Peter F. de Jong's research while affiliated with University of Amsterdam and other places

Publications (131)

Article
To contain the COVID-19 pandemic schools have been closed in many countries. Children stayed at home and were assisted by their parents with their schoolwork. Evidently, homeschooling puts extra demands on parents. We presumed that parents' sense of efficacy in teaching would play a key role in how they cope with this extra task of homeschooling. I...
Article
When dyslexia is diagnosed late, the question is whether this is due to late‐emerging (LE) or late‐identified (LI) problems. In a random selection of dyslexia‐diagnosis case files we distinguished early‐diagnosed (Grade 1–3, n = 116) and late‐diagnosed (Grade 4–6) dyslexia. The late‐diagnosed files were divided into LE (n = 54) and LI dyslexia (n =...
Preprint
Schools are expected to provide children with math problems with targeted instruction, in addition to classroom instruction. To do this, schools need to know which programs can be used effectively for Tier 3 support. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of Rekensprint, an intervention program focused on the acquisition and automatization o...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we investigated how word- and text-level processes contribute to different types of reading fluency measures. We aimed to increase our understanding of the underlying processes necessary for fluent reading. The sample included 73 Dutch Grade 3 children, who were assessed on serial word reading rate (familiar words), word-list reading...
Preprint
Full-text available
The use of spoken and written language is a capacity that is unique to humans. Individual differences in reading- and language-related skills are influenced by genetic variation, with twin-based heritability estimates of 30-80%, depending on the trait. The relevant genetic architecture is complex, heterogeneous, and multifactorial, and yet to be in...
Article
Full-text available
The use of spoken and written language is a capacity that is unique to humans. Individual differences in reading- and language-related skills are influenced by genetic variation, with twin-based heritability estimates of 30-80%, depending on the trait. The relevant genetic architecture is complex, heterogeneous, and multifactorial, and yet to be in...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined developmental profiles of reading fluency and reading comprehension in Grades 1 to 9 (ages 7 to 15) in a large Finnish sample (N = 2,518). In addition, early predictors of the profiles were analyzed with respect to kindergarten cognitive skills (phonological awareness, letter knowledge, rapid automized naming [RAN], number count...
Article
Full-text available
Orthographic learning is the topic of many recent studies about reading, but much is still unknown about conditions that affect orthographic learning and their influence on reading fluency development over time. This study investigated lexicality effects on orthographic learning in beginning and relatively advanced readers of Dutch. Eye movements o...
Article
Full-text available
Visual attention span (VAS) has been shown to make a unique contribution to reading skills over and above phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming (RAN). In the current study, we examined the nature of this unique relationship. In particular, we tested whether VAS reflects the retrieval of a verbal code, serial processing, or parallel mu...
Article
L1 studies show that the paired-associate learning (PAL) of novel pronunciations, verbal learning, contributes to the prediction of individual differences in vocabulary, reading, and spelling development. The present study examined whether verbal learning predicts vocabulary and literacy development in English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Dutch Gra...
Article
Al langer is bekend dat dyslexie in families voorkomt. Kinderen met een ouder met dyslexie hebben een grotere kans om ook lees- en spellingproblemen te ontwikkelen. In familiaire risico (FR) studies naar dyslexie worden kinderen met familiair risico op dyslexie voor langere tijd gevolgd. Dergelijke studies geven interessante inzichten over de oorza...
Article
The present study evaluated whether LLInC (Leerkracht-Leerling Interactie Coaching in Dutch, or Teacher-Student Interaction Coaching), a teacher-based coaching-intervention, yielded improvements in dyadic affective teacher-child relationships in elementary school (Grades 2-6). Based on attachment theory, LLInC aims to foster more flexible and diffe...
Preprint
To contain the COVID-19 pandemic schools have been closed in many countries. Children stayed at home and were assisted by their parents with their schoolwork. Evidently, homeschooling puts extra demands on parents. We presumed that parents’ sense of self-efficacy in teaching would play a key role in how they cope with this extra task of homeschooli...
Article
Full-text available
We assessed the relationship between word-to-text-integration (WTI) and reading comprehension in 7th grade students (n=441) learning English as a second language (L2). The students performed a self-paced WTI reading task in Fall (T1) and Spring (T2), consisting of three text manipulation types (anaphora resolution, argument overlap, anomaly detecti...
