Paul J. Hartung's research while affiliated with Northeast Ohio Medical University and other places

Publications (72)

Article
Background: Cognition and reason have received substantial and inordinate attention relative to emotion and intuition in understanding and intervening to promote vocational behaviour and career development. Objectives: Towards redressing this situation, the present study examined positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) as proxies for emotion...
Article
This study investigated mentoring relationships between doctoral students and faculty members. We examined initiation of mentoring as a mediator between key personality facets and mentoring received among 162 doctoral students (females = 77%, 77% psychology programs). Results confirmed that initiation of mentoring relationships by doctoral students...
Article
My Career Story (MCS) comprises a self-guided autobiographical workbook designed to assist individuals across life’s diverse spectrum to narrate and shape their career stories. We describe the development and use of the MCS and its relevance for all people, including individuals who may be at risk for. Results of a study using the MCS with 20 emerg...
Article
We investigated the value of a three‐phase, six‐step group‐based career construction counselling intervention for prospective university students from disadvantaged backgrounds using an integrative, QUALITATIVE‐quantitative design. The participants completed measures of career adaptability and career decision‐making difficulties before and after th...
Article
Full-text available
The efficacy of a three-week career construction counselling group intervention that was structured using the My Career Story workbook [Savickas, M. L., & Hartung, P. J. (2012). My career story: An autobiographical workbook for life-career success. www.vocopher.com] was examined using a pre/post-test design. The group intervention was delivered wit...
Article
Full-text available
Background Empathy is critical for optimal patient experience with health-care providers. Verbal empathy is routinely taught to medical students, but nonverbal empathy, including touch, less so. Our objective was to determine whether instruction encouraging empathic touch and eye gaze at exit can impact behaviors and change patient-perceived empath...
Article
Purpose Medical student specialty choices have significant downstream effects on the availability of physicians and, ultimately, the effectiveness of health systems. This study investigated how medical student specialty preferences change over time in relation to their demographics and lifestyle preferences. Method Students from ten medical school...
Article
Career construction for life design aims to assist individuals across developmental age periods to anticipate and manage career transitions. We developed and implemented a group career construction intervention based on the My Career Story (MCS) workbook and compared it with a traditional career intervention for fostering life-career design among e...
Chapter
Full-text available
Human beings must adapt to survive and thrive across all domains of life. Doing so in the work domain requires career adaptability—the particular capacity to hone and use psychosocial resources necessary to make changes in self and situation for career satisfaction and success. Rooted in life-span, life-space theory, the career adaptability constru...
Article
My career story (MCS) comprises a self-guided autobiographical workbook designed to simulate career construction counseling. The MCS contains a series of questions from the Career Construction Interview to elicit a life-career story and reveal a life theme that are then related to a current career problem indicated by the workbook user. Reflecting...
Article
Theory suggests that proximal contextual variables contribute to women's underrepresentation in STEM fields. We therefore examined relationships between stereotype threat as a proximal contextual variable and academic self-efficacy. We also examined the influence of self-efficacy for coping with educational barriers on those relationships. A total...
Article
An important research need concerns identifying and describing factors that promote reflexivity and change in life-design career interventions. Career construction counseling, a primary life- design intervention, uses narrative methods in an interpersonal process of helping people design a work life through reflexive action. Using Interpersonal Pro...
Article
INTRODUCTION The Career Construction Interview (CCI) comprises a qualitative assessment method that forms a central component of career construction counselling. Career construction counselling entails an interpersonal process of helping people author career stories that connect their self-concepts to work roles, fit work into life, and make meanin...
Article
Purpose: To compare how first-year (MS1) and fourth-year students (MS4) ascribe importance to lifestyle domains and specialty characteristics in specialty selection, and compare students' ratings with their primary care (PC) interest. Method: In March 2013, MS4s from 11 U.S. MD-granting medical schools were surveyed. Using a five-point Likert-ty...
