Peter Bonsall's research while affiliated with University of Leeds and other places

Publications (68)

Chapter
The use of price signals to influence car use is supported by economic theory and has the advantage of generating funds that may be used to solve transport and other problems. Pure economic theory suggests that, if travellers were charged the full costs they impose on society, their behaviour would change and overall costs would be reduced. Unfortu...
Chapter
Purpose — The research was designed to explore people's willingness/ability to understand complex road user charges. However, the results raise issues about respondent engagement and ecological validity and so have important implications for questionnaire practice. Methodology — Computer-based experiments administered in the United Kingdom and Germ...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents the findings of an analysis making use of a stated choice survey looking at bus travellers’ preferences for specific fare structures. Specifically, respondents were given the choice between the current fare structure, which is largely distance based, a fixed fare structure, and a zonal fare structure. It was anticipated that t...
Article
The price of parking is often considered an important tool with which to influence transport choice but, since many local authorities have limited control over off-street charges and since parking charges have no direct impact on through traffic, its influence on overall travel demand may be limited. Road user charges, on the other hand, do appear...
Article
A brief review of theoretical and empirical literature on the effort expended in making choices is followed by the description of an experiment in which participants were asked to respond to a series of road charging scenarios. Participants were asked to estimate the charges payable, to indicate their confidence in that estimate, to say how difficu...
Chapter
The increasing prominence of environmental sustainability as an objective of transport policy, and in people's thinking about their travel-related decisions, brings new challenges for data collection because, uniquely in the transport sector, it brings three issues to the fore: firstly, the difficulties associated with gathering data and opinions o...
Article
Personal travel planning (PTP) involves providing people with tailored information and assistance which might persuade them voluntarily to increase their use of sustainable modes while reducing their dependence on the private car. The exact method of identifying the recipient's needs varies, as does the range of the information and assistance provi...
Article
The robustness of questionnaire results to various forms of bias are explored in the context of a dual-mode (web and hardcopy) survey of employers’ anticipations of levels of employee commuting and business travel activity under a range of future ICT scenarios. The questionnaire incorporated several innovative features which, together with the dual...
Article
This paper explores the relationship between charges on motorways and on other types of road. It draws on a model-based study of different pricing scenarios which was conducted within an EU-funded investigation of differentiated infrastructure charges (the DIFFERENT project). The scenarios covered strategies ranging from full charging on all roads...
Article
There is a potential tension between the theoretical desirability of highly differentiated tariff structures and the ability of consumers to respond effectively to them. Evidence from studies of road pricing schemes and tolls, from other transport modes, and from other industries (notably telecommunications), is reviewed and its transferability ass...
Article
This paper presents a rare example of an experimental study investigating the effects of persuasive messages on real-life behaviour. The research aimed to explore the extent to which the low and declining use of bus services reflected overly negative public perceptions of buses and whether, if key misperceptions could be “corrected” by persuasive m...
Article
Full-text available
The measurement of performance in the public sector has become increasingly important in recent years and it is now commonplace for transport organisations, and local and national governments, to publish performance goals for service supply and quality. Such commitments, when time referenced, are known as targets. This paper, explains how changes i...
Article
The collection and the analysis of data on working from home (teleworking) and on the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) to substitute for business travel are described, and conclusions are drawn. Data were collected from senior management by using a web-based questionnaire incorporating several innovative features; in addition...
Article
The collection and the analysis of data on working from home (teleworking) and on the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) to substitute for business travel are described, and conclusions are drawn. Data were collected from senior management by using a web-based questionnaire incorporating several innovative features; in addition...
Article
The importance of social exclusion in the context of congestion charging is discussed, and the groups most particularly at-risk identified. A new technique, based on generation and investigation of a synthetic population is introduced and used to establish the impacts on at-risk groups of six congestion charging schemes in Leeds. The distribution a...
Article
A survey of almost 3000 people gathered evidence on their experiences of problems on Britain's roads, their level of support for potential solutions, and on the different perspectives of transport professionals. An assessment was made of the steps required to reduce gaps between users' expectations and their current experience. Questions raised by...
Article
Traffic simulation models make assumptions about the safety-related behaviour of drivers. These assumptions may or may not replicate the real behaviour of those drivers who adopt seemingly unsafe behaviour, for example running red lights at signalised intersections or too closely following the vehicles in front. Such behaviour results in the perfor...
