Peter Donnelly's research while affiliated with University of Oxford and other places

Publications (392)

Preprint
We present and assess the UK Biobank (UKB) Polygenic Risk Score (PRS) Release, a set of PRSs for 28 diseases and 25 quantitative traits being made available on the individuals in UKB. We also release a benchmarking software tool to enable like-for-like performance evaluation for different PRSs for the same disease or trait. Extensive benchmarking s...
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Mycobacterial infections, both tuberculosis and nontuberculous, are more common in patients with haematological malignancies and haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients than in the general population—although these infections remain rare. Mycobacterial infections pose both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The management of mycobacteria...
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An overview of using fungal DNA for the diagnosis of invasive mycoses
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Abstract Introduction: Fungal PCR has undergone considerable standardization and together with the availability of commercial assays, external quality assessment schemes and extensive performance validation data, is ready for widespread use for the screening and diagnosis of invasive fungal disease (IFD). Areas covered: Drawing on the experience a...
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Genetic risk factors contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and are imperfectly captured by family history. The development of integrated risk tools (IRT) that integrate polygenic risk scores (PRS) with conventional risk factors enables improved risk assessment. However, IRTs rely on accurate estimation of the genetic component across mill...
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Sterility or subfertility of male hybrid offspring is commonly observed. This phenomenon contributes to reproductive barriers between the parental populations, an early step in the process of speciation. One frequent cause of such infertility is a failure of proper chromosome pairing during male meiosis. In subspecies of the house mouse, the likeli...
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Egg-laying mammals (monotremes) are the only extant mammalian outgroup to therians (marsupial and eutherian animals) and provide key insights into mammalian evolution1,2. Here we generate and analyse reference genomes of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus), which represent the only two extant monotreme linea...
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Background - There is considerable interest in whether genetic data can be used to improve standard cardiovascular disease risk calculators, as the latter are routinely used in clinical practice to manage preventative treatment. Methods - Using the UK Biobank (UKB) resource, we developed our own polygenic risk score (PRS) for coronary artery diseas...
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The American College of Cardiology / American Heart Association pooled cohort equations tool (ASCVD-PCE) is currently recommended to assess 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). ASCVD-PCE does not currently include genetic risk factors. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) have been shown to offer a powerful new approach to measu...
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During meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair and recombine, enabling balanced segregation and generating genetic diversity. In many vertebrates, double-strand breaks (DSBs) initiate recombination within hotspots where PRDM9 binds, and deposits H3K4me3 and H3K36me3. However, no protein(s) recognising this unique combination of histone marks have been...
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During meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair and recombine, enabling balanced segregation and generating genetic diversity. In many vertebrates, double-strand breaks (DSBs) initiate recombination within hotspots where PRDM9 binds, and deposits H3K4me3 and H3K36me3. However, no protein(s) recognising this unique combination of histone marks have been...
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Full-text available
During meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair and recombine, enabling balanced segregation and generating genetic diversity. In many vertebrates, double-strand breaks (DSBs) initiate recombination within hotspots where PRDM9 binds, and deposits H3K4me3 and H3K36me3. However, no protein(s) recognising this unique combination of histone marks have been...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background There is considerable interest in whether genetic data can be used to improve standard cardiovascular disease risk calculators, as the latter are routinely used in clinical practice to manage preventative treatment. Methods This research has been conducted using the UK Biobank (UKB) resource. We developed our own polygenic risk score (PR...
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Meiotic recombination proceeds via binding of RPA, RAD51, and DMC1 to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) substrates created after formation of programmed DNA double-strand breaks. Here we report high-resolution in vivo maps of RPA and RAD51 in meiosis, mapping their binding locations and lifespans to individual homologous chromosomes using a genetically e...
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Background: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) optimal duration of antifungal treatment is not known. Objectives: In a joint effort, four international scientific societies/groups performed a survey to capture current practices in European hematology centers regarding management of IPA. Methods: We conducted in 2017 a cross-sectional inter...
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Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is becoming widely used in clinical medicine in diagnostic contexts and to inform treatment choice. Here we evaluate the potential of the Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) MinION long-read sequencer for routine WGS by sequencing the reference sample NA12878 and the genome of an individual with ataxia-pancytopenia synd...
