Peng Zhou's research while affiliated with Duke-NUS Medical School and other places

Publications (16)

Article
Full-text available
Bat cells and tissue have elevated basal expression levels of antiviral genes commonly associated with interferon alpha (IFNα) signaling. Here, we show Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 (IRF1), 3, and 7 levels are elevated in most bat tissues and that, basally, IRFs contribute to the expression of type I IFN ligands and high expression of interferon r...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the first genome isolation of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Kenya. This fatal zoonotic pathogen was first described in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 2012. Epidemiological and molecular evidence revealed zoonotic transmission from camels to humans and between humans. Currently, MERS-CoV is classified by the...
Article
Full-text available
Cross-species transmission of viruses from wildlife animal reservoirs poses a marked threat to human and animal health1. Bats have been recognized as one of the most important reservoirs for emerging viruses and the transmission of a coronavirus that originated in bats to humans via intermediate hosts was responsible for the high-impact emerging zo...
Article
Compared with terrestrial mammals, bats have a longer lifespan and greater capacity to co-exist with a variety of viruses. In addition to cytosolic DNA generated by these viral infections, the metabolic demands of flight cause DNA damage and the release of self-DNA into the cytoplasm. However, whether bats have an altered DNA sensing/defense system...
Data
List of unknown IRGs induced by IFN-α3 in wild-type PaKiT03 cells. (XLSX)
Article
Full-text available
Bats are important reservoirs of many viruses, which are capable of infecting the host without inducing obvious clinical diseases. Interferon and the downstream interferon regulated genes (IRGs) are known to act as the first line of defense against viral infections. Little is known about the transcriptional profile of genes being induced by interfe...
Data
List of differentially expressed genes induced by IFN-α3 in wild-type PaKiT03 cells. (XLSX)
Data
Differentially expressed genes detected in IFNAR2 KO cell lines using edgeR software. (PDF)
Data
Results of fluorescent PCR-capillary gel electrophoresis in wild-type PaKiT03 and IFNAR2 KO cells. Green peaks indicate fragments obtained from wild-type PaKiT03 cells using HEX-labeled primers, and act as an internal size control. Blue peaks indicate fragments obtained from knockout cells using 6-FAM-labeled primers. The numbers given in each plot...
Data
List of canonical pathways analysis for the up-regulated IRGs using IPA software. (XLSX)
Data
List of diseases and biological functions analysis for the up-regulated unknown IRGs using IPA software. (XLSX)
Data
Analysis of ISRE within the promoter region of unknown IRGs by TRANSFAC database. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Bats carry and shed many emerging infectious disease agents including Ebola virus and SARS-like Coronaviruses, yet they rarely display clinical symptoms of infection. Bat epithelial or fibroblast cell lines were previously established to study the bat immune response against viral infection. However, the lack of professional immune cells such as de...
Article
Bats are natural reservoir hosts for many viruses that produce no clinical symptoms in bats. Therefore, bats may have evolved effective mechanisms to control viral replication. However, little information is available on bat immune responses to viral infection. Type I interferon (IFN) plays a key role in controlling viral infections. In this study,...

Citations

... Nevertheless, how do viruses settle in bats without being cleared by the host's innate immune system? Relevant studies have shown that several immune-related genes have high expression levels in bats, including RIG-I, MDA5, IFNa, and IRF family, which makes viruses recognized by the immune system and quickly eliminated once they invade bats (42)(43)(44). However, a rapid and intense immune response can cause a "cytokine storm" that damages host tissues and organs and leads to death (45). ...
... El contagio debe de ser de persona a persona o bien en superficies contaminadas. (Luk, et al., 2019;De Groot, et al., 2013;Ommeh, et al., 2018). La sintomatología, es muy variada y puede ser desde síntomas leves hasta graves con falla orgánica múltiple. ...
... Accumulating evidence also suggests that other emerging viruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory coronavirus (MERS-CoV), also have bat origins 3 . Another emerging coronavirus, swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus, emerged from horseshoe bats and killed many pigs 4 . The COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) further underscores the ongoing threat of bat-borne virus spillover 5 . ...
... Constitutive expression of interferon (IFN)-α has been observed in unstimulated bat tissue and cultured cells, and it is possible that constitutively expressed IFN and IFN-stimulated genes control viral replication in bat species [16]. It has similarly been reported that stimulator of IFN genes (STING), which is an important innate immune response protein involved in DNA sensing, and NLR family pyrin domain containing (NLRP) 3, which activates inflammatory mediators, are dampened in bats [17,18], contributing to a reduced inflammatory response and disease tolerance. However, although much is known about antiviral immune defenses in bats, the viral factors responsible for the control of replication of bat-borne viruses in their natural reservoirs remain largely unknown. ...
... To avoid such damage at steady state, bats have adapted by dampening inflammation, e.g., tweaking PRR signaling pathways and skewing antiviral and DNA damage responses ( Fig. 1 and Table 1) (116). The production of IFNs and IRGs in response to sensing infection is rapidly induced in bats, yet the typical mammalian-prolonged IFN production is blocked (117) and the overall abundance of IFNs produced is minimal. Through altered IRF induction, constitutive IRG expression occurs even in the absence of infection (118). ...
... In addition, as antibodies against surface markers of bat immune cells were recently validated [101][102][103], they could be used to identify the immune cell compositions of bat organoids and to isolate the bat immune cells from bat organoids, thus allowing for the study of immune responses of innate lymphocytes toward virus infections. Furthermore, because an automated organoid platform and a machine learning algorithm have been recently established [104,105], the combination of organoid manufacturing technology and the learning-based assessment system may potentially allow a high throughput modulation and analysis of the innate immune response of bats to virus infections in the future. ...
... To determine the biological activity of the recombinant dromedary IFN-β, camel kidney cells were cultured as described previously and treated with 100 ng/mL of recombinant camel IFN-β, IFN-α1 (Premraj et al., 2020), a His 6 -tagged control protein, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 4h. We chose the concentration and duration of treatment based on previous reports using recombinant IFN-β in kidney cells (Liang et al., 2015) and our previous report of camel IFN-α (Premraj et al., 2020). As a control, we used a ~21 kDa His-tagged protein with a thioredoxin (Trx) fusion partner, which is commonly used as an inert fusion tag in protein production. ...