Paul R. Pintrich's research while affiliated with University of Michigan and other places

Publications (94)

Research
Full-text available
This is the user manual for the MSLQ. The MSLQ is in the public domain, and so you do not need permission to use the instrument. We do ask that you simply cite it appropriately (Pintrich, P.R., Smith, D.A.F., García, T., & McKeachie, W.J. (1991). A manual for the use of the motivated strategies questionnaire (MSLQ). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Mic...
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This chapter discusses the role of mastery and performance goals in relation to general achievement outcomes, such as learning and performance. First, the authors develop a general model of achievement goals that distinguishes between approach and avoidance forms of mastery goals and performance goals. Second, they discuss how these different types...
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Provides an overview of a relatively new and increasingly important area in psychological research: self-regulation. The range of topics covered by the chapters in this handbook include the use of self-regulation constructs in various areas of psychology, such as social, personality, clinical, developmental, educational, organizational, health, and...
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This chapter presents the current state of the field of self-regulation, providing foundations of knowledge for the development of a more comprehensive understanding of self-regulation theory, research, and applications. The chapter reflects recent advances in conceptualization, methodology, research, individual differences, and areas of applicatio...
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Contemporary teaching is concerned not only with imparting knowledge but with developing skills and strategies for further learning. This article describes issues related to the teaching of learning strategies in the context of evaluating an introductory cognitive psychology course. The course is intended to teach both the concepts of cognitive psy...
Chapter
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College student motivation is a persistent and persuasive problem for faculty and staff at all levels of postsecondary education. Faculty at community colleges, comprehensive universities, small liberal arts colleges, and private and public research universities all bemoan the lack of student motivation. The questions that college faculty and staff...
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The most recent research on college-level learning may offer new ways to conceive of college teaching.
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Teaching is only half of the story in the college classroom. Helping students understand and more efficiently use their learning strategies recognizes the importance of this other half of the equation.
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Self-regulated learning is an important component of learning for college students. Students can learn how to become self-regulated learners, and faculty can foster self-regulated learning in their classrooms.
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The relations between achievement motives, achievement goals, and motivational outcomes on a math task were explored in this correlational study of Asian American (n=105) and Anglo American (n=98) college students. Students completed pretest questionnaires about their two motives (motive to approach success and fear of failure) and three achievemen...
Chapter
Abstract Self-regulated learning concerns the application of general models of regulation and self- regulation to issues of learning especially within academic contexts. Self-regulated learning is an active, constructive process whereby learners set goals for their learning and then attempt to monitor, regulate, and control their cognition, motivat...
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Self-regulated learning concerns the application of general models of regulation and self-regulation to issues of learning, in particular academic learning that occurs in school or classroom contexts. An important aspect of models of self-regulation is that individuals regulate towards a goal, thereby implicating the motivational system. Pintrich (...
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A conceptual framework for assessing student motivation and self-regulated learning in the college classroom is presented. The framework is based on a self-regulatory (SRL) perspective on student motivation and learning in contrast to a student approaches to learning (SAL) perspective. The differences between SRL and SAL approaches are discussed, a...
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A conceptual framework for assessing student motivation and self-regulated learning in the college classroom is presented. The framework is based on a self-regulatory (SRL) perspective on student motivation and learning in contrast to a student approaches to learning (SAL) perspective. The differences between SRL and SAL approaches are discussed, a...
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Epistemological beliefs, or beliefs about the nature of knowledge and knowing, are currently a target of increased research interest. The present study examined two research questions: (1) how do epistemological beliefs change over time? and (2) what role do gender, ethnicity, SES, and achievement play in their development? The study was correlatio...
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Based on recent reports in the science education literature, curricular modifications were made to one section of a freshman-level general chemistry course. Assessment results indicate that these modifications resulted in a more student-centered learning environment and increased student learning and satisfaction as compared to results from unmodif...
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This article focuses on three general areas of research on achievement goal theory, including the definition and role of achievement goals, the role of contextual goals and factors, and the measurement and induction of goals. Issues regarding the definition of achievement goals include the generality of the approach/avoid dimension and the conseque...
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A motivational science perspective on student motivation in learning and teaching contexts is developed that highlights 3 general themes for motivational research. The 3 themes include the importance of a general scientific approach for research on student motivation, the utility of multidisciplinary perspectives, and the importance of use-inspired...