Preprint
Full-text available
During meiosis, homologous chromosomes pair (synapse) and recombine, enabling balanced segregation and generating genetic diversity. In many vertebrates, recombination initiates with double-strand breaks (DSBs) within hotspots where PRDM9 binds, and deposits H3K4me3 and H3K36me3. However, no protein(s) recognising this unique combination of histone...
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We analyzed genetic data of 47,429 multiple sclerosis (MS) and 68,374 control subjects and established a reference map of the genetic architecture of MS that includes 200 autosomal susceptibility variants outside the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), one chromosome X variant, and 32 variants within the extended MHC. We used an ensemble of met...
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Crohn Disease (CD) is a complex genetic disorder for which more than 140 genes have been identified using genome wide association studies (GWAS). However, the genetic architecture of the trait remains largely unknown. The recent development of machine learning (ML) approaches incited us to apply them to classify healthy and diseased people accordin...
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Genome‐wide association studies (GWASs) are highly effective at identifying common risk variants for schizophrenia. Rare risk variants are also important contributors to schizophrenia etiology but, with the exception of large copy number variants, are difficult to detect with GWAS. Exome and genome sequencing, which have accelerated the study of ra...
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Recombination is critical to meiosis and evolution, yet many aspects of the physical exchange of DNA via crossovers remain poorly understood. We report an approach for single-cell whole-genome DNA sequencing by which we sequenced 217 individual hybrid mouse sperm, providing a kilobase-resolution genome-wide map of crossovers. Combining this map wit...
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The Iberian Peninsula is linguistically diverse and has a complex demographic history, including a centuries-long period of Muslim rule. Here, we study the fine-scale genetic structure of its population, and the genetic impacts of historical events, leveraging powerful, haplotype-based statistical methods to analyse 1413 individuals from across Spa...
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Identification of genetic variants with effects on trait variability can provide insights into the biological mechanisms that control variation and can identify potential interactions. We propose a two-degree-of-freedom test for jointly testing mean and variance effects to identify such variants. We implement the test in a linear mixed model, for w...
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Phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) have been proposed as a possible aid in drug development through elucidating mechanisms of action, identifying alternative indications, or predicting adverse drug events (ADEs). Here, we select 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to 19 candidate dr...
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The UK Biobank project is a prospective cohort study with deep genetic and phenotypic data collected on approximately 500,000 individuals from across the United Kingdom, aged between 40 and 69 at recruitment. The open resource is unique in its size and scope. A rich variety of phenotypic and health-related information is available on each participa...
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Background Orientia tsutsugamushi is a clinically important but neglected obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen of the Rickettsiaceae family that causes the potentially life-threatening human disease scrub typhus. In contrast to the genome reduction seen in many obligate intracellular bacteria, early genetic studies of Orientia have revealed on...
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Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are two distinct diagnoses that share symptomology. Understanding the genetic factors contributing to the shared and disorder-specific symptoms will be crucial for improving diagnosis and treatment. In genetic data consisting of 53,555 cases (20,129 bipolar disorder [BD], 33,426 schizophrenia [SCZ]) and 54,065 con...
Preprint
Background Orientia tsutsugamushi is a clinically important but neglected obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen of the Rickettsiaceae family that causes the potentially life-threatening human disease scrub typhus. In contrast to the genome reduction seen in many obligate intracellular bacteria, early genetic studies of Orientia have revealed on...
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Full-text available
The platypus is an egg-laying mammal which, alongside the echidna, occupies a unique place in the mammalian phylogenetic tree. Despite widespread interest in its unusual biology, little is known about its population struc- ture or recent evolutionary history. To provide new insights into the dispersal and demographic history of this iconic species,...
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Genetic differences within or between human populations (population structure) has been studied using a variety of approaches over many years. Recently there has been an increasing focus on studying genetic differentiation at fine geographic scales, such as within countries. Identifying such structure allows the study of recent population history,...
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To investigate the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) to high resolution, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia catalogued variation from whole-genome sequencing of 2,657 European individuals and exome sequencing of 12,940 individuals of multiple ancestries. Over 27M SNPs, indels, and structural variants were identified, including 99% of low-freque...
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Full-text available
To investigate the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) to high resolution, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia catalogued variation from whole-genome sequencing of 2,657 European individuals and exome sequencing of 12,940 individuals of multiple ancestries. Over 27M SNPs, indels, and structural variants were identified, including 99% of low-freque...
