Paul Richmond's research while affiliated with The University of Sheffield and other places

Publications (29)

Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented difficulties keeping passenger transport running while social distancing has constrained pedestrian movement. To support railway operation an agent based simulation validated against UK mainline railway station CCTV footage has been developed. The simulation quantifies train alighting and boarding flow...
Article
Agent-based simulations represent an effective scientific tool, with numerous applications from social sciences to biology, which aims to emulate or predict complex phenomena through a set of simple rules performed by multiple agents. To simulate a large number of agents with complex models, practitioners have developed high-performance parallel im...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding how people view and interact with autonomous vehicles is important to guide future directions of research. One such way of aiding understanding is through simulations of virtual environments involving people and autonomous vehicles. We present a simulation model that incorporates people and autonomous vehicles in a shared urban space....
Chapter
Understanding how people view and interact with autonomous vehicles is important to guide future directions of research. One such way of aiding understanding is through simulations of virtual environments involving people and autonomous vehicles. We present a simulation model that incorporates people and autonomous vehicles in a shared urban space....
Article
Full-text available
The execution of agent‐based simulations (ABSs) on hardware accelerator devices such as graphics processing units (GPUs) has been shown to offer great performance potentials. However, in heterogeneous hardware environments, it can become increasingly difficult to find viable partitions of the simulation and provide implementations for different har...
Conference Paper
The performance of agent-based simulations has been shown to benefit immensely from execution on hardware accelerator devices such as graphics processing units (GPUs). Given the increasingly heterogeneous hardware platforms available to researchers, it is important to enable modellers to target multiple devices using a single model specification, a...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In recent years, the study of immune response behaviour using bottom up approach, Agent Based Modeling (ABM), has attracted considerable efforts. The ABM approach is a very common technique in the biological domain due to high demand for a large scale analysis tools for the collection and interpretation of information to solve biologic...
Article
Full-text available
Complex systems simulations are well suited to the SIMT paradigm of GPUs, enabling millions of actors to be processed in fractions of a second. At the core of many such simulations, fixed radius near neighbours (FRRN) search provides the actors with spatial awareness of their neighbours. The FRNN search process is frequently the limiting factor of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Real-time large-scale crowd simulations with realistic behavior, are important for many application areas. On CPUs, the ORCA pedestrian steering model is often used for agent-based pedestrian simulations. This paper introduces a technique for running the ORCA pedestrian steering model on the GPU. Performance improvements of up to 30 times greater t...
Article
Full-text available
The performance and scalability of macroscopic assignment and simulation software limits the quantity, scale and complexity of simulations of transport networks that are used to aid the planning, design and operation of transport systems. Through the application of many-core processing architectures (such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs)) and da...
Chapter
Real-time large-scale crowd simulations with realistic behavior, are important for many application areas. On CPUs, the ORCA pedestrian steering model is often used for agent-based pedestrian simulations. This paper introduces a technique for running the ORCA pedestrian steering model on the GPU. Performance improvements of up to 30 times greater t...
Conference Paper
Real-time large-scale crowd simulations with realistic behavior, are important for many application areas. On CPUs, the ORCA pedestrian steering model is often used for agent-based pedestrian simulations. This paper introduces a technique for running the ORCA pedestrian steering model on the GPU. Performance improvements of up to 30 times greater t...
Article
This paper presents a novel, high-performance, graphical processing unit-based algorithm for efficiently solving two-dimensional linear programs in batches. The domain of two-dimensional linear programs is particularly useful due to the prevalence of relevant geometric problems. Batch linear programming refers to solving numerous different linear p...
Conference Paper
Agent Based Modelling (ABM), is an approach for modelling dynamic systems and studying complex and emergent behaviour. ABM approach is a very common technique in biological domain due to high demand for a large scale analysis tool to collect and interpret information to solve biological problems. However, simulating large scale cellular level model...
Conference Paper
Agent-based simulations are becoming widespread among scientists from different areas, who use them to model increasingly complex problems. To cope with the growing computational complexity, parallel and distributed implementations have been developed for a wide range of platforms. However, it is difficult to have simulations that are portable to d...
Conference Paper
There is a challenge ahead in the rail industry to accommodate increased demand. Time spent at the platform train interface (PTI) as passengers board and alight, rather than on the move, represents a limitation on system capacity. To overcome this, we propose RateSetter: an evolutionary optimiser that for the first time provides more effective PTI...
Article
Full-text available
Agent Based Modelling (ABM) is an approach for modelling dynamic systems and studying complex and emergent behaviour. ABMs have been widely applied in diverse disciplines including biology, economics, and social sciences. The scalability of ABM simulations is typically limited due to the computationally expensive nature of simulating a large number...
Article
Full-text available
Road network microsimulation is computationally expensive, and existing state of the art commercial tools use task parallelism and coarse-grained data-parallelism for multi-core processors to achieve improved levels of performance. An alternative is to use Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and fine-grained data parallelism. This paper describes a GP...
Conference Paper
Many agent based models require agents to have an awareness of their local peers. The handling of these fixed radius near neighbours (FRNNs) is often a limiting factor of performance. However without a standardised metric to assess the handling of FRNNs, contributions to the field lack the rigorous appraisal necessary to expose their relative benef...
Conference Paper
Pedestrian simulations have many uses, from pedestrian planning for architecture design through to games and entertainment. However, it is still challenging to efficiently author such simulations, especially for non-technical users. Direct pedestrian control is usually laborious, and, while indirect, environment-level control is often faster, it cu...
Article
Full-text available
Methods currently used to analyse osteolytic lesions caused by malignancies such as multiple myeloma and metastatic breast cancer vary from basic 2-D X-ray analysis to 2-D images of micro-CT datasets analysed with non-specialised image software such as ImageJ. However, these methods have significant limitations. They do not capture 3-D data, they a...
Conference Paper
Demand for high performance road network simulation is increasing due to the need for improved traffic management to cope with the globally increasing number of road vehicles and the poor capacity utilisation of existing infrastructure. This paper demonstrates FLAME GPU as a suitable Agent Based Simulation environment for road network simulations,...
Conference Paper
Agents within multi-agent simulation environments frequently compete for limited resources, requiring negotiation to resolve ‘conflict’. The negotiation process for resolving conflict often relies on a transactional or serial processes that complicates implementation within a parallel simulation framework. This paper demonstrates how transactional...
Article
Full-text available
Ability to simulate pedestrian behaviour on a large scale is essential in identifying potential dangers in public spaces during an evacuation. Multiple designs must be tested with varying parameters and run multiple times to achieve statistical significance due to the model's stochastic nature. In this short paper, we describe our prototype decisio...