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This study investigated how students' level of motivation and use of specific cognitive and self-regulatory strategies changed over time, and how these motivational and cognitive components in turn predicted students' course performance in chemistry. Participants were 458 students enrolled in introductory college chemistry classes. Participants' mo...
Chapter
This chapter provides a comprehensive review of individual motivation and emotional factors related to school performance and classroom factors that are predictive of student motivation and achievement in critical academic domains. Studies are reviewed that demonstrate how expectancy components (i.e., control beliefs, self-efficacy beliefs); value...
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Student motivation is an important concern for all teachers. Recent research on student motivation has provided evidence for the development of important constructs and generalizations that have direct application to the classroom. Although there are many motivational constructs, self-efficacy is one that is key to promoting students' engagement an...
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C. Midgley et al. (2001) raised important questions about the effects of performance-approach goals. The present authors disagree with their characterization of the research findings and implications for theory. They discuss 3 reasons to revise goal theory: (a) the importance of separating approach from avoidance strivings, (b) the positive potenti...
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Student motivation as an academic enabler for school success is discussed. Contrary to many views, however, the authors conceive of student motivation as a multifaceted construct with different components. Accordingly, the article includes a discussion of four key components of student motivation including academic self-efficacy, attributions, intr...
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Full-text available
C. Midgley et al. (2001) raised important questions about the effects of performance-approach goals. The present authors disagree with their characterization of the research findings and implications for theory. They discuss 3 reasons to revise goal theory: (a) the importance of separating approach from avoidance strivings, (b) the positive potenti...
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This article discusses the research on the relations between achievement goals and develops a conceptual model based on a review of extant literature. The model distinguishes between moods and emotions and the relative roles of perceived classroom goal structures and personal goals. In this article, it is suggested that the relation between achieve...
Chapter
The authors discuss the importance of considering students’ motivation when investigating conceptual change. They begin by presenting a general model of the direct and indirect relations of achievement goals to conceptual change. Next, two empirical studies examining college students’ changing understandings of projectile motion are presented. Stud...
Book
This is the first book to provide a comprehensive overview of the theoretical and methodological approaches to the study of personal epistemology from a psychological and educational perspective. Both theory building and empirical research have grown dramatically in the past decade but, until now, this work has not been pulled together in a single...
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Focuses on self-regulated learning that takes place in classroom settings. Accordingly, the authors focus on the development of self-regulatory capabilities in school-age children. Personal cognitive characteristics (e.g., prior knowledge, theories) and motivational characteristics (efficacy, goals) that might facilitate or impede the development o...
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Sums up the chapters in this volume as reflecting recent theory and research on the nature and role of personal epistemology. As in any field, there are diverse views about the nature of personal epistemologies and what role they may play in learning and development. The present author discusses general issues that seem to be salient for research o...
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Why do some students avoid seeking help in the classroom when they need it? When students do not seek the help they need, they put themselves at a disadvantage for learning. We discuss how students' personal motivational characteristics relate to their avoidance of help seeking. In particular, we discuss our work regarding perceived academic and so...
Chapter
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Goal orientation theory predicts that adopting a mastery goal will facilitate self-regulated learning and that endorsement of relative ability goals or extrinsic goals will be negatively related to self-regulated learning. Most empirical research has supported this general principle (see Ames, 1992 for review). However, some recent research suggest...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of an important area in psychological research, i.e., self-regulation. Although self-regulation is a relative newcomer in the psychology journals, there is now a large but diverse body of research on this topic. The search for a general understanding of self-regulation is not coherent given the diversity in the fie...
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Current research on goal orientation and self-regulated learning suggests a general framework for examining learning and motivation in academic contexts. Moreover, there are some important generalizations that are emerging from this research. It seems clear that an approach-mastery goal orientation is generally adaptive for cognition, motivation, l...
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Mastery goals have been linked to adaptive outcomes in normative goal theory and research; performance goals, to less adaptive outcomes. In contrast, approach performance goals may be adaptive for some outcomes under a revised goal theory perspective. The current study addresses the role of multiple goals, both mastery and approach performance goal...
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There are a number of important issues raised by Murphy and Alexander in the lead article of this issue. In this response, four general issues are discussed in light of current research and achievement goal theory. The four issues include: (1) the general definition and theoretical clarity of motivational constructs, (2) the accessibility and consc...
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In this chapter we provide an overview of the conceptual and methodological issues involved in developing and evaluating measures of metacognition and self-regulated learning. Our goal is to suggest a general framework for thinking about these assessments- a framework that will help generate questions and guide future research and development effor...