Preprint
Full-text available
The platypus is an egg-laying mammal which, alongside the echidna, occupies a unique place in the mammalian phylogenetic tree. Despite widespread interest in its unusual biology, little is known about its population structure or recent evolutionary history. To provide new insights into the dispersal and demographic history of this iconic species, w...
Preprint
Phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS), which assess whether a genetic variant is associated with multiple phenotypes across a phenotypic spectrum, have been proposed as a possible aid to drug development through elucidating mechanisms of action, identifying alternative indications, or predicting adverse drug events (ADEs). Here, we evaluate whe...
Article
To characterize type 2 diabetes (T2D)-associated variation across the allele frequency spectrum, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data from 26,676 T2D case and 132,532 control subjects of European ancestry after imputation using the 1000 Genomes multiethnic reference panel. Promising association signals were followed up in ad...
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Genetic defects that affect intestinal epithelial barrier function can present with very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEOIBD). Using whole-genome sequencing, a novel hemizygous defect in NOX1 encoding NAPDH oxidase 1 was identified in a patient with ulcerative colitis-like VEOIBD. Exome screening of 1,878 pediatric patients identified fu...
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Mobile element insertions (MEIs) represent ~25% of all structural variants in human genomes. Moreover, when they disrupt genes, MEIs can influence human traits and diseases. Therefore, MEIs should be fully discovered along with other forms of genetic variation in whole genome sequencing (WGS) projects involving population genetics, human diseases,...
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Schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are highly heritable disorders that share a significant proportion of common risk variation. Understanding the genetic factors underlying the specific symptoms of these disorders will be crucial for improving diagnosis, intervention and treatment. In case-control data consisting of 53,555 cases (20,129...
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Genetic discovery from the multitude of phenotypes extractable from routine healthcare data can transform understanding of the human phenome and accelerate progress toward precision medicine. However, a critical question when analyzing high-dimensional and heterogeneous data is how best to interrogate increasingly specific subphenotypes while retai...
Preprint
The UK Biobank project is a large prospective cohort study of ~500,000 individuals from across the United Kingdom, aged between 40-69 at recruitment. A rich variety of phenotypic and health-related information is available on each participant, making the resource unprecedented in its size and scope. Here we describe the genome-wide genotype data (~...
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The discovery of genetic variants influencing sleep patterns can shed light on the physiological processes underlying sleep. As part of a large clinical sequencing project, WGS500, we sequenced a family in which the two male children had severe developmental delay and a dramatically disturbed sleep-wake cycle, with very long wake and sleep duration...
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The 1000 Genomes Project produced more than 100 trillion basepairs of short read sequence from more than 2600 samples in 26 populations over a period of five years. In its final phase, the project released over 85 million genotyped and phased variants on human reference genome assembly GRCh37. An updated reference assembly, GRCh38, was released in...
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Full-text available
To characterise type 2 diabetes (T2D) associated variation across the allele frequency spectrum, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data from 26,676 T2D cases and 132,532 controls of European ancestry after imputation using the 1000 Genomes multi-ethnic reference panel. Promising association signals were followed-up in addition...
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To identify novel coding association signals and facilitate characterization of mechanisms influencing glycemic traits and type 2 diabetes risk, we analyzed 109,215 variants derived from exome array genotyping together with an additional 390,225 variants from exome sequence in up to 39,339 normoglycemic individuals from five ancestry groups. We ide...
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Academy of Finland (129293, 128315, 129330, 131593, 139635, 139635, 121584, 126925, 124282, 129378, 258753); Action on Hearing Loss (G51); Ahokas Foundation; American Diabetes Association (#7-12-MN-02); Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency; Augustinus foundation; Becket foundation; Benzon Foundation; Biomedical Research Council; British Heart Found...
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Genetic discovery from the multitude of phenotypes extractable from routine healthcare data has the ability to radically transform our understanding of the human phenome, thereby accelerating progress towards precision medicine. However, a critical question when analysing high-dimensional and heterogeneous data is how to interrogate increasingly sp...
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Full-text available
Variants at microRNA-137 (MIR137), one of the most strongly associated schizophrenia risk loci identified to date, have been associated with poorer cognitive performance. As microRNA-137 is known to regulate the expression of ~1900 other genes, including several that are independently associated with schizophrenia, we tested whether this gene set w...
Preprint
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes play an essential role in immune function. Typing of HLA alleles is critical for transplantation and is informative for many disease associations. The high cost of accurate lab-based HLA typing has precluded its use in large-scale disease-association studies. The development of statistical methods to type all...