Article
Word-to-text integration (WTI) is the ability to integrate words into a mental representation of the text and is important for reading comprehension, but challenging in English as a second language (ESL). However, it remains unclear whether WTI can be trained in seventh grade ESL learners, who often struggle with reading comprehension and display l...
Article
Full-text available
Math and reading are related, and math problems are often accompanied by problems in reading. In the present study, we used a dimensional approach and we aimed to assess the relationship of reading and math with the cognitive skills assumed to underlie the development of math. The sample included 97 children from 4th and 5th grades of a primary sch...
Article
Full-text available
The opaque English orthography complicates learning to read, as irregular words, such as the word pint, cannot be Addread accurately by decoding. Studies with first language (L1) English children show that vocabulary facilitates word reading, especially in the case of irregular words. It is unclear whether this influence of vocabulary extends to ch...
Article
Full-text available
Availability of orthography during word learning has been found to facilitate learning the word’s spelling and pronunciation and has been proposed to facilitate learning its meaning. This has not been studied in second language (L2) learning yet, in which word learning often corresponds to translation learning. Therefore, an L2 word learning experi...
Article
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In a randomized-controlled trial we tested a computer-assisted intervention for the prevention of reading difficulties, delivered by nonprofessional tutors, running from kindergarten to halfway Grade 2. The full sample included 123 prereaders (M � 5; 6 years; 56 intervention; 67 controls) with low preliteracy skills. Parents were sent a questionnai...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the relation between home literacy environment (HLE) and early literacy development in a sample of children learning four alphabetic orthographies varying in orthographic consistency (English, Dutch, German, and Greek). Seven hundred and fourteen children were followed from Grade 1 to Grade 2 and tested on emergent literacy skills (voca...
Article
Full-text available
Although a diagnosis of dyslexia is often made during elementary school, severe and persistent literacy difficulties of a considerable group of students are only noticed during secondary school. The question arises whether the literacy(‐related) deficits of these late identified students with dyslexia differ from those of early diagnosed students....
Article
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Two explanations for resolving dyslexia were investigated, one assuming resolving underlying deficits and another assuming compensatory mechanisms based on cognitive strengths. Thirty-six Dutch gifted secondary-school students with either persistent (n = 18) or resolving (n = 18) dyslexia participated. Groups, matched on IQ, were assessed on dyslex...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the cross-lagged relations between reading and spelling in five alphabetic orthographies varying in consistency (English, French, Dutch, German, Greek). Nine hundred forty-one children were followed from Grade 1 to Grade 2 and were tested on word and pseudoword reading fluency and on spelling to dictation. Results indicated that the rel...
Article
A central question in the field of foreign language acquisition is whether the processes involved in reading development in a foreign language are universal or dependent on characteristics of the specific language involved. We investigated the impact of orthographic depth and writing system on word reading acquisition in a foreign orthography, by s...
Article
Although phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) are confirmed as early predictors of reading in a large number of orthographies, it is as yet unclear whether the predictive patterns are universal or language specific. This was examined in a longitudinal study across Grades 1 and 2 with 1,120 children acquiring one of five al...
Article
Despite the common idea that teachers’ self-efficacy (TSE) is associated with achievement, research findings in this area are ambiguous at best. In the current study, we took a multilevel perspective on the relationship between TSE and students’ academic achievement and evaluated how different levels of conceptualization and measurement of TSE may...
Article
Visual attention span (VAS) predicts reading performance over and above phonological skills. Given the growing number of studies that include VAS, it is surprising that indications of the stability of VAS performance and its relation with reading over time have not yet been reported. The current study addressed these important issues. Participants...
Article
Full-text available
Academic accommodations associated with a diagnosis of dyslexia might be incentives for college students without reading or spelling difficulties to feign dyslexia and obtain the diagnosis unfairly. In the current study we examined malingering practices by comparing the performance of college students instructed to malinger dyslexia (n = 28) to tha...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated the role of early oral language and family risk for dyslexia in the two developmental pathways toward reading comprehension, through word reading and through oral language abilities. The sample contained 237 children (164 at family risk for dyslexia) from the Dutch Dyslexia Program. Longitudinal data were obtained on...
Article
Deze studie onderzocht de self-efficacy van basisschoolleerkrachten (LSE) binnen verschillende domeinen van lesgeven en in relatie tot individuele leerlingen met verschillende soorten gedrag. Deelnemers waren 526 leerlingen en 69 leerkrachten uit groep 5 tot en met 8 van het basisonderwijs. Zowel LSE als leerlinggedrag werd gerapporteerd door leerk...