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This study investigated the direct and mediated effects of mastery and performance goals, negative affect, and task-irrelevant thoughts on working memory in a sample of undergraduates (N = 177). Results indicated that negative affect mediated the positive relation between mastery goals and working memory; students with mastery goals reported decrea...
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We investigated whether there were gender differences in associations between males' and females' mastery and extrinsic goal orientations and measures of self-regulated learning (self-efficacy, cognitive, and regulatory strategies) and performance. Survey data from 445 seventh- and eighth-grade students at both the beginning and end of the year ind...
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The four target articles in this special issue address an important area of research in academic self-regulation theory and research—research on volitional control, especially motivational and emotional control. The articles are discussed in terms of 10 issues that will help to define the future of research on self-regulation and volitional control...
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Interference and inhibition processes as discussed by Dempster and Corkill (1999) are useful on two levels: first, metaphorically in terms of general themes for educational psychology, and, second, in terms of psychological mechanisms for understanding learning. At the same time, there are a number of issues that must be addressed in future theory...
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A general framework is presented to help understand the relationship between motivation and self-regulated learning. According to the framework, self-regulated learning can be facilitated by the adoption of mastery and relative ability goals and hindered by the adoption of extrinsic goals. In addition, positive self-efficacy and task value beliefs...
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Recent research on self-regulated learning has stressed the importance of both motivational and cognitive components of classroom learning. Much of this research has examined these components without consideration of potential contextual differences. Using a within-subject correlational design, the present study assessed mean level differences in s...
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The authors expand the role of classroom goals to include the effects of students' concerns about social relationships and social status. Social relationship goals focus on establishing and maintaining close personal friendships, whereas social status goals reflect a concern with popularity and prestige within a group. Social goals parallel achieve...
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The present study investigated motivational influences on help-seeking behavior in math classrooms, focusing on early adolescents' perceptions of the benefits and threats associated with such behavior. Seventh and 8th graders ( N = 203) responded to a questionnaire on perceptions of social and cognitive competence, achievement goals, attitudes, and...
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There have been a number of research programs that have investigated students’ thinking and beliefs about the nature of knowledge and knowing, including definitions of knowledge, how knowledge is constructed, and how knowledge is evaluated. However, these different research programs have pursued varying definitions and conceptual frameworks and use...
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Full-text available
The present study investigated motivational influences on help-seeking behavior in math classrooms, focusing on early adolescents' perceptions of the benefits and threats associated with such behavior. Seventh and 8th graders (N = 203) responded to a questionnaire on perceptions of social and cognitive competence, achievement goals, attitudes, and...
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The relations between three goal orientations and students' motivational beliefs and self-regulated learning were examined in a correlational study of 434 seventh and eighth grade students. Data were collected over two time points (fall and spring) within one school year with self-report questionnaires. Regression analyses revealed that adopting a...
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The personal attributes of self-regulated learning are often described in terms of knowledge base, adaptive motivational beliefs, and appropriate use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies for learning. These attributes are usually assumed to apply across all disciplines and contexts, but there has been little research that has examined the disc...
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The goals of this study were to extend the literature about classroom autonomy in several ways. First, since previous research on autonomy has tended to focus on younger learners, we examined whether the positive effects of autonomy on motivation and performance would be replicated in a college sample. Second, we tested to see whether the well-esta...
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Current research on student classroom learning stresses the importance of considering both motivational and cognitive components of academic performance (Garcia & Pintrich, 1994; Pintrich & De Groot, 1990). Motivational components include students’ perceptions of the classroom environment as well as their selfrelated beliefs such as personal goals,...
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The Educational Psychology Division (Division 15) of the American Psychological Association created a committee to examine the: teaching of educational psychology in the broader context of teacher education reform. The committee recommends that educational psychologists who participate in teacher education should help prospective teachers develop c...
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The present study examines several cognitive and motivational variables that distinguish children with learning disabilities (n = 19) from children without learning disabilities (n = 20). The total sample included 30 males and 9 females and was composed of white, fifth-grade students from a middle-class community in the Midwest. Results showed that...
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The purpose of this article is to suggest future directions for research in educational psychology as we enter our second hundred years of psychology in America. The basic theme is that there are both continuities and discontinuities in our development from the early days of Hall, Thorndike, James, and Dewey to the current multiplicity of perspecti...
