Paul R. Amato's research while affiliated with Pennsylvania State University and other places

Publications (136)

Chapter
This chapter uses six waves of data from the Marital Instability Over the Life Course study to examine long-term trends in three aspects of spousal relationships: marital happiness, shared activities, and discord (n = 1617). Across the full sample, happiness declined gradually during the first 20 years of marriage and then stabilized. Participation...
Article
Research on the intergenerational transmission of divorce should be expanded to incorporate disrupted nonmarital cohabitations. This study (a) examined the transmission of union instability from parents to offspring using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, (b) replaced binary variables (divorced vs. nondivorced...
Article
Although many studies have examined associations between family structure and child outcomes, few have considered how the increase in single-parent households since the 1960s may have affected child mortality rates. We examined state-level changes in the percentage of children living with single parents between 1968 and 2010 and state-level trends...
Article
In the current study the authors drew on Waves I and III from Add Health to examine the closeness of parent-adolescent relationships in married mother-stepfather families (N=1,934). They used latent class analysis to identify family constellations defined by adolescents' relationships with all of their parents: mothers, stepfathers, and biological...
Article
Although many studies have examined associations between family structure and children's educational achievement at the individual level, few studies have considered how the increase in single-parent households may have affected children's educational achievement at the population level. We examined changes in the percentage of children living with...
Article
Although many studies have examined associations between family structure and children's educational achievement at the individual level, few studies have considered how the increase in single-parent households may have affected children's educational achievement at the population level. We examined changes in the percentage of children living with...
Article
This study contributes to the growing literature on factors associated with the formation of close relationships between stepfathers and stepchildren. The authors extend prior research by using nationally representative data from Add Health (N = 179) to examine how factors existing prior to stepfamily formation are associated with the quality of st...
Chapter
A variety of new measurement approaches have appeared in recent years, and the current chapter focuses on three of these: ecological momentary assessment, biomarkers, and mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) designs. After commenting on these approaches, I turn to a perennial issue in family studies: How researchers can assess the characteri...
Article
This study employs nationally representative data on adolescents and their stepfathers (n = 2085) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine factors associated with positive stepfather-stepchild relationships in married stepfamilies. Results reveal substantial variability in the perceived quality of adolescent...
Article
Although remarriage is a relatively common transition, little is known about how nonresident fathers affect divorced mothers' entry into remarriage. Using the 1979–2010 rounds of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979, the authors examined the likelihood of remarriage for divorced mothers (N = 882) by nonresident father contact with children...
Article
Building Strong Families programs provide relationship education and other support services to unmarried couples with young children. This study used data from the 15-month Building Strong Families evaluation to test the hypothesis that the degree of social and economic disadvantage moderates the effects of program participation. To test this hypot...
Article
Full-text available
Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) were used to test the hypothesis that approaches to learning (ATL) mediates the link between parental divorce and academic achievement. Fixed effects regression was utilized to test for mediation, and subsequent moderation analyses examining gender and age at time of di...
Article
Full-text available
The authors used child fixed effects models to estimate the effects of parental divorce and death on a variety of outcomes using 2 large national data sets: (a) the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort (kindergarten through the 5th grade) and (b) the National Educational Longitudinal Study (8th grade to the senior year of high sc...
Book
The family can be a model of loving support, a crucible of pathology, or some blend of the two. Across disciplines, it is also the basic unit for studying human relationships, patterns of behavior, and influence on individuals and society. As family structures evolve and challenge previous societal norms, new means are required for understanding th...
Article
Objective Although prior research has demonstrated the multiple pathways through which socioeconomic attainment occurs, one unexplored avenue regards the role of psychological mechanisms such as self‐esteem in this process.Methods Using three waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,952), we employed structural equat...
Chapter
Divorce rates are rising in many places in the world, including Canada, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, most European nations, and many Asian societies. An important explanation for this worldwide increase highlights greater individualism and self-fulfilment, known as the Second Demographic Transition. Studies from English-speaking countries show...
Chapter
In the USA, although married partners are spending less time together now than in the past, they continue to be generally happy with their marriages. In this chapter, ‘Alone Together’ marriages and ‘Living Apart Together’ (LAT) relationships are examined with reference to studies conducted in the USA and Europe respectively. The growth of ‘Alone To...
