplinary development,approach. This paper,presents a generic multidisciplinary cognitive engineering,method,(CE+) for the integration of human factors and,artificial intelligence in the dev...
Article
Full-text available
In the domain of naval warfare, it is crucial for the crew of the vessels involved to be aware of the situation in the field. Examples of important questions that should be addressed continuously are "in which direction are we heading?", "are we currently under attack?", "are there any friendly vessels around?", and so on. To assess such issues, on...

Citations

... Bosse and colleagues [6] examine human aspects in SEs, abstaining from a pure examination of sensor data, but taking into account the human-directed sciences such as psychology and sociology. They focus on the human knowledge in ambient intelligence and describe an SE assessing the behavior of a human. ...
... In Qin et al. (2017), the proposed method integrates topology and content of networks, and introduces a novel adaptive parameter for controlling the contribution of content with respect to the identified mismatch degree between the topological and content information. In Attema et al. (2015), data-driven multi-agent models predict Twitter trends. In van Maanen and van der Vecht (2013), a method that implements, validates, and improves an individual behavior model is proposed. ...
... The 'voxel' jargon is a contraction of "volumetric pixel" terms denoting the tridimensional unit related to a specific attribute (JESSEL, 2001;CATARINO, 2009;TONINI et al. 2009;JØRGENSEN et al. 2013;VAN MAANEN et al. 2015;RASKA, 2017). ...
... Then, the sentiment agreement matrix score is computed using the hashtags of every user and by comparing these two matrices, the authors can assess the relation between users and whether they agree on different topics they are interested in. Similarly, the aim of (Boertjes et al., 2012) is to develop a model that takes into account both textually expressed sentiment and source authority. The final degree of trust is calculated based on situational trust, behavioral trust momentary sentiment and authority. ...
... Developing dynamic models for human mental states and processes in a computational form and integrating them into intelligent applications (i.e., a virtual agent or robot) will allow such intelligent agents to perform reasoning and analysis in a more human-like manner. This capability enables agents to provide intelligent support in the same way as a human [13]. In other words, intelligent agents (i.e., software/hardware agents) are usually developed to provide personal care depending upon acquiring sensor information about human and their environment, but creating more intelligent agents can be achieved through the use of knowledge to perform depth analysis of human functioning. ...
... Agents can have many representations, including computers, humans, and other creatures, such as ants, bees, and bacteria. It is essential to note that in general, agentbased modeling approaches have no theoretical foundations [6][7][8][9][10][11]. To put it in another way, agent-based modeling is a different research direction than equation-based modeling [12]. ...
... Use of Twitter and similar social media sites involves considering more than just sharing links or thoughts; savvy users consider a wide variety of methods and forms of sharing information. Aarts, van Maanen, Ouboter and Schraagen (2012) found that tweets have characteristics of the actor, message, and network. Past research has viewed actor characteristics to include individuals' informational "influence and conformity to social pressure;" message characteristics are related to the arousal that the message has on audiences; and network characteristics consider what about various networks lead to the spread of ideas (Aars et al., 2012, p. 739). ...
... A large number of these models are qualitative models [15,30,40,43] which analyze the factors that affect trust but cannot be used to make quantitative predictions. Some quantitative models, including regression models [14,44] and time-series models of trust [2,27,29,[31][32][33]41], fill this gap but do not account for the probabilistic nature of human behavior. ...
... Assessing the changes of trustee behaviour, a confidence value is added to the trust score. Hoogendoorn et al. [5] validated a relative trust to predict human trust-based behaviour which shows better results than a benchmark model. This model is nonlinear in trust and experience, and difficult to analyse. ...
... Division of labor. As we begin to divide work between humans and AI, there can be allocation of specific tasks between humans and AI, along with specific order in which the inputs of AI are presented to humans (Silverman, 1992;van Dongen and Maanen, 2013;Grønsund and Aanestad, 2020). Considering the nature of interdependence, there is a parallel and sequential form of collaboration between humans and AI (Puranam, 2021;Endsley, 2017). ...