Citations

... Orio provides different search heuristics to reduce the number of explored configurations in the search space. OpenABL [19] is a tuning framework assuring portability of generated code from DSLs across multiple large-scale systems. It provides a DSL for agent-based simulations and a source-to-source compiler that generates code through pluggable backends that leverage the AST-based intermediate representation exposing parallelism, locality, and synchronization at the agent level. ...
... For example, PORCA [23] and GAMMA [24] linearly increase a vehicle's responsibility with respect to a pedestrian according to the distance between them to model the vehicle's non-holonomic dynamic constraint and the pedestrian's urgency for collision avoidance. In [25], since colliding with a vehicle could damage personal health, the pedestrian is entirely responsible for avoiding collisions with a vehicle. Some other approaches also allow the responsibility distribution between the same type of agents to be adjustable. ...
... Several works are based on leveraging the task-based paradigm, where devices use coarse-grained kernels, with the runtime acting as an orchestrator, often taking into account execution history to decide future assignments. Some are centered on performing profiling of devices, kernels and data transfers [399,[432][433][434][435][436][437][438], others by using regression models [397], kernel fusion [184,413], classification [439], machine learning [440][441][442] and greedy algorithms [403]. Under this prism there are works that focus on performing concurrent secondary kernel enqueueing to devices, if previous kernels do not perform well and achieve full occupation of the available resources [408,409,443,444], as well as applying work-stealing techniques [136,406,407]. ...
... ABMS is recognized and applied in many scientific disciplines, not only in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) but also in the natural and social sciences [21]. With regard to STEM, ABMS has been applied to several disciplines, such as the design of self-organizing systems [22], geographic information systems [23], epidemiology [24,25], ecology [26][27][28], transportation and logistics [29][30][31], manufacturing [32,33], design of critical systems [34][35][36][37], and cloud computing [38]. ABMS is also well suited to the social sciences, where an understanding of the individuals and how they interact is important for understanding the synergy effect and emerging behavior of systems. ...
... Afterwards, the redistribution program, as demonstrated by Fig.2 (a), was initiated. Firstly, D3Q27 neighbours [39] or 3D Moore neighbourhood [40] of one virus was extracted and added to the cluster matrix. The overlap of unit movement was then determined, as illustrated in Fig.2(b). ...
... ORCA models and their extensions are frequently used in computer graphics to reproduce crowd behaviors (see e.g. [109], [110]). Other velocity-based models derive from concepts of bearing angle [111], gradient navigation [112], or, inspired from vehicular dynamics, time gap variable [113], [114]. ...
... It is embedded in the outer loop in this framework. As mentioned before, there are many studies in the literature about improving the calculation of the shortest path in large-scale (see, e.g., Attanasi et al., 2015;Heywood et al., 2019;Hribar, Taylor, & Boyce, 2001;Zhang, Yang, Jia, Wang, & Chen, 2010). Those methods can be combined with our meta-heuristic algorithms for path flow calculation to improve the overall CT further. ...
... With the recent advances in HPC, the efficiency of large-scale agentbased models, in general, has been improved [10], while there have been efforts specifically targeted for lar-scale agent-based evacuation models [11]; however, depending on available HPC resources, execution times may still not be on an order of magnitude fast enough for emergency decision making. Hence, the high cost of HPC systems and their associated technical knowledge for maintenance and use may be a major constraint for emergency decision-makers. ...
... Here, updating an agent after another in a sequential execution leads to path dependent outcomes. To solve this issue, EpiRust uses a double buffering technique (Cosenza et al., 2018;de Aledo Marugán et al., 2018). The technique employs a read-only buffer for referring to the current state of agents, and a write-only buffer for updating their next state. ...
... GPUs have been widely used in many scientific research domains to accelerate applications and showed significant computational performance improvements [7]. There are several domain specific studies that use GPUs to implement various complex multi-agent systems [1,[8][9][10]. In the majority of these cases GPUs have been used for simulating continuous or discrete space abstractions as well as hybrid approaches which are desirable for large scale immune systems simulations. ...