Paweł Krawczyk's research while affiliated with Medical University of Lublin and other places

Publications (161)

Article
Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) represents a rare oncological and heterogeneous disease in which one or more metastases are present, but the location of the primary site is unknown. Pathological diagnosis, using immunohistochemistry, of such metastatic materials is challenging and frequently does not allow for determining the tissue of origin (ToO)...
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Clostridium spp. is a large genus of obligate anaerobes and is an extremely heterogeneous group of bacteria that can be classified into 19 clusters. Genetic analyses based on the next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and metagenome analyses conducted on human feces, mucosal biopsies, and luminal content have shown that the three main groups...
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The significance of Akkermansia bacteria presence in gut micobiome, mainly Akkermansia mucinifila, is currently being investigated in the context of supporting therapy and marker for response to immunotherapy in cancer patients. It is indicated that patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) re...
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The tumor microenvironment is a complex network of various interactions between immune cells and non-cellular components such as the extracellular matrix, exosomes and interleukins. Moreover, tumor heterogeneity and its constant modification may alter the immunophenotype and become responsible for its resistance regarding the therapies applied Howe...
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Lung adenocarcinoma predominates among diagnosed nonsmall cell lung cancer subtypes in nonsmokers. The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors into clinical practice offered patients prolonged progression-free survival and overall survival times. However, the results demonstrate that the benefits do not apply to all patients. Nivolumab is a mo...
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Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. It is responsible for 80–85% of lung cancer cases. NSCLC can be divided into several groups, led by adenocarcinoma (ADC)–40–50% and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)–20–30%. The development of new molecular therapies ta...
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Osimertnib is still widely used in the treatment of NSCLC patients who have previously received erlotinib, gefitinib or afatinib and have developed resistance to these drugs mediated by the T790M mutation in exon 20 of EGFR gene. We assessed the results of T790M mutation testing in liquid biopsy by Entrogen test and real-time PCR technique in routi...
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The Chelidonium majus plant is rich in biologically active isoquinoline alkaloids. These alkaline polar compounds are isolated from raw materials with the use of acidified water or methanol; next, after alkalisation of the extract, they are extracted using chloroform or dichloromethane. This procedure requires the use of toxic solvents. The present...
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Data indicate that many driver alterations from the primary tumor of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are predominantly shared across all metastases; however, disseminating cells may also acquire a new genetic landscape across their journey. By comparing the constituent subclonal mutations between pairs of primary and metastatic samples, it is po...
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Currently, one of the leading treatments for non-small-cell lung cancer is immunotherapy involving immune checkpoint inhibitors. These monoclonal antibodies restore the anti-tumour immune response altered by negative immune checkpoint interactions. The most commonly used immunotherapeutics in monotherapy are anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 antibodies. The...
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Despite the enormous progress and development of modern therapies, lung cancer remains one of the most common causes of death among men and women. The key element in the development of new anti-cancer drugs is proper planning of the preclinical research phase. The most adequate basic research exemplary for cancer study are 3D tumor microenvironment...
Preprint
Brain metastases (BM) severely impact the prognosis and quality of life of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To identify targetable drivers of NSCLC-BM, we profiled somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) in 51 matched pairs of primary NSCLC and BM samples from 33 patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and 18 patients with lung sq...
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Different serotypes of botulinum toxins (BoNTs) act upon different types of SNARE proteins. This property is used in aesthetic medicine to treat certain eye disorders such as crossed eyes (strabismus) and uncontrolled blinking (blepharospasm), to treat muscle spasms or movement disorders, and, for the two last decades, more and more often, to provi...
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Several molecular abnormalities in the MET gene have been identified, including overexpression, amplification, point mutations, and “skipping mutation” in exon 14. Even though deregulated MET signaling occurs rarely in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), it possesses tumorigenic activity. Since the discovery of the significant role played by MET dy...
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Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Early diagnosis may improve the prognosis. Methods: Using quantitative methylation-specific real-time PCR (qMSP-PCR), we assessed the methylation status of two genes (in two subsequent regions according to locations in their promoter sequences) related to carcinogenesis, DICER a...
Preprint
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Lung adenocarcinoma predominates among diagnosed nonsmall cell lung cancer subtypes in nonsmokers. The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors into clinical practice offered patients prolonged progression-free survival and overall survival times. However, the results demonstrate that the benefits do not apply to all patients. Nivolumab is a mo...
Article
Full-text available
In patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), comprehensive genetic diagnostics is currently carried out in order to qualify for molecularly targeted therapies and immunotherapy. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of the reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR) method in the diagnosis of gene rearrangements, the effectiveness o...
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Simple Summary: Surgical resection remains the gold standard of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. However, only a minority of resected patients remain recurrence-free at 5 years. Systemic treatment with cisplatin-based chemotherapy after surgical resection has been shown to improve survival in this setting. In the last few y...