Article
This paper reports on models developed from data collected using the PARKIT parking choice simulator. PARKIT provided an experimental environment in which drivers’ choice of car parks, and of the routes chosen to reach them, could be observed and the influence of different levels of parking-stock knowledge (derived from experience or from informati...
Chapter
Route choice simulators provide a means of collecting data on travellers’ choice of routes. They offer greater opportunity for experimental control and detailed observation than is possible by monitoring real-life choices and, we will argue, can provide more reliable data than can be obtained via stated preference questionnaires or other simplified...
Article
This paper discusses the nature and consequences of uncertainty in transport systems. Drawing on work from a number of fields, it addresses travellers’ abilities to predict variable phenomena, their perception of uncertainty, their attitude to risk and the various strategies they might adopt in response to uncertainty. It is argued that despite the...
Article
Variable message signs (VMS) have been installed in London to notify motorists of planned events and current network problems. To guide investment and operational decisions an understanding is required of the impacts of VMS information. This paper presents the results of a study of driver response to VMS information. The study employed questionnair...
Conference Paper
CLEOPATRA was a project in the European Union Fourth Framework Programme. It was concerned with scientific techniques (algorithms, models and strategies) to support driver information and guidance systems. It evaluated techniques in six collaborating cities. In London, the work included evaluation of the variable message sign (VMS) installations op...
Article
This paper reviews the background to the recent changes in the U.K. transport policy emanating from the publication and passage of a Transport Bill in December 1999 (HOC 1999). After the review, some of the Transport Bill's key proposals, such as public transport policy and privatization, are discussed in detail.
Article
The recent profound change in the role and basis of the UK National Road Traffic Forecast and the current efforts to develop a more policy-oriented National Transport Model are described. The role of models which seek to represent aspects of travel behaviour in detail, and are used for detailed design of schemes and policies, is contrasted with tha...
Conference Paper
Road user charging is uniquely able to manage demand for car use and to raise revenue to finance other measures. Most studies have assumed that charges would be levied at points, or possibly based on distance. However, following proposals for Cambridge the idea of charging in real time, based on time spent travelling or in congestion, has emerged....
Conference Paper
Discusses a planned study, CLEOPATRA, into variable message road signs (VMS) in London. Firstly, usage of current VMS systems, and driver attitudes and requirements, are examined. A stated preference study is being conducted to determine the likely effect that particular messages could have on driver route choice in London and the route choice logi...
Article
This paper describes a methodology which permits optimal strategies for strategic transport models to be found by use of a limited number of model runs together with regression modelling of the resulting response surface. Typically, it will be the case that the number of policy variables is sufficiently large that the strategic model cannot be run...
Chapter
Discusses a planned study, CLEOPATRA, into variable message road signs (VMS) in London. Firstly, usage of current VMS systems, and driver attitudes and requirements, are examined. A stated preference study is being conducted to determine the likely effect that particular messages could have on driver route choice in London and the route choice logi...
Article
This paper describes the validation of a route choice simulator known as VLADIMIR (Variable Legend Assessment Device for Interactive Measurement of Individual Route choice). VLADIMIR is an interactive computer-based tool designed to study drivers’ route choice behaviour. It has been extensively used to obtain data on route choice in the presence of...
Article
This paper uses a Stated Preference approach to undertake a detailed assessment of the effect on drivers’ route choice of information provided by variable message signs (VMS). Although drivers’ response to VMS information will vary according to the availability of alternative routes and the extent to which they are close substitutes, our findings s...
Article
This paper reviews published evidence of the effects of dynamic information and guidance on drivers’ choices of car parks. A major conclusion is that overall response levels to dynamic information are much lower than might be expected. Behavioural generalizations are difficult due to the varying nature of the systems being developed as well as the...
Article
Full-text available
Highway Authorities in many parts of the world have, for some years, been using variable message panels mounted above or beside the camageway to communicate short messages to motorists. Most such applications have been concerned with hazard warning and speed advice. However, their use to deliberately affect route choice is an area of great current...
Article
This paper addresses the feasibility of measuring induced traffic by means of appropriately designed surveys. The problems which confront any attempt to measure induced traffic are described and discussed. They include: inherent variability of traffic data, difficulty in establishing what would have happened in the absence of the scheme, uncertaint...