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The relations between classroom experience and individual differences in motivation and self-regulated learning were examined in a correlational study of seventh graders (N = 100, mean age = 12.3 years) from a middle school in the Midwest. Motivational beliefs (intrinsic value, self-efficacy, and test anxiety) and self-regulated learning (cognitive...
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Examined intraindividual differences in the patterns of motivation, cognitive strategy use, and self-regulation of 313 college students. Ss were administered the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire twice, once at the beginning and once at the end of the semester. Cluster analyses were used to create a typology of Ss who showed different...
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This paper reports on a new self-report, Likert-scaled instrument that was designed to assess motivation and use of learning strategies by college students. The motivation scales tap into three broad areas: (1) value (intrinsic and extrinsic goal orientation, task value), (2) expectancy (control beliefs about learning, self-efficacy); and (3) affec...
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Conceptual change models of student learning are useful for explicating the role of prior knowledge in students’ learning and are very popular in the research on learning in the subject areas. This article presents an analysis of a conceptual change model for describing student learning by applying research on student motivation to the process of c...
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Self-regulated learning is usually viewed as the fusion of skill and will, referring to the students' development of different learning strategies in service of their goals. This definition is expanded in a study of self-schemas as a means of representing multiple goals for learning. Measures of self-schemas were used with 151 seventh graders (86 f...
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Critical thinking has important implications for classic learning issues such as transfer of knowledge and application of problem-solving skills to novel situations. The goal of this study was to identify some of the important correlates of critical thinking, in terms of motivation, use of cognitive learning strategies, and classroom experiences. P...
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This paper presents results of a study that examined the effect of different levels of autonomy upon intrinsic goal orientation, task value, self-efficacy, test anxiety, use of metacognitive strategies, and performance in the college classroom. Study participants were 365 college students from 4 institutions in 10 classrooms: 3 biology (n=162); 3 E...
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An attempt was made to build a structural model of the relationships over time among intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy, and self-regulated learning. Structural equation modeling using the LISREL computer program was used. The presented model put the motivational constructs of intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy as temporally preceding self-reg...
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A correlational study examined relationships between motivational orientation, self-regulated learning, and classroom academic performance for 173 seventh graders from eight science and seven English classes. A self-report measure of student self-efficacy, intrinsic value, test anxiety, self-regulation, and use of learning strategies was administer...
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Assessment programs designed to improve instruction should be based on strong theoretical models of student learning, motivation, and instruction.
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First and fifth graders' reasons for adhering to classroom achievement, moral, and conventional norms were collected during individual interviews. Reasons were coded into 2 intrinsic and 4 extrinsic categories. Developmental change and individual consistency in offering of intrinsic reasons across domains were assessed. In addition, to explore teac...
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Estimation is a general problem solving task that has cognitive consequences for students. Many physical and biological phenomena are best modeled using logarithmic scales, but there has been little research that addresses students' understanding of logarithmic scales. Forty junior high school students were asked to solve two types of estimation pr...
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Students' (n = 23) actual programming behaviors were observed in two high school Pascal programming classes. Observation was performed with a computerized low inference instrument that collected both frequency and time data. Behaviors coded included students' production of code as well as their debugging strategies. Results revealed that students s...
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Teaching students to be life-long learners is an important goal of higher education. Students need to be taught explicitly how to use learning strategies to achieve this goal. We have designed a course to teach college students a variety of learning strategies. The course provides instruction in theory and research in cognitive psychology and in th...
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Two studies were used to examine developmental and task effects in estimation problems. Time to solution data were collected on students' performance to describe their efficiency in processing information. Study One demonstrated developmental differences in speed of processing between younger students (first grade) and older students (third and six...
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Children’s self-perceptions of ability may reflect assessments of their effort and good conduct as well as academic performance. Determinants of ability judgments were assessed in 158 second and sixth graders by examining intercorrelations among self-ratings of ability, effort, and conduct and by exploring criteria used for these judgments. In gene...
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Investigated the relation of classroom experience to children's self-perceptions of ability, effort, and conduct in an observational study of 85 2nd and 6th graders. Data were collected on Ss' achievement level; self-perceptions; and their academic, conduct, and personal interactions with teachers and peers. Regression analyses revealed that work p...
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review several general themes that have characterized Bill McKeachie's research as well as our own research in the College Student Research Group, and . . . propose future directions for research on self-regulated learning in college sudents / identified 3 general themes that reflect both Bill's contribution to the field and to our own research pro...