Article
This study assesses whether government-supported Healthy Marriage Initiatives (HMIs)—educational programs to help couples form and sustain healthy marriages and relationships—have had a measurable impact on population-level family outcomes. We compiled data on funding for these initiatives between 2000 and 2010 and aggregated these data to the stat...
Article
This study attempted to assess the notion that a "good divorce" protects children from the potential negative consequences of marital dissolution. A cluster analysis of data on postdivorce parenting from 944 families resulted in three groups: cooperative coparenting, parallel parenting, and single parenting. Children in the cooperative coparenting...
Article
Full-text available
We used data from the Add Health study to estimate the effects of parents' marital status and relationship distress on daughters' early family formation transitions. Outcomes included traditional transitions (marriage and marital births) and nontraditional transitions (cohabitation and nonmarital births). Relationship distress among continuously ma...
Article
We analyzed data from 50 states and the District of Columbia from 1960 to 2005 to study how the unemployment rate and the divorce rate are related. Unemployment is positively related to divorce in a bivariate analysis, but the association is not significant when state and year fixed effects are included in the statistical model. When the sample is...
Article
The authors used the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999, to test ideas from Lareau’s qualitative study of social class differences in parenting. Consistent with Lareau, a confirmatory factor analysis supported the general concerted cultivation construct—a parenting strategy that subsumes parents’ school engagement,...
Article
Divorce has become more common in China. However, studies of Chinese marriage and family life have lagged because relevant data are sparse. Using a divorce risk model, this study compares China and the United States. Chinese data came from a 2007-2008 Shanghai study containing 1,070 married or cohabiting respondents. The U.S. data came from the 200...
Article
We examined 7 life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions we...
Article
Divorce has become more common in China. However, studies of Chinese marriage and family life have lagged because relevant data are sparse. Using a divorce risk model, this study compares China and the United States. Chinese data came from a 2007-2008 Shanghai study containing 1,070 married or cohabiting respondents. The U.S. data came from the 200...
Article
Jeffrey Arnett has argued that emerging adulthood has become a distinct stage in the life course for people between the ages of 18 and 25 (Arnett, 2000). This stage is characterized by independence from major social roles and commitments, such as marriage, childbearing, and establishing a career. Instead of “settling down,” emerging adults use this...
Article
Using a multi-state sample of marriages that took place in the 1990s, this study examined associations between premarital cohabitation history and marital quality in first (N = 437) and second marriages (N = 200), and marital instability in first marriages (intact N = 521, divorced N = 124). For first marriages, cohabiting with the spouse without f...
Article
Research on divorce during the past decade has focused on a range of topics, including the predictors of divorce, associations between divorce and the well-being of children and former spouses, and interventions for divorcing couples. Methodological advances during the past decade include a greater reliance on nationally representative longitudinal...
Article
Full-text available
Although the United States has the highest divorce rate of any Western nation, divorce rates have been increasing in almost all European countries. In this review, we compare studies conducted in the United States and Europe that focus on three topics: (1) the demographic and economic predictors of divorce, (2) the estimated effects of divorce on a...
Article
Full-text available
We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort (NLSY79) from 1979 to 2002 and the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (CNLSY) from 1986 to 2002 to describe the number, shape, and population frequencies of U.S. nonresident father contact trajectories over a 14-year period using growth mixture models. The resulting fo...
Article
To study changes in nonresident father contact since the 1970s, we pooled data from 4 national surveys: the National Survey of Children (1976), the National Survey of Families and Households (1987 – 1988), the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1996), and the National Survey of America’s Families (2002). On the basis of mothers’ reports, levels...
Article
We used latent class analysis to create family formation pathways for women between the ages of 18 and 23. Input variables included cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, full-time employment, and attending school. Data (n = 2,290) came from Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The analysis revealed sev...
Article
This study focuses on the factors underlying differences in relationship quality between interethnic and same-ethnic couples. Using the National Survey of Families and Households and the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we examine relationship satisfaction, interpartner conflict and subjective assessments of relationship instability in m...
Article
The associations among poverty, measures of social support, and parents' reports of punitive and unsupportive behaviors were examined using the National Survey of Families and Households. Analyses revealed a significant interaction between perceived social support and household income: perceived social support was negatively associated with parents...
Article
Full-text available
We used adopted and biological children from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households to study the links between parents' marital conflict, divorce and children's behavior problems. The standard family environment model assumes that marital conflict and divorce increase the risk of children's behavior problems. The passive ge...