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Full-text available
INTRODUCTION Even with relatively simple model packages and modern computers, it is not feasible to test all combinations of model input variables to see which combination gives the 'best' outcome. Neither is it usually possible to solve the models analytically for the optimum. Consequently, there is a potential role for a methodology which takes...
Article
PLUTO is a menu driven forecasting model of a hypothetical city. It allows users to explore the consequences of adopting a given set of land use and transport policies over a number of years and provides them with a wide range of output indicators against which to assess their performance. The underlying model is fairly complex and incorporates the...
Conference Paper
Results of work conducted in Scotland and Denmark using the VLADIMIR route choice simulator are presented. The objective was to assess the effectiveness of a range of road traffic control variable message sign (VMS) message types and contents prior to these messages being used on site
Article
The U.K. Department of Transport is seeking bids from local government based on the Package Approach, in which a combination of measures is used to achieve transport policy objectives. Many such bids will be based on predictive models, but even recent model developments do not permit every combination of measures to be tested. As a result, optimal...
Article
The contents of this working paper were submitted in modified format as the End Users’ Requirements section of Deliverable 1, Work Package 3, of the European Commission DG X111 C Telematics for Transport project CLEOPATRA (City Laboratories Enabling Organisation of Particularly Advanced Telematics Research and Assessment), project no. TR 1012, June...
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Full-text available
This working paper reports work indertaken on an EPSRC study, the optimisation of integrated urban transport strategies. It is the fist in a series of papers each reporting work using a different transport model. This paper is concerned with work using PLUTO, a transport model based on a hypothetical city, which can provide model runs quickly and c...
Conference Paper
Field trials are conducted for a wide variety of reasons. Some of their objectives are met quite simply with little recourse to the collection and analysis of data. Other objectives, notably those relating to the evaluation of the net benefits of a full scale scheme, can be very demanding of data and can be seen to be beset by great methodological...
Article
The paper begins by reviewing what is known about route choice processes and notes the mismatch between this knowledge and the route choice assumptions embedded in the most widely used assignment models. Empirical evidence on the influence of route guidance advice on route choice is reviewed and, despite its limited nature, is seen to suggest that...
Article
This paper is one of a series concerned with the SERC Rolling Programme on fundamental aspects of the performance of dynamic route guidance systems, and more specifically related to that strand of the programme which has been conducted in Berlin, in conjunction with the field trial of dynamic route guidance (LISB). This field trial has provided the...
Article
This working paper is one of a series of three describing research on travel time variability of car drivers using a north London corridor. The objectives of the work described in this report were to determine the amount of variability experienced within short time periods and between time periods, and to explain these variations in terms of simult...
Article
This working paper describes the results of a study of the variability of travel times and its causes on links of a secti.on of the A41 radial route in north London in the spring and summer of 1987. The objectives were to estimate the extent of variability of travel times of private car users and to explain the observed variability by means of mode...
Article
This working paper describes a study of the variability of journey times of a panel of fifteen commuters using one north London radial corridor, over a total of seven weeks in the spring and summer of 1987. The objectives were to gain preliminary information on the extent of journey time variability and on the commuters* perception of and responses...
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Full-text available
BACKGROUND We were commissioned by the Transport and Road Research Laboratory to: "collaborate with the German government and their representatives who are responsible for conducting the LISB trial in Berlin in order to produce an agreed methodology, which is acceptable in both Germany and the UK, for assessing the automatic route guidance syste...
Article
The authors present the results of field trials of a variety of hand-held data-capture devices in a range of types of survey. The performance and accuracy in use and overall operating costs of the various devices are compared with one another and with more conventional methods of collecting the same data. It is concluded that, by eliminating the tr...
Article
This paper is based on the interim results of a 12-month project funded by the Science and Engineering Research Council to assess the use of portable data-capture devices in highways, traffic and transport surveys. The devices in question range in price from a few hundred pounds to several thousand; they also vary in terms of size, robustness, memo...
Article
Four organised car sharing schemes (the YORKSHARE schemes) were established and monitored in West Yorkshire between 1979 and 1981. Three of the schemes were based on a employment sites and one on a residential suburb. Differences in site characteristics and in procedures allowed conclusions to be drawn as to the determinants of scheme performance a...
Article
The advantages and disadvantages of microsimulation techniques are discussed with particular reference to their use in the modelling of organised car sharing schemes. A critical comparison of model predictions and actual scheme performance is presented. Emphasis is placed on the representational transparency which microsimulation can allow and the...