Citations

... À l'inverse, les comportements inadéquats tels que de demander une aide exécutive ou d'éviter de rechercher une assistance révèlent des lacunes dans les processus d'autorégulation. Selon le modèle sociocognitif de l'autorégulation de Zimmerman (2000), ces processus sont largement influencés par les caractéristiques de l'environnement particulièrement lors des demandes d'aide. À cet égard, le climat de la classe, l'accès aux ressources et leur qualité ont notamment été évoqués comme déterminants dans l'utilisation de cette stratégie (Newman, 2000;Ryan et al., 2001;Shim et al., 2013). ...
... A similar study to Ames (1992) was carried out by Meece (1991), who identified four key aspects of instruction that appear common to mastery-oriented students: promoting meaningful learning, tailoring instruction to level and to personal interest, supporting autonomy and peer collaboration, and emphasizing the intrinsic benefit of learning. Meece's four traits share a lot of similarities to Ames' work, and evidence in support of them are among the most frequently occurring labels (Emphasis on understanding, Scaffolded, Group work) across both cohorts. ...
... SRL also emphasizes the active role of learners and is strongly associated with learners' motivation [2,3]. The educational environment is shifting from a teacher-oriented to a learner-oriented approach, and a learner-oriented environment requires SRL strategies [4]. COVID 19 changed everything, and the learning environment is not an exception. ...
... Sun et al. (2021, p. 12) have already addressed the problem of whether researchers measure the actual or the potential level of metacognition in the field of foreign language learning: "we measured EFL learners' metacognitive experiences after they finished a writing task, but students' metacognitive experiences are dynamic during the writing process". As Pintrich et al. (2000) emphasized, construct validity of the measures of metacognition depends not only on the empirical evidence a test may provide but on the potential consequences of the interpretation of the test data. ...
... We first explain what IM is and why it matters (Part I). We distinguish between a structural approach to study IM (Kruglanski et al. 2018;Shah & Kruglanski 2000;Szumowska & Kruglanski 2020;Woolley & Fishbach 2018a) and content-based approaches (Howard et al. 2017;Ryan & Deci 2000). Whereas scholars generally agree about the definition of IM as pursuing an activity as its own end (Csikszentmihalyi 2014;Deci 1975;Deci & Ryan 1985;Kruglanski 1975;Kruglanski et al. 2018;Vallerand 2007), the two approaches differ in what they believe causes IM. ...
... That is why the perception that students have of how their teachers teach is fundamental. Recent research has shown that variables of the learning environment perceived in the classroom are good predictors of self-regulation of learning by students and their self-perception (Biggs, 2001;Zimmerman, 2002;Pintrich, 2004;Schunk, 2005;Monereo, 2007;Schuitema et al., 2012). ...
... Research by Newmann and his colleagues has shown that when students feel that they can be successful in a task, they will show greater effort and interest in completing that task (Newmann, 1989;Newmann et al., 1992). Similarly, in the field of motivation, students' expectancy beliefs (their expectations of success) have been found to predict use of deeper cognitive strategies (Pintrich & De Groot, 1990;Pintrich & Garcia, 1991;Wigfield & Eccles, 2000). In a qualitative study, Fredricks et al. (2016) found that students were more likely to feel engaged in math and science classes when they felt competent. ...
... In the Pintrich Model [36,42] there are four areas that affect students' SRL, namely, cognition, motivation, behavior, and context. These four factors are combined with the four phases in the Pintrich model namely forethought planning and activation; the second phase of Monitoring; the third phase of control and the fourth phase of reaction and reflection. ...
... The literature is enriched with continued discussion in this regard. Harackiewicz et al. (2002) highlighted that performance goals-oriented students attained higher standards of performance than those who oriented towards mastery goals. Some of the theorists like Midgley, Kaplan, and Middleton (2001) still advocated the earlier view of the achievement goal theory and consider that mastery goals provide better achievement. ...
... We conceptualize that personal striving, as shown in Figure 6, could act as a direct source of information, governing both motivation and self-regulatory processes (e.g., a person's evaluation), which in turn would assist a person with their development and setting of GsBP. From our consideration, encouragement of personal striving (e.g., the use of verbal discourse to encourage a student to strive for optimal learning experience in Psychology) may motivate a university student and assist him to self-regulate his learning patterns (e.g., a student may evaluate and monitor their GsOB -for example, is he/she on track?) (Wolters et al., 1996;Zimmerman and Risemberg, 1997;Zimmerman and Schunk, 2001;Schunk and Zimmerman, 2013), resulting in the planning, anticipation, and construction of GsBP. ...