Article
Is active fathering by nonresident fathers a cause or a consequence of adolescent wellbeing? Past studies of nonresident father involvement assume a father effects model in which active parenting by fathers improves adolescent adjustment. A child effects model, in which fathers respond to levels of well-being among their adolescent offspring by bec...
Article
We used data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households to study high- and low-distress marriages that end in divorce. A cluster analysis of 509 couples who divorced between waves revealed that about half were in high-distress relationships and the rest in low-distress relationships. These 2 groups were not artifacts of th...
Article
We assessed the associations between parents' marital discord and divorce, patterns of parent-child relationships, and adult children's subjective well-being. Parental divorce and marital conflict appeared to increase the odds that children were close to neither parent in adulthood. Parental divorce (but not marital conflict) appeared to increase t...
Article
Full-text available
Since the 1970s, the share of U.S. children growing up in single-parent families has doubled, a trend that has disproportionately affected disadvantaged families. Paul Amato and Rebecca Maynard argue that reversing that trend would reduce poverty in the short term and, perhaps more important, improve children's growth and development over the long...
Article
Full-text available
One of the limitations of experimental studies on the effectiveness of premarital education is the reliance on samples of mostly White, middle-class couples. In contrast, although survey methods allow only weak inferences about causal relations, representative surveys can yield important information about use and estimated effects across a diverse...
Article
The authors investigate the direction of the relationship between marital happiness and wives’ full-time employment using the 1987 to 1988 and 1992 to 1994 waves of the National Survey of Families and Households. First, the authors predict change in wives’ employment between the two waves using marital happiness and other Time 1 characteristics. Th...
Article
Studies consistently show that chronic discord between parents is a risk factor for a variety of child problems, including poor emotional adjustment, low self-esteem, aggression in peer relationships, and delinquency (Davies & Cummings, 1994; Emery, 1999). In most of these studies researchers have observed children during middle childhood or adoles...
Article
Research on divorce has found that adolescents’ feelings of being caught between parents are linked to internalizing problems and weak parent-child relationships. The present study estimates the effects of marital discord, as well as divorce, on young adult offspring's feelings of being caught in the middle (N =632). Children with parents in high-c...
Article
The 1995 wave of the Add Health study is used to investigate the relative influence of parent gender and residence on patterns of parental involvement with adolescents. Adolescent reports (N =17,330) of shared activities, shared communication, and relationship quality with both biological parents are utilized. A multidimensional scaling analysis re...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the links among relationship status, relationship happiness, and a latent measure of subjective well-being. Using the study of Marital Instability over the Life Course, we found that married individuals reported the highest level of subjective well-being, followed (in order) by individuals in cohabiting relationships, steady dat...
Article
Long-term consequences of parental absence during childhood for adult depression are examined using 1987–1988 National Survey of Families and Households data. Whites and African Americans, male and female, separated from a parent score higher on a measure of depression than those raised in continuously intact families. Hispanic males and females sh...
Article
This study examines the “additional adult” hypothesis for children living with single mothers. Using data from the National Survey of Families and Households, we formed three groups: married mothers, single mothers with no other adults in the household, and single mothers with one or more additional adults in the household. Single mothers’ratings o...
Article
How have recent changes in U.S. family structure affected the cognitive, social, and emotional well-being of the nation's children? Paul Amato examines the effects of family formation on children and evaluates whether current marriage-promotion programs are likely to meet children's needs. Amato begins by investigating how children in households wi...
Article
Experiencing parental divorce as a child ap-pears to increase the risk of a variety of prob-lems in adulthood. Compared with adults with continuously married parents, adults with di-vorced parents tend to obtain less education, earn less income, have more troubled mar-riages, have weaker ties with parents, and re-port more symptoms of psychological...
Article
Past research consistently indicates that poverty and economic hardship have negative consequences for children. Few studies, however, have examined whether these consequences persist into adulthood. This study addresses this gap by assessing whether economic resources in the family of origin have long-term effects on psychological well-being in ad...
Article
Because sexual fidelity is a key norm regulating the institution of marriage, any occurrence of extramarital sex (EMS) could potentially contribute to marital dissolution. Although the relationship between EMS and marital dissolution has been demonstrated in past research, studies have yet to show if the occurrence of EMS causes a marriage to break...
