Peng Gong's research while affiliated with The University of Hong Kong and other places

Publications (612)

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Global land cover has undergone extensive and rapid changes as a result of human activities and climate change. These changes have had a significant impact on biodiversity, the surface energy balance, and sustainable development. Global land cover data underpins research on the development of earth system models, resource management, and evaluation...
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China implemented the first phase of its National Healthy Cities pilot program from 2016-20. Along with related urban health governmental initiatives, the program has helped put health on the agenda of local governments while raising public awareness. Healthy City actions taken at the municipal scale also prepared cities to deal with the COVID-19 p...
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Background In China, most previous projections of heat-related mortality have been based on modeling studies using global climate models (GCMs), which can help to elucidate the risks of extreme heat events in a changing climate. However, spatiotemporal changes in the health effects of climate change considering specific regional characteristics rem...
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Background: A stronger spatial clustering of cancer burden indicates stronger environmental and human behavioral effects. However, which common cancers in China have stronger spatial clustering and knowledge gaps regarding the environmental and human behavioral effects have yet to be investigated. This study aimed to compare the spatial clustering...
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The United Nations specified the need for “providing universal access to greenspace for urban residents” in the 11th Sustainable Development Goal. Yet, how far we are from this goal remains unclear. Here, we develop a methodology incorporating fine-resolution population and greenspace mappings and use the results for 2020 to elucidate global differ...
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Mapping the corn dynamics at a large scale and multiple years is essential for global food security. Traditional mapping approaches by collecting training samples from field surveys are labor-intensive, challenging large-scale mapping of corn dynamics over the long term. This study developed an efficient approach to map large-scale corn dynamics in...
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The land-sea interface (LSI), generally referred to as coastal areas, is among the most productive ecosystems. In China, the rapid urbanization along the coastal regions has dramatically reshaped the geomorphology, which arouses a series of environmental concerns. Multi-source and multi-scale remote sensing has enabled large-scale monitoring of the...
Preprint
Phenological responses to climate change frequently vary among trophic levels, which can result in increasing mismatch between the peak energy requirements of consumers and the availability of resources. Migratory birds use multiple habitats with seasonal food resources along traditional migration flyways. Spatially heterogeneous climate changes co...
Article
China is prone to broad land degradation and thus has been implementing ecological restoration projects (ERPs) since the reform and opening up. The extent of ERPs, as well as the varied planting efforts including tree gain projects (TGPs), grass gain projects (GGPs), and shrub gain projects (SGPs), have remained largely unknown. In addition, the mi...
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Greenspace exposure metrics can allow for comparisons of green space supply across time, space, and population groups, and for inferring patterns of variation in opportunities for people to enjoy the health and recreational benefits of nearby green environments. A better understanding of greenspace exposure differences across various spatial scales...
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The online public food environment (OPFE) has had a considerable impact on people's lifestyles over the past decade; however, research on its exposure is sparse. The results of the existing research on the impact of the food environment on human health are inconsistent. In response to the lack of food elements in the definition of the food environm...
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Zipf’s law, characterizing the rank-size distribution of city size or population, has been widely applied in urban studies. Previous studies on Zipf’s law mainly focused on the spatial dimension of urban size and population, with limited consideration of its temporal dynamics. Here, we proposed a conceptual model to characterize the spatial sprawl...
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It is undeniable that the process of urbanization in China is a massive phenomenon of scale and speed in humanity history. The relentless march of urbanization poses a critical challenge for creating a comprehensive analysis of the integrated characteristics of contemporary cities. Here, we integrated 30 m continuous and consistent human settlement...
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Analyzing urban scaling relations can help predict the future development of cities and derive scale adjusted metropolitan indicators (SAMIs) to characterize the city's performance. However, existing studies treat cities as individual systems but ignore the spatial autocorrelation between them. Here, we propose a framework that incorporates the inf...
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Deforestation arising from oil palm expansion in the tropics poses threats to forest ecosystem services. Using high-resolution satellite maps, we show that oil palm expansion into forests in Indonesia and Malaysia during 2001–2015 caused a forest biomass loss of 50.2 ± 21.9 TgC yr−1. Large-scale plantations dominated the expansion area. But the enc...
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As satellite observation technology develops and the number of Earth observation (EO) satellites increases, satellite observations have become essential to developments in the understanding of the Earth and its environment. However, the current impacts to the remote sensing community of different EO satellite data and possible future trends of EO s...