Preprint
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Despite the fact that tumor microenvironment (TME) and gene mutations are the main determinants of progression of the deadliest cancer in the world – lung cancer – their interrelations are not well understood. Digital pathology data provide a unique insight into the spatial composition of the TME. Various spatial metrics and machine learning approa...
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The efficiency of immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies that inhibit immune checkpoints has been proven in many clinical studies and well documented by numerous registration approaches. To date, PD-L1 expression on tumor and immune cells, tumor mutation burden (TMB), and microsatellite instability (MSI) are the only validated predictive factors...
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Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have a huge impact on clinical treatment results in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Blocking antibodies targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), programmed cell death protein ligand 1 (PD-L1) or CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T cell antigen 4) have been developed and approved for the treatment of NSCLC patients....
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Introduction Bronchoscopy is the main method in the diagnosis of various lung diseases. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is the most modern bronchoscopic technique useful in diagnosis and staging of lung cancer (LC). Objective The aim of the study was to assess the yield of bronchoscopy in patients with...
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The immune system plays a key role in cancer suppression. Immunotherapy is widely used as a treatment method in patients with various types of cancer. Immune checkpoint blockade using antibodies, such as anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, and anti-CTLA-4, is currently gaining popularity. A systematic literature search was executed, and all available data was s...
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Due to the limited effectiveness of immunotherapy used as first-line monotherapy in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the concepts of combining classical immunotherapy based on immune checkpoint antibodies with other treatment methods have been developed. Pembrolizumab and atezolizumab were registered in combination with chemotherap...
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Anti-programmed death-1 or anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade may be ineffective in some patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with high percentage of tumor cells with PD-L1 expression. In addition, immunotherapy may provide great benefits in patients without PD-L1 expression. The present study assessed PD-L1 protein express...
Article
Introduction Detection of abnormalities in the KRAS, NRAS and BRAF genes is extremely important for proper qualification of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients for therapy with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. However, data about prevalence of mutations in these genes, in different localizations of CRC tumors, is limited. Material and methods We exam...
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Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most common malignancies around the world. Due to the advanced stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis, most patients require systemic treatment. Immunotherapy with immune checkpoints inhibitors is becoming the main treatment method for many cancers, including NSCLC. Numerous studies have shown...
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Caspase 8 is a protein involved in the process of cell apoptosis, which may affect the efficacy of anti-cancer treatment. The aim of our study was to determine the impact of polymorphisms in the CASP-8 gene encoding caspase 8 on the prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The study involved 99 patients with newly diagnosed locally advanced...
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Introduction Expression of PD-L1 protein on tumor cells, which is so far the only validated predictive factor for immunotherapy, is regulated by epigenetic and genetic factors. Among the most important ones that regulate gene expression are microRNAs. Materials and Methods The study included 60 patients with NSCLC who underwent first or second lin...
Article
Introduction The importance of modern treatments for the extension of overall survival in advanced lung cancer (LC) patients is rarely reported in clinical trials (crossover effect). Recent clinical trials have compared experimental treatment methods and shown that chemotherapy is no longer a comparator. We studied the relevance of innovative treat...
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Currently, increasing attention cancer treatment has focused on molecularly targeted therapies and more recently on immunotherapies targeting immune checkpoints. However, even such advanced treatment may be ineffective. The reasons for this are sought, inter alia, in the human microbiome. In our intestines, there are bacteria that are beneficial to...
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There is an urgent need to seek new molecular biomarkers helpful in diagnosing and treating breast cancer. In this elaboration, we performed a molecular analysis of mutations and expression of genes within the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in patients with ductal breast cancer of various malignancy levels. We recognized significant correlations between the...
Preprint
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Introduction The expression of PD-L1 (programed cell death ligand 1) protein on neoplastic cells is a factor qualifying cancer patients for immunotherapy. However, the status of PD-L1 mRNA expression in plasma or serum has not been well studied in cancer patients. TP-53 (Tumor Protein p53) as tumor suppressor affects the expression of many genes, i...
Preprint
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Introduction The expression of PD-L1 (programed cell death ligand 1) protein on neoplastic cells is a factor qualifying cancer patients for immunotherapy. However, the status of PD-L1 mRNA expression in plasma or serum has not been well studied in cancer patients. TP-53 (Tumor Protein p53) as tumor suppressor affects the expression of many genes, i...
Article
Genome analyses using next-generation sequencing are providing more and more information on DNA sequences. However, there is a trend towards the return to RNA sequencing analyses, including both mRNAs and RNAs as simultaneous regulatory molecules. Consequently, enhancer RNA (eRNA) molecules are now extensively studied. The existence of eRNAs has be...