Article
We used data from 208 individuals who divorced during a 17-year longitudinal study to examine factors that predict adjustment to marital disruption. Using stress and coping theory as a guide, we hypothesized that adjustment would be associated with variables reflecting stressors, resources, and people's definitions of the divorce. Contrary to expec...
Article
This 2-part study uses national longitudinal interview data from parents and their adult children to examine the way in which predivorce marital conflict influences the impact of divorce on children. In the 1st study, we find that the dissolution of low-conflict marriages appears to have negative effects on offspring's lives, whereas the dissolutio...
Article
We used national, longitudinal data from 2 generations to assess 2 explanations for the intergenerational transmission of marital instability, one based on relationship skills and the other based on marital commitment. Parental divorce approximately doubled the odds that offspring would see their own marriages end in divorce. Offspring with marital...
Article
The authors used data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) to test the generality of the links between parenting practices and child outcomes for children in two age groups: 5–11 and 12–18. Parents' reports of support, monitoring, and harsh punishment were associated in the expected direction with parents' rep...
Article
Although Judith Wallerstein's research on children with divorced parents has been influential, many quantitative family scholars have criticized her methods and conclusions. Wallerstein claims that children with divorced parents often reach adulthood as psychologically troubled individuals who find it difficult to maintain stable and satisfying rel...
Article
The relationship between premarital cohabitation and marital dysfunction was examined with a total sample of 1,425 spouses in two U.S. marriage cohorts: those married between 1964 and 1980 (when cohabitation was less common) and those married between 1981 and 1997 (when cohabitation was more common). Spouses in both cohorts who cohabited prior to m...
Article
This paper describes people's open-ended, personal accounts of why they stay married. Most people perceived the cohesiveness of their marriages in terms of rewards and barriers, and few people referred to a lack of good alternatives. People who reported barriers only tended to be relatively unhappy with their marriages and were more likely than oth...
Article
Divorce is a complex event that can be viewed from multiple perspectives. For example, sociological research has focused primarily on structural and life course predictors of marital disruption, such as social class, race, and age at first marriage (Bumpass, Martin, & Sweet, 1991; White, 1991). Psychological research, in contrast, has focused on di...
Article
We used national panel data collected between 1980 and 1997 to classify 208 people's open-ended responses to a question on why their marriages ended in divorce. Infidelity was the most commonly reported cause, followed by incompatibility, drinking or drug use, and growing apart. People's specific reasons for divorcing varied with gender, social cla...
Article
We use data from two national surveys of married individuals—one from 1980 and the other from 2000—to understand how three dimensions of marital quality changed during this period. Marital happiness and divorce proneness changed little between 1980 and 2000, but marital interaction declined significantly. A decomposition analysis suggested that off...
Article
Previous research has demonstrated associations between exposure to parental divorce and marital discord while growing up and children's psychological distress in adulthood. Few studies, however, have attempted to explain these associations. Three pathways are evaluated through which family disruption and discord may affect offspring's well-being:...
Article
Full-text available
Drawing on a national longitudinal study of 297 parents and their married offspring, the authors found that parents' marital discord was negatively related to offspring's marital harmony and positively related to offspring's marital discord. The transmission of marital quality was not mediated by parental divorce, life-course variables, socioeconom...
Article
The present study updates the P. R. Amato and B. Keith (1991) meta-analysis of children and divorce with a new analysis of 67 studies published in the 1990s. Compared with children with continuously married parents, children with divorced parents continued to score significantly lower on measures of academic achievement, conduct, psychological adju...
Article
Previous research suggests a U-shaped pattern of marital happiness over the life course, with happiness declining in the early years of marriage and rising in the later years. Most prior studies have been limited by the use of cross-sectional data or nonprobability samples. In contrast, the present study is based on data from a national, 17-year, 5...
Article
We used national data from two samples reflecting different marriage cohorts to examine long-term changes in gender relations within marriage, long-term changes in marital quality, and the association between the two. The first marriage cohort consisted of individuals married between 1964 and 1980 (N = 1,119) and interviewed in 1980, whereas the se...
Article
Full-text available
Throughout the 1990s, scholars interested in fatherhood have generated a voluminous, rich, and diverse body of work. We selectively review this literature with an eye toward prominent theoretical, methodological, and substantive issues. This burgeoning literature, complemented by social policy makers' heightened interest in fathers and families, fo...