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Plantation is an important land use type that differs from natural forests and affects the economy and the environment. Tree age is one of the key factors used to quantify the impact of plantations. However, there is a lack of datasets explicitly documenting the planting years of global plantations. Here we used time-series Landsat archive from 198...
Preprint
The United Nations specified the need for “providing universal access to greenspace for urban residents” in the 11th Sustainable Development Goal. Yet, how far we are from this goal remains unclear in the global context. Here, we developed a methodology incorporating fine-resolution population and greenspace mappings and used the results for 2020 t...
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It is of great significance to understand the extent and distribution of bamboo for its valuable ecological services and economic benefits. However, it is challenging to map bamboo using remote sensing images over a large area because of the similarity between bamboo and other vegetation types, the availability of clear optical images, huge workloa...
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China's rapid urbanization has resulted in a dramatic loss in cultivated land that threatens future food security. Local and central government have successively launched a series of Low-slope Hilly Regions Comprehensive Development and Utilization (LHRCDU) pilot projects (i.e., the rudiment of China's hillside urbanization) since 2006 to balance t...
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Urbanicity is a growing environmental challenge for mental health. Here, we investigate correlations of urbanicity with brain structure and function, neuropsychology and mental illness symptoms in young people from China and Europe (total n = 3,867). We developed a remote-sensing satellite measure (UrbanSat) to quantify population density at any po...
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Building height plays an essential role in urban remote sensing and is of great significance for understanding the functioning of urban systems. However, there is little information about building height in China at the country-scale. Previous studies have employed a digital surface model (DSM) to map building height, but the slope correction for b...
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Balancing biodiversity conservation and food security is the key to global sustainable development. However, we know little about the future global conflict risk hotspots between biodiversity and food security at both country and Biodiversity Hotspots (BHs) levels. First we calculated land use intensity index (LUII) based on future land use simulat...
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Empirical studies of urban expansion have increased rapidly in recent decades worldwide. Previous studies mainly focused on cities in China, the United States or African countries, with Brazilian cities receiving less attention. Moreover, such studies are rare in purpose-built cities. Taking the urban expansion from scratch (1960) to urban agglomer...
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Due to favourable afforestation policies in the past few decades, China has become the nation with the greatest afforestation area in the world. However, there are few specific distribution maps of forest change at regional and national level in China. Here, we applied all available Landsat time series images in the growing seasons from 1990 to 201...
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China has undergone rapid urbanization in the past few decades, and it has been accompanied by overdevelopment. Residential vacancies caused by overdevelopment result in a waste of resources and generate greenhouse gases associated with land surface changes. Due to the poor spatial resolution and limited availability of data, previous studies perfo...
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Remote sensing images acquired by the FY4 satellite are crucial for regional cloud monitoring and meteorological services. Inspired by the success of deep learning networks in image super-resolution, we applied image super-resolution to FY4 visible spectrum (VIS) images. However, training a robust network directly for FY4 VIS image super-resolution...
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With urbanization worldwide in recent decades, anthropogenic dust (AD) emissions due to heavy urban construction and off-road vehicle use have been increasing. Its perturbations on urban air pollution at the global scale are still unclear. Based on observations, we found that a high urban AD optical depth is often accompanied by severe non-dust aer...
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The distribution of bamboo is sensitive to climate change and is also potentially affected by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations due to its C3 photosynthetic pathway. Yet the effect of CO2 in climate impact assessments of potential changes in bamboo distribution has to date been overlooked. In this study, we proposed a simple and quantitativ...
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Plain Language Summary Rapid urbanization in China has been found to impact surface air temperature (SAT) at local and regional scales significantly through altered land surface properties. However, its impacts on global climate are less clear. Using a state‐of‐the‐art global climate model, we show that tremendous expansion of urban areas in China...
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Cropland greatly impacts food security, energy supply, biodiversity, biogeochemical cycling, and climate change. Accurately and systematically understanding the effects of agricultural activities requires cropland spatial information with high resolution and a long time span. In this study, the first 1 km resolution global cropland proportion datas...
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Background The announcement of China's 2060 carbon neutrality goal has drawn the world's attention to the specific technology pathway needed to achieve this pledge. We aimed to evaluate the health co-benefits of carbon neutrality under different technology pathways, which could help China to achieve the carbon neutrality goal, air quality goal, and...