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Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) represent one of the most promising therapeutic approaches in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (M-NSCLC). Unfortunately, approximately 50–75% of patients do not respond to this treatment modality. Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) at the genetic and phenotypic level is considered as a major cause of anticancer...
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Background Amplification of HER2 gene (ERBB2) and overexpression of HER2 protein on cancer cells are found in 10–26% of gastric cancer (GC) and esophagogastric junction cancer (EGJC). Gene copy number variation (CNV) could be detected in these patients in liquid biopsy and in cancer cells. Methods We analysed HER2 gene CNV used qPCR method in 87 s...
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The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) delivered great and new possibilities in modern treatment of many types of cancers. This therapy based on blockade of such molecules as CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen), PD-1 (programmed cell death receptor type 1), or PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) brings a new hope for patients with non-small...
Technical Report
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Medyczna Racja Stanu jest think tankiem powstałym z inicjatywy: Instytutu Studiów Politycznych Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Polskiej Unii Onkologii, Kolegium Lekarzy Rodzinnych w Polsce i Green Communication, celem łączenia opiniotwórczych osób, środowisk i instytucji wokół wyzwań związanych z kondycją zdrowotną Polaków i wypracowywania zgody polityczne...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Amplification of HER2 gene (ERBB2) and overexpression of HER2 protein on cancer cells are found in 10-26% of gastric cancer (GC) and esophagogastric junction cancer (EGJC). Gene copy number variation (CNV) could be detected in these patients in liquid biopsy and in cancer cells. Methods We analysed HER2 gene CNV used qPCR method in 87 se...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Amplification of HER2 gene (ERBB2) and overexpression of HER2 protein on cancer cells are found in 10-26% of gastric cancer (GC) and esophagogastric junction cancer (EGJC). Gene copy number variation (CNV) could be detected in these patients in liquid biopsy and in cancer cells. Methods We analysed HER2 gene CNV used qPCR method in 87 se...
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Aptamers are short, single-stranded oligonucleotides which are capable of specifically binding to single molecules and cellular structures. Aptamers are also known as “chemical antibodies”. Compared to monoclonal antibodies, they are characterized by higher reaction specificity, lower molecular weight, lower production costs, and lower variability...
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Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) is a new option of treatment in a growing range of neoplasms. In addition to an antitumor effect, ICI are associated with autoimmune reactions resulting in a wide spectrum of toxicities that have not been seen in patients receiving chemotherapy. In this article, we present a case of a patient wi...
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There are several reports indicating that the roots of the Carlina acaulis L. used to be commonly applied as a treatment measure in skin diseases and as an antiparasitic agent, starting from antiquity to the 19th century; however, nowadays, it has lost its importance. Currently, numerous studies are being conducted assessing the possibility of rein...
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Introduction The main treatment regimen for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) involves platinum-based chemotherapy (cisplatin or carboplatin) and etoposide. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TOP2A and ERCC1 genes were tested as prognostic and predictive factors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). There are limited data about the clinical rel...
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Background: Topoisomerase 2-alpha (TOP2A) is an enzyme that controls topologic changes in DNA during transcription and replication. ERCC1 is an enzyme that takes part in DNA repair processes. The purpose of this study was to assess the predictive role of particular single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter regions of TOP2A and ERCC1 g...
Article
Most drugs targeting PD-1 or PD-L1 are more effective when cancer cells of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients express PD-L1 protein. The polymorphisms of PD-L1 gene and PD-L1 gene copy number could be responsible for PD-L1 mRNA and protein expression. We analyzed PD-L1 protein expression using two IHC assays, mRNA (PD-L1) expression by qRT...
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Immunotherapy using immune checkpoints inhibitors has become the standard treatment for first and second line therapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, proper predictive factors allowing precise qualification of NSCLC patients for immunotherapy have not been developed so far. Expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells and tumor...
Article
The qualification of patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) for antiprogrammed cell death 1 (PD-1) or antiprogrammed death ligand 1 (PDL1) antibody therapy is based on an immunohistochemistry (IHC) assessment of PDL1 expression. Immunological checkpoint inhibitors improve the overall survival of patients with expression of PDL1; however ce...
Article
Introduction: There are no effective central nervous system (CNS) metastases prevention methods in lung cancer patients. Prophylactic cranial irradiation has a limited effectiveness and relatively high toxicity. Systemic chemotherapy is not relevant in reducing the risk of CNS in lung cancer patients. The understanding of molecular background of br...
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Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is usually diagnosed in the metastatic stage, when chemotherapy and molecularly-targeted therapies, instead of surgery, play the most important therapeutic role. Application of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy requires the analysis of RAS mutation status and only RAS wild-type (wt) patients a...
Article
Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement are predisposed to molecularly targeted therapies. Proper diagnostic is crucial for quick and correct patients qualification to optimal treatment method. Genetic tests to detect predictive...