Article
I use a divorce-stress-adjustment perspective to summarize and organize the empirical literature on the consequences of divorce for adults and children. My review draws on research in the 1990s to answer five questions: How do individuals from married and divorced families differ in well-being? Are these differences due to divorce or to selection?...
Article
This study investigated the effects of parental alcohol use on African American (n = 347) and White adult offspring (n = 3,429). Using cross-sectional data, the results indicated similarities as well as differences between African Americans and Whites in the consequences of parental alcohol use for adult offspring. For both groups, parents’ drinkin...
Article
We employed meta-analytic methods to pool information from 63 studies dealing with nonresident fathers and children's well-being. Fathers' payment of child support was positively associated with measures of children's well-being. The frequency of contact with nonresident fathers was not related to child outcomes in general. Two additional dimension...
Article
Although a large number of studies have examined associations between paternal involvement and children's outcomes, most are based on a single source of data or fail to control for maternal involvement. We used data from the National Survey of Families and Households (n = 994) to test the hypothesis that positive father involvement is associated wi...
Article
Exchange theory predicts that people who adopt favorable attitudes toward divorce invest fewer resources in their marriages, thus eroding marital quality. Cognitive dissonance theory predicts that people who experience declines in marital quality adopt more favorable attitudes toward divorce as they anticipate leaving the relationship. This study t...
Article
This study uses longitudinal data from two sources (parents and their adult offspring) to determine the long-term consequences of marital violence for children. The authors find that parents' reports of marital violence between 1980 and 1988 (when children were between the ages of 11 and 19, on average) predict offspring's reports of negative outco...
Article
This study investigated the extent to which reports of marital problems in 1980 predicted divorce between 1980 and 1992, the extent to which these problems mediated the impact of demographic and life course variables on divorce, and gender differences in reports of particular marital problems and in the extent to which these reports predicted divor...
Article
We investigated the possibility that changes in the economic and social context of marriage have lowered marital quality in recent marriages. We used data from a national probability sample of two generations representing individuals married between 1969–1980 and between 1981–1992. Compared with the older group, the younger group (both men and wome...
Article
Just what do we know about the current generation of young Americans? So little it seems that we have dubbed them Generation X. Coming of age in the 1980s and '90s, they hail from families in flux, from an intimate landscape changing faster and more profoundly than ever before. This book is the first to give us a clear, close-up picture of these yo...
Article
This study uses national longitudinal data to explain the intergenerational transmission of divorce. Parental divorce is associated with an increased risk of offspring divorce, especially when wives and both spouses have experienced the dissolution of their parents' marriage. Offspring age at marriage, cohabitation, socioeconomic attainment, and pr...
Article
This study used national longitudinal data to examine parent-child relationships before and after parental divorce. Parents' reports of problems in their relationships with children were significantly elevated as early as 8 to 12 years prior to divorce. Low quality in the parents' marriage largely accounted for these associations. Early problems in...
Article
Using longitudinal data from a national sample of 471 parents and their adult children, we examined the impact of parental marital quality, divorce, and remarriage on the exchange of assistance between parents and offspring. Low marital quality was not associated with the exchange of help, although it did appear to lower children's tendency to name...
Article
Cross-sectional studies show that adults who grew up in conflict-ridden two-parent families or who experienced parental divorce report lower levels of psychological and marital well-being than do other adults. However, previous research has been unable to determine how parental marital conflict, divorce, and children's long-term outcomes are relate...
Article
We use longitudinal survey data from a national sample of married persons to examine how changes in gender role attitudes over an eight-year period are related to reported changes in marital quality. Structural equation models are used to estimate reciprocal relations between these variables. Our analysis indicates that when wives adopt less tradit...
Article
Using data from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of 471 parents and their adult offspring, we examined whether nontraditional gender roles and attitudes among parents are associated with later life outcomes of children. We found very little evidence that mother's participation in the labor force, father's participation in household t...
Article
Divorced individuals in India and the United States experience similar problems with economic adequacy, social support, and psychological well-being. Furthermore, the predictors of divorce adjustment are similar in both societies. However, Indian women experience more problems than Indian men; they also appear to suffer more hardship than American...

Citations

... According to some authors [6], this comparative research line generally agreed that family structure influenced children's well-being, following comparisons between traditional and separated families and emphasizing the advantages of the former over the latter [3,[7][8][9]. In this vein, Amato [10] offered a review of the evolution of marriage in America since the second half of the last century, pointing out that children raised by two happily married people of different sexes have the best chance of becoming well-adjusted and successful adults [11][12][13]. ...