Chapter
Knowing and narrating an identity fosters life-career design. In an often tumultuous and tense world especially, individuals must be able to express their identities with clarity and conviction by saying who they are, who they are becoming, and what they find most important in work and career. The process of perceiving and proclaiming one's identit...
Article
Medical students are increasingly choosing non-primary-care specialties. Students consider lifestyle in selecting their specialty, but how entering medical students perceive lifestyle is unknown. This study investigates how first-year students value or rate lifestyle domains and specialty-selection characteristics and whether their ratings vary by...
Book
Handbook of Vocational Psychology identifies, reports, and evaluates significant developments in vocational psychology and career counseling, and in doing so provides both professional clinicians and students with an informed understanding of both the current state and continuing progress in the field. As in previous editions, the fourth edition li...
Article
Theory and prior research suggest linkages between work values and job satisfaction. The present study examined such linkages in a group of workers in a professional occupation. Family physicians (134 women, 206 men, 88% Caucasian) responded to context-specific measures of work values and job satisfaction. ANOVA results indicated a work values hier...
Article
Emotion permeates human life, yet receives little attention in career theory and intervention. Long seen as a barrier to avoid, recent conceptual and empirical work indicate that emotion benefits human behavior and development. Advances in the interdisciplinary science of emotion support examining the construct across differential, developmental, a...
Article
Full-text available
The authors conducted two studies to develop and test a short form of the 60-item Physician Values in Practice Scale (PVIPS). The PVIPS, which draws on the theory of work adjustment for its theoretical base, measures personal values specific to medical occupations. In Study 1, 217 first- and final-year medical students completed a Web-based survey....
Article
A review of the 2009 career counseling and development literature indicates that the field remains vital, vibrant, valid, and viable precisely 100 years after its founding. Using the field's 4 fundamental traditions of person-environment fit, life-span development, social cognition, and constructivism-social constructionism as lenses for considerin...
Article
Forming, pursing, and achieving life tasks constitute important determinants of subjective well-being (SWB). A principal life task for emerging adults involves deciding about career goals. Prior research indicates that depression predicts SWB and may be linked to lower levels of career decidedness. We tested whether or not career decidedness predic...
Article
Medical students' values represent an understudied area of research in medical education research. No known studies have investigated how medical students' values change over time from matriculation to graduation. Values are thought to remain relatively stable over the life course. However, little research supports this claim. Therefore, we examine...
Article
Full-text available
Individualism-collectivism (IC) constitutes a cultural variable thought to influence a wide variety of variables including career planning and decision making. To examine this possibility, college students (216 women, 106 men, 64% racial-ethnic minorities) responded to measures of IC, occupational plans, and work values. Multivariate analysis of va...
Article
Interests, personality, and values figure prominently in work motivation, yet little research has examined the combined influence of these factors on vocational behavior. The present study therefore examined relationships among these variables in a sample of 282 medical students (169 women, 113 men) who responded to the Strong Interest Inventory, N...
Article
Theory and research suggest that children develop orientations toward work appreciably influenced by their family members’ own expressed work experiences and emotions. Cross-sectional data from 100 children (53 girls, 47 boys; mean age = 11.1 years) and structural equation modeling were used to assess measures of work affectivity and experiences an...
Article
Vocational development research and interventions have focused primarily on adolescents and young adults. The lack of attention to career development antecedents in children has led to a serious neglect of this period of life when the foundation is laid for career choices and outcomes in later life. A harmful by-product is the frequent preclusion o...
Article
Childhood marks the dawn of vocational development, involving developmental tasks, transitions, and change. Children must acquire the rudiments of career adaptability to envision a future, make educational and vocational decisions, explore self and occupations, and problem solve. The authors situate child vocational development within human life sp...
Article
Full-text available
Experienced happiness and reported life contentment represent cardinal elements of subjective well-being (SWB). Achieving happiness and contentment with work and other domains, such as love, play, and community, constitute fundamental life goals. Career construction offers a developmental theory of vocational behavior and a career assessment and co...