Article
Previous studies have shown that instruction of reading strategies is an effective method for enhancing reading comprehension. However, many of the interventions in these studies focused on small groups of (poor) comprehenders and were provided by research assistants, making it time-consuming and relatively expensive. The authors implemented a stra...
Chapter
Full-text available
Since the first descriptions of children with congenital word blindness or dys-lexia, the proper criteria for diagnosis of dyslexia have been debated. Issues in this debate concern, among others, the role of underlying causes of reading and spelling and the use of a discrepancy between reading ability and intelligence. This chapter will consider re...
Article
While short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) are understood as being crucial for learning, and children with epilepsy often experience learning difficulties, little is known about the age-related development of memory span tasks in children with epilepsy. Short-term memory and WM, operationalized as digit span forwards (DSF) or digit span...
Article
The Multiple Diagnostic Digital Dyslexia Test for Adults (MDDDT-A) consists of 12 newly developed tests and self-report questions in the Dutch language. Predictive validity and construct validity were investigated and compared with validity of a standard test battery of dyslexia (STB) in a sample of 154 students. There are three main results. First...
Article
In a longitudinal study, we investigated how cognitive precursors (short-term memory, working memory, and nonverbal reasoning) influence the developmental relation between lexical quality (decoding and vocabulary) and reading comprehension skill in 282 Dutch students in the intermediate elementary grades (mean age at start Grade 4 was 9; 7 years) a...
Conference Paper
Modelling can help understanding dynamic systems, but learning how to model is a difficult and time-consuming task. The challenge is to foster modelling skills, while not limiting the learning of regular subject matter, or better, to also improve this learning. We investigate how learning by qualitative modelling can be as successful as a regular c...
Article
Data gathered from a longitudinal study within regular upper elementary schools were used to evaluate a theoretical model within which teachers’ perceptions of conflict and closeness in the student–teacher relationship were considered as the intermediary mechanisms by which individual students’ externalizing behavior generates changes in teachers’...
Article
Full-text available
A few studies suggest that gifted children with dyslexia have better literacy skills than averagely intelligent children with dyslexia. This finding aligns with the hypothesis that giftedness-related factors provide compensation for poor reading. The present study investigated whether, as in the native language (NL), the level of foreign language (...
Poster
Full-text available
Among the many beliefs teachers might hold, few are as important for their classroom behaviors as their sense of self-efficacy (TSE). Theorists have indicated that TSE, or teachers’ judgments of capability, may determine the type of activities teachers choose to get into, the effort they expend in such activities, and the extent to which they perse...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This study aimed to gain more insight into the relation between vocabulary and reading acquisition by examining early growth trajectories in the vocabulary of children at family risk (FR) of dyslexia longitudinally. Method: The sample included 212 children from the Dutch Dyslexia Program with and without an FR. Parents reported on their...
Article
Full-text available
The mental lexicon plays a central role in reading comprehension (Perfetti & Stafura, 2014). It encompasses the number of lexical entries in spoken and written language (vocabulary breadth), the semantic quality of these entries (vocabulary depth), and the connection strength between lexical representations (semantic relatedness); as such, it serve...
Article
We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary, and working memory were administered. A structural...
Article
In this study, we identified the code-related (decoding, fluency) and language comprehension (vocabulary, listening comprehension) demands of the CBM-Maze test, a formative assessment, and compared them to those of the Gates–MacGinitie test, a standardized summative assessment. The demands of these reading comprehension tests and their developmenta...
Article
Full-text available
Associations between home literacy environment and children's reading ability are often assumed to reflect a direct influence. However, heritability could account for the association between parent and child literacy-related measures. We used data from 101 mother/father/child triads to consider the extent to which associations between home literacy...
Poster
Full-text available
Disruptive students bring behaviors to class that challenge teachers’ ability to complete their professional duties. Cross-sectional studies show that disrup-tive behaviors take time away from instruction, hamper teachers’ efforts to sustain a positive learning climate, and consequently weaken teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs (TSE) to effectively de...
Article
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Previous research showed that a values-affirmation intervention can help reduce the achievement gap between African American and European American students in the US. In the present study, it was examined if these results would generalize to ethnic minority students in a country outside the US, namely the Netherlands, where there is also an achieve...