Article
This paper highlights some of the difficulties involved in the implementation of complex cost structures in the tree-building section of a transport demand model. The conventional tree-building algorithm is briefly described and is seen to be inadequate for the present purpose. A new algorithm is then presented which is able to implement complex co...
Article
This paper has three main sections. The first discusses the concept of social exclusion in the context of road user charging, the second introduces a methodology, Popgen-T, which indicates the characteristics of populations affected by specified transport policy measures, and the third describes the application of this methodology to potential road...

Citations

... Due to the numerous benefits of the WFH practice, many countries apply the WFH strategy. For example, in Europe, about 20 million people are practising WFH [6]. A similar number of people WFH in the US, and about 7.5% of the population practice this in the UK [6,7]. ...
... More sophisticated neural network could be considered by adding hidden layers or more inputs (seeBonsall, 1992). Nevertheless we focused on a simple strategy in the present work in order to reach a trade-off between simplicity and efficiency of the strategy. ...
... Researchers have widely recognised the effects of self-selection, starting with Heckman's (1979) pioneering work. In transport, Bonsall (2009) reviews the challenges posed by collecting information on "socially and morally charged" issues: systematic biased reporting of attitudes and behaviours and lack of participation from those disengaged in the topic. In our case, self-selection meant that respondents with higher environmental values and commitment (including members of the WA Electric Vehicle Association), who subscribed to the prevailing norm, were overrepresented in the sample. ...
... In the central business district (CBD) areas of many cities in China, traffic is often heavy and parking spaces are especially limited. Thus, most cities rely on on-street parking facilities (Bonsall and Willumsen, 2014;Amer and Chow, 2016). For on-street parking management, the parking fee structure is important because it affects individual travel choices and, consequently, the levels of traffic congestion, air pollution, and economic vitality. ...
... Makinowski & Sinha, (1976) showed that statistically reliable estimates of travel parameters, such as journey time, could be obtained without recording all the characters of the registration plate. Surveys have also shown that a single enumerator can quite comfortably dictate registrations at flows of up to 1200 vehicles per hour (Martin and Bell, 1993;Bonsall et al., 1988). As part of a series of journey time surveys (Cherrett, 1998), optical character recognition software written by Siemens Traffic Controls Limited (ORION) was used to automatically extract vehicle registrations from VHS video footage of traffic in Southampton. ...
... This section describes the optimisation methodology used in the OPTIMA and FATIMA projects developed by Fowkes et al (1995Fowkes et al ( , 1998 and further by May et al (1995) and Shepherd et al (1997). ...
... Logit model adopted for describing road users' routing responses accounts for travellers' knowledge of travel time. Today's availability of real-time traffic information from Google traffic or other navigation devices assures and hastens the establishment of some form of traffic equilibrium (Bonsall 2007); thereby, making the convergence of the proposed AC more realistic. In fact, travellers are affected by the delays resulting from vehicles' queuing at the perimeter boundaries and real-time traffic information considers these delays in the suggested routes. ...
... On the other hand there were fewer problems if differentiation elements are built on already existing cognitive structures and/or on elements people are familiar with. Moreover it appeared that the time to calculate the charges for using a specific road, errors in this calculation as well as perceived difficulty of the differentiated schemes and uncertainty about correct price estimation increase drastically with increasing level of differentiation (Bonsall et al, 2012). Jaensirisak et al (2005) found out that fixed daily charges are more acceptable than variable charges like distance-or time-based charges. ...
... Ride sharing (RS), in its broader significance as "the shared use of transportation vehicles" (including "carpools, vanpools and public transit") [3], has existed for several years. The first studies about the impacts and benefits of sharing vehicle rides on similar routes date back to the '80s, but were mostly focused on cases of private agreements between commuters or local pilot programs [4] and on how to assess impacts and benefits [3] with various methodologies, including surveys [5]. The idea of using web-based platforms to enhance the adoption of RS and to automatically match drivers and passengers was first developed at the end of the '90s by [6], with a study on a web-based application that had a ridematch optimization algorithm. ...
... Companies will look to see if the existing power grids are scalable, marketable, and profitable [77]. The nature of the EV industry is that consumers will have an invariable demand for electric vehicles, which will be cost-effective, reliable, safe, eco-friendly, secure, and have less maintenance [78]. ...