Article
This study examined the validity of using stories to appraise career dispositions and problems associated with career adaptability. Premedical students (63 women, 37 men) wrote narratives about Thematic Apperception Test cards (TAT) and responded to the Strong Interest Inventory (SII). Independent raters identified identical career adaptability dim...
Article
Measures of values typically appraise the construct globally, across life domains or relative to a broad life domain such as work. We conducted two studies to construct and initially validate an occupation- and context-specific values measure. Study 1, based on a sample of 192 medical students, describes the initial construction and item analysis o...
Article
In this study we examine medical interview asymmetry using the expectation states approach. Physicians lead clinical interviews because of a feature inherent in those interviews, namely the status difference between doctor and patient. This power differential varies: it is greatest when the biomedical aspects of the interview are emphasized. These...
Article
The symposium International Perspectives on Career Development included a plenary session that addressed career counseling in a world of limited resources. Panelists representing diverse areas of the world shared their perspectives on career counseling in their countries and the specific problems they faced. They identified common concerns and pros...
Article
Person matching promotes career exploration and choice by linking persons to persons in occupations based on inventory profile score similarity. We examined the efficacy of the procedure for career specialty choice. Medical students (N = 196 women, 224 men) responded to the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) in their first year of trai...
Article
Date revised - 20050822, Language of summary - English, Number of references - 3, Pages - 1-3, ProQuest ID - 620842998, SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - 5603; 5611 6359; 6480, Last updated - 2012-09-10, Corporate institution author - Hartung, Paul J.; Leong, Frederick T. L., DOI - PSIN-2005-08322-001; 2005-08322-001; 0001-8791, Edwin L Herr. The futur...
Article
This study examines the reliability and validity of the relational communication scale for observational measurement (RCS-O) using a random sample of 80 videotaped interactions of medical students interviewing standardized patients (SPs). The RCS-O is a 34-item instrument designed to measure the nonverbal communication of physicians interacting wit...
Article
Childhood marks the dawn of human development. To organize, integrate, and advance knowledge about vocational development during this age period from a life-span perspective, we conducted a comprehensive review of the empirical vocational development literature that addresses early-to-late childhood. The review considers career exploration, career...
Article
Empirical research on career indecision has been criticized for lacking theoretical conceptualization. To address this problem we examined the validity of the decisional process inventory (DPI), a measure of career decision making derived from a model based in Gestalt psychotherapy theory. Undergraduate college students (91 women, 110 men) responde...
Article
Adopting a work–play framework that attends to the adaptive, self-enhancing potential of play in work and human development contributes to an enhanced conceptualization of careers, both within career theory generally and the developmental perspective on careers specifically. Such a framework also promotes investigations of the connections between t...
Article
Nearly a century ago, Frank Parsons established the Vocation Bureau in Boston and spawned the development of the counseling profession. Elaborating on Parsons's socially responsible vision for counseling, the authors examine contemporary perspectives on career decision making that include both rational and alternative models and propose that these...
Article
Career theory and practice have long emphasized person variables (e.g., abilities, needs, interests) and have only recently begun focusing on environmental variables in addressing cultural context issues. Contemporary emphasis on contextual variables reflects notable movement toward attaining cultural relevance in career theory and practice. Role s...
Article
We examined whether and how family interaction patterns relate to role salience and vocational identity in a predominantly Anglo-American college student sample (107 women, 65 men). Results indicated significant links between perceived emotional closeness and structural flexibility in the family-of-origin and higher levels of participation in, comm...
Article
This research analyzes the psychometric properties of a 34-item doctor-patient relational communication scale adapted from its survey research form [Commun Monogr 1987;54:307] for use as an observational instrument to rate doctor-patient interaction. Relational communication determines the affective "tone" of interpersonal communication, and is han...
Article
Full-text available
Adlerian vocational theory proposes that birth order, or psychological position in the family of origin, significantly influences vocational behavior. If so, appraising birth order position may be useful in a career assessment context to enrich an understanding of an individual's occupational interests, values, and vocational personality style. Two...