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The cropping intensity has received growing concern in the agriculture field in applications such as harvest area research. Notwithstanding the significant amount of existing literature on local cropping intensities, research considering global datasets appears to be limited in spatial resolution and precision. In this paper, we present an annual d...
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Soybean is one of the most important crops in the world. There were dramatic changes in soybean plantation in China in recent decades. Heilongjiang Province has the greatest acreage of soybean plantation in China. Therefore, it is taken as a representative soybean region in this study for monitoring purposes. A 30-m dataset that mapped the areas of...
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Earth system science has changed rapidly due to global environmental changes and the advent of Earth observation technology. Therefore, new tools are required to monitor, measure, analyze, evaluate, and model Earth observation data. Google Earth (GE) was officially launched by Google in 2005 as a ”geobrowser”, and Google Earth Engine (GEE) was rele...
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A high biodiversity conservation value of a specific area generally indicates biodiversity priorities, making biodiversity conservation planning more reasonable. However, the spatial prioritization of biodiversity cannot easily indicate temporal changes because the data of many species are difficult to obtain in even a single period, let alone repe...
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The potential adverse impact of international trade on the environment has received growing attention in recent years. Growing environmental pressure poses significant challenges to sustainable development, further highlighting the need for a comprehensive response to tackling the unsustainable food use driven by the soybean trade. Although a signi...
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The ecological vulnerability of global protected areas (PAs) is linked to the 2030 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. We developed a novel degree of ecological vulnerability (DEV) index based on Big Earth Data to assess the ecological vulnerability of PAs. This is a transparent, repeatable, large-scale and rapid assessment method. We app...
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Global land-cover datasets are key sources of information for understanding the complex inter-actions between human activities and global change. They are also among the most critical variables for climate change studies. Over time, the spatial resolution of land cover maps has increased from the kilometer scale to 10-m scale. Single-type historica...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cropland greatly impacts food security, energy supply, biodiversity, biogeochemical cycling, and climate change. Accurately and systematically understanding the effects of agricultural activities requires cropland spatial information with high resolution and a long time span. In this study, the first 1 km resolution global cropland proportion datas...
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Oil palm is the most productive oil crop that provides ∼ 40 % of the global vegetable oil supply, with 7 % of the cultivated land devoted to oil plants. The rapid expansion of oil palm cultivation is seen as one of the major causes for deforestation emissions and threatens the conservation of rain forest and swamp areas and their associated ecosyst...
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Urban land use information that reflects socioeconomic functions and human activities is critically essential for urban planning, landscape design, environmental management, health promotion, and biodiversity conservation. Land-use maps outlining the distribution, pattern, and composition of essential urban land use categories (EULUC) have facilita...
Article
Cellular automata (CA)-based models have been extensively used in urban expansion modeling because of their simplicity, flexibility and intuitiveness. Previous studies on CA-based urban growth modeling have mainly focused on the process of spatial allocation of increased urban lands; however, the temporal contexts during the simulation have not bee...
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Biodiversity conservation is the cornerstone for sustainable development. Bold conservation targets provide the last opportunities to halt the human-driven mass extinction. Recently, bold conservation targets have been proposed to protect 30% or 50% of Earth. However, little is known about its potential impacts on cropland. We identify potential cr...
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Urban land-use maps outlining the distribution, pattern, and composition of various land use types are critically important for urban planning, environmental management, disaster control, health protection, and biodiversity conservation. Recent advances in remote sensing and social sensing data and methods have shown great potentials in mapping urb...
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With rapid urbanization in recent decades, more and more urban renewal has taken place in China. Meanwhile, the early developed areas without change have become old towns, which need special attention in future city planning. However, other than field surveys, there is no specific method to identify old towns. To fill this gap, we used time-series...
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The European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative Land Cover data (ESA CCI-LC, from 1992 to 2015) is introduced to the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model version 1.2.1 (NCAR CESM1.2.1). In comparison with the original land surface data in the Community Land Model version 4 (ORG), the new data features notable la...
Article
Longer time high-resolution, high-frequency, consistent, and more detailed land cover data are urgently needed in order to achieve sustainable development goals on food security, high-quality habitat construction, biodiversity conservation and planetary health, and for the understanding, simulation and management of the Earth system. However, due t...
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Background The health impacts of ambient air pollution impose large costs on society. Although all people are exposed to air pollution, the older population (ie, those aged ≥60 years) tends to be disproportionally affected. As a result, there is growing concern about the health impacts of air pollution as many countries undergo rapid population age...