Article
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Recent genome wide association scans (GWAS) for reading and language abilities have pin-pointed promising new candidate loci. However, the potential contributions of these loci remain to be validated. In the present study, we tested 17 of the most significantly associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from these GWAS studies (p < 10(-6) in...
Article
Many recent studies have aimed to demonstrate that specific types of reading comprehension depend on different underlying cognitive abilities. In these studies, it is often implicitly assumed that reading comprehension is a multidimensional construct. The general aim of this study was to examine the dimensionality of a large pool of reading compreh...
Article
This study explored inter- and intra-individual differences in teachers' self-efficacy (TSE) by adapting Tschannen-Moran and Woolfolk Hoy's (2001) Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) to the domain- and student-specific level. Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the factor structure underlying this adapted instrument, a...
Article
Full-text available
The problem of causation has proven particularly elusive in the case of developmental dyslexia (DD). The field has been dominated by very general hypotheses, such as the idea that DD is caused by a phonological deficit and/or an impairment of the magnocellular pathway. Results are contrasting and causal unidirectional links have not been persuasive...
Article
The present study examined teachers’ domain-specific self-efficacy (TSE) in relation to individual students with a variety of social–emotional behaviors in class. Using a sample of 526 third- to sixth-grade students and 69 teachers, multilevel modeling was conducted to examine students’ externalizing, internalizing, and prosocial behaviors as predi...
Article
Full-text available
It has been established that in the Netherlands, as in other countries, a majority of students do not attain the desired level of writing skills at the end of elementary school. Time devoted to writing is limited, and only a minority of schools succeed in effectively teaching writing. An improvement in the way writing is taught in elementary school...
Article
Updating ability and reading strategies are considered as important factors in the buildup of amentalmodel of a text. However, only few studies examined the relation of updating and knowledge of reading strategies with reading comprehension. The aim of the current study was to investigate the specific effects of updating ability and knowledge of re...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated risk and protective factors associated with dyslexia and literacy development, both at the group and individual level, to gain more insight in underlying cognitive profiles and possibilities for compensation in high-IQ children. A sample of 73 Dutch primary school children included a dyslexic group, a gifted-dyslexic group,...
Article
Two experiments examined underlying cognitive processes that may explain why it is harder to learn to read in English than in more transparent orthographies such as German and Dutch. Participants were English and Dutch readers from Grades 3 and 4. Experiment 1 probed the transition from serial to more parallel processing, as measured by the word le...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive processes underlying a behavioural outcome (like reading ability) and the impact of familial risk (e.g., for dyslexia) have been studied in isolation. We present a novel design, linking the two avenues. How do familial influences impact on children’s cognitive skills, which subsequently underlie reading development? Participants from the...
Article
Fluent reading is characterized by rapid and accurate identification of words. It is commonly accepted that such identification relies on the availability of orthographic knowledge. However, whether this orthographic knowledge should be seen as an accumulation of word-specific knowledge in a lexicon acquired through decoding or as a well-developed...
Article
Full-text available
Which children go on to develop dyslexia? Since dyslexia has a multifactorial etiology, this question can be restated as: what are the factors that put children at high risk for developing dyslexia? It is argued that a useful theoretical framework to address this question is Pennington's (2006) multiple deficit model (MDM). This model replaces mode...
Article
Full-text available
The combination of investigating child and family characteristics sheds light on the constellation of risk factors that can ultimately lead to dyslexia. This family-risk study examines plausible preschool risk factors and their specificity. Participants (N = 196, 42 % girls) included familial risk (FR) children with and without dyslexia in Grade 3...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To study the pattern of cognitive development in relation to duration of epilepsy. Methods: Participants were 113 children with epilepsy referred because of concerns about their cognitive development and tested at least twice at tertiary epilepsy settings. Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale IQ were measured with Wechsler Intelligence...
Article
Converging evidence suggests that developmental dyslexia is a neurobiological disorder, characterized by deficits in the auditory, visual, and linguistic domains. In the longitudinal project of the Dutch Dyslexia Programme, 180 children with a familial risk of dyslexia (FR) and a comparison group of 120 children without FR (noFR) were followed from...
Article
Beginning readers' reading latencies increase as words become longer. This length effect is believed to be a marker of a serial reading process. We examined the effects of visual and phonological skills on the length effect. Participants were 184 second-grade children who read 3- to 5-letter words and nonwords. Results indicated that reading latenc...