Article
The evolving role of work in society and the factors driving emerging trends in work were examined to assist career development practitioners in helping individuals deal with life-role balance. Donald Super's life-space theory was presented as a framework for adult career development and used as a backdrop for discussing how adults can crystallize...
Article
Full-text available
A distinct body of research literature reflects work initiated in the last decade of the 20th century to examine issues in the development and use of career assessment instruments across cultures. The authors review this literature to integrate current understandings of career assessment in cultural context and to identify potentially fruitful aven...
Chapter
Date revised - 20001220, Language of summary - English, Number of references - 55, Pages - 212-227, ProQuest ID - 619546814, PubXState - NY, SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - 2027; 2936; 5605 1913; 8289; 5185, Target audience - Psychology: Professional & Research, Last updated - 2012-09-10, docISBN - 0521640210; 052164965X, Corporate institution author...
Article
The authors examine work—family commitment and attitudes toward feminism in a cross-sectional, medical student sample (126 women, 145 men). Results indicated no significant gender differences in commitment levels. Third-year students reported significantly more family commitment than did students in lower years. Women reported significantly more po...
Article
Interprets the results of utilizing the Salience Inventory (SI) and the Values Scale (VS) with a 29-year-old female high school teacher. Describes the four steps of the Career Development Assessment and Counseling model: preview, depth-view, data assessment, and counseling. (MKA)
Article
Research to initially construct and evaluate the Decisional Process Inventory (DPI; Hartung, 1994) revealed its potential use for assessing progress and problems in career decision making (Hartung, 1995). Advancing this preliminary area of instrument research and development, we report on a study that evaluated a revised version of the measure, the...
Article
Career-Development Assessment and Counseling (C-DAC) systematically bridges career theory and practice. Integrating differential, developmental, and phenomenological methods, the C-DAC model uses a comprehensive career assessment battery to help clients explore their roles, developmental stages and tasks, career attitudes and knowledge, values, and...
Article
The Adult Career Concerns Inventory (ACCI) uses an attitudinal item-response scale to measure the planning attitudes dimension of career adaptability. This study examined the psychometric properties of the ACCI when used with a behavioral item-response scale. Results supported the hypothesized unidimensionality of the ACCI-B Exploration subscales,...
Article
Readiness for making educational and vocational choices plays a crucial role in career decision-making (Super, 1955). The present study examined (a) personality and role correlates of career choice readiness and (b) rates of change in career choice readiness measured twice over a 1-year period. A cohort of 64 high school students (28 girls, 36 boys...
Article
Full-text available
In response to the need for theoretical models to guide counseling and conceptualize career assessment with culturally different clients, the authors propose an integrative-sequential conceptual model for cross-cultural career counseling research and practice. This framework consists of five stages: (a) emergence of career and vocational problems,...
Article
This study examined whether variation on the cultural constructs of individualism–collectivism in a sample of predominantly majority culture (i.e., Anglo American) college students accounts for significant amounts of variance in their occupational choices, career plans, and work values. Participants (135 women, 55 men) responded to the “I am” sente...
Article
This article discusses multicultural counselor training and outlines strategies for infusing counseling courses with multicultural content. It also describes how a counseling theories course was transformed to infuse multicultural perspectives.
Article
First published over 15 years ago, the Career Development Inventory (CDI; Super, Thompson, Lindeman, Jordaan, & Myers, 1979) measures readiness for making educational and vocational choices and operationally defines Super's structural model of adolescent career maturity. The present article systematically analyzes the body of literature that has ev...
Article
Career counselors use occupational information to help clients make informed vocational decisions. They would therefore be likely to benefit from understanding how visual images contained in such materials depict the world of work. A review of the literature on career information, however, reveals a significant lack of study of the visual content o...
Article
The present study describes the development and an initial assessment of the psychometric properties of the Decisional Process Inventory (DPI). The DPI served as an empirical test of Gestalt therapy homeostasis theory for conceptualizing and facilitating career development and decision-making. The inventory is intended to assess career decidedness...