... As a result of the low quality of the practices of intimacy, participants expressed their dissatisfaction and discontent. Unfair reciprocity of intimacy decreases women's selfreliability, self-esteem, and recognition, and predicts marriage instability (Amato et al., 2007;Kahneman and Krueger, 2006;Zuo, 1992). Furthermore, these findings indicate that empowering women in the masculine culture requires parallel empowerment of men to change their cognition and perception of women's worthiness (Al Shamsi and Lulu, 2001;Al Smri, 2008). ...
... According to some authors [6], this comparative research line generally agreed that family structure influenced children's well-being, following comparisons between traditional and separated families and emphasizing the advantages of the former over the latter [3,[7][8][9]. In this vein, Amato [10] offered a review of the evolution of marriage in America since the second half of the last century, pointing out that children raised by two happily married people of different sexes have the best chance of becoming well-adjusted and successful adults [11][12][13]. ...
... All of these associated factors with marital satisfaction may differ according to specific cultures or historical periods (Amato & James, 2018;Mitchell, 2016;Sorokowski et al., 2017). For example, wives' endorsement of traditional gender roles in Japanese Marriages or positive machismo beliefs in Mexican American couples were associated with higher marital satisfaction (Fuwa & Tsutsui, 2010;Pardo et al., 2012). ...
... Specifically, observations of parent emotion socialization and youth emotionality during standardized behavioral tasks can provide insight into how youth respond in various frustrating or stressful situations without biases in informant report (e.g., social desirability, retrospective memory). The advantages of using ecological momentary assessment is that it reduces retrospective memory biases and facilitates data collection in a real-world setting that cannot be created in a laboratory environment (McHale et al., 2014). ...
... The former are short-term relationships with low levels of commitment and characterize primarily young adults (Pasteels et al. 2017). The latter are long-lasting relationships that are alternatives to marriage and cohabitation, and characterize older adults (Amato and Hayes 2014). Recent studies on LAT have focused on reasons for living apart and distinguish temporary constraints, which may indicate transitory LAT, from a desire for independence, which may indicate stable LAT ( (Duncan et al. 2013;Liefbroer et al. 2015;Stoilova et al. 2014). ...
... Since the publication of their seminal work Growing Up With a Single Parent: What Hurts, What Helps, McLanahan and Sandefur's foundational work showing consistent associations between living with two married parents and positive child outcomes has been cited more than 5500 times, establishing a strong body of research demonstrating an association between certain family structures and positive child outcomes [1] (see also [2]) The effects of these family environments on children's behavior start as early as age 2 [3]. A large body of research demonstrates positive and protective effects of living with two biological parents who are married to each other, and these positive effects span to a wide variety of children's outcomes [4][5][6][7]. For example, children in biological married families tend to have fewer behavior problems compared to all other family structures [8,9], whereas children in single-parent families have more behavior problems compared to other family structures [5,[10][11][12]. ...
... Another factor that impacts substance use among adolescents is family structure. Living with both biological parents (nuclear family) acts as a protective mechanism against risk behaviors like substance use relative to other family forms such as the single parent household with nonresidential fathers (Amato & Patterson, 2017;Santrock, 2008United Nations, 2019Weitoft et al., 2003). Further, adolescents from single-parent households were more likely to report higher alcohol consumption (Amato & Patterson, 2017;Santrock, 2008;Weitoft et al., 2003) along with other substances (United Nations, 2019), when compared to adolescents from nuclear family households. ...
... Researchers might assess characteristics of these family networks (e.g., perceptions of intimacy and communication between individuals) and the extent of overlap between different household members' family networks, variables that can be used to provide additional context and nuance in subsequent analyses of individual-and family-level outcomes of interest. For additional discussion on this social network approach, see Amato (2014). ...
... Synet på skilsmisse er meget anderledes i mange etniske minoriteters oprindelseslande, hvor det kan vaere svaert for isaer kvinder at blive skilt. Både økonomiske, juridiske og sociale forhold kan stille sig hindrende i vejen, og fraskilte kvinder kan vaere meget ilde stedt (Amato 1994;Zakar, Zakar, og Krämer 2012). Forskelle i synet på skilsmisse kan også aflaeses i internationale vaerdiundersøgelser. ...