Article
The present study describes the development and an initial assessment of the psychometric properties of the Decisional Process Inventory (DPI). The DPI served as an empirical test of Gestalt therapy homeostasis theory for conceptualizing and facilitating career development and decision-making. The inventory is intended to assess career decidedness...
Article
_____________ Career concerns evolve as the nature of work changes. Harsh evidence exists to indicate that the nature of work is changing substantially. To call our attention to these changes, authors use such dramatic phrases as "the career has died" and "work has ended" (Bridges, 1994; Rifkin, 1995). Although such declarations are not to be taken...

Citations

... Several scholars have argued for the use of an integrated post-modern approach in career assessment and counseling that combines quantitative assessment with qualitative methodology (See Naidoo et al., 2017;Maree, 2022;Maree et al., 2022). In their qualitative + quantitative model, Maree et al. (2022) advocated that test scores are no longer used in isolation, but test scores and personal stories are integrated to promote critical self-reflection. ...
... The concepts of P-O fit and of the self are central to several classical and modern vocational theories (Hartung & Subich, 2011a; Chapter 10 of this volumne). Career theories recognize the need to understand how the self is shaped throughout the lifespan through interactions with jobs and organizations (Hartung & Subich, 2011b). However, even within the vocational literature, we could find little to guide thinking with regard to specific recruitment and selection practices. ...
... Previous studies have demonstrated that the residency preferences of matriculating medical students change by the time a final residency choice is made at the end of medical school [21,22]. Additionally, students have demonstrated a persistent tendency to categorically switch preference between primary care and surgical specialties [23][24][25][26]. Notably, a particularly worrisome finding is the degree of regret and dissatisfaction amongst residents and physicians with regard to their career choice [1,27,28]. ...
... The concern scores in the pre-test were high for both the control and experimental groups. This may be because students are strongly encouraged to consider their futures and concentrate on educational and vocational approaches which will support career development (Hartung, 2013). In Chinese high schools, students are encouraged to focus on their future careers: related slogans are everywhere on campuses, for instance. ...
... Unlike any other career theory, it uses innovations in practice to guide theory development. Derived from Adlerian psychology, a central focus is on helping clients identify life themes and make meaning, enabling social contributions to be made through work (Hartung & Vess, 2018). In contrast, the psychology of working offers "a uniquely informative lens that is well suited for addressing the challenges that confront people as they seek to find their way to a life of survival, social connection, and self-determination" (Blustein, Duffy, Kenny, Gutowski, & Diamonti, 2018, p. 153). ...
... When working on post-secondary planning, it is essential to focus on building interpersonal and adaptability skills (Santilli et al., 2019). The use of group intervention is a successful tool to accomplish such goals (Curry & Milsom, 2017;Dik et al., 2019;Hines et al., 2019;Mariani et al., 2016). ...
... As a source of human capital, adaptability consists of four career capabilities, including concern (orientation towards the future, planning, and optimism), control (self-disciplined and assertive behavior), curiosity (investigative attitude and career exploration), and confidence (sense of self-efficacy and ability to solve problem). In other words, career adaptability involves hope, responsibility, realistic exploration and self-efficacy (Hartung & Cadaret, 2017;McIlveen & Midgley, 2015;Savickas, 2013). Some evidence indicates PTG has a relationship with hope and self-efficacy too (Hullmann et al., 2014;Lotfi-Kashani et al., 2014). ...
... My Career Story (MCS) was developed out of the paradigm of career construction as a self-guided workbook with the purpose of producing a career life story (Savickas & Hartung, 2012). MCS provides reflection on various elements in one's life to explore goals in career narratability, adaptability, intentionality, and action (Hartung & Santilli, 2018). MCS empowers individuals to self-author their career life story and pathway, providing a series of questions for individuals to reflect upon to relate to one's current career problem. ...
... On the one hand, there exists evidence that females under stereotype threat make a greater effort (Jamieson & Harkins, 2009;Seitchik & Harkins, 2015) as they are motivated to combat the negative expectations about their group and worried about mistakes (Brodish & Devine, 2009;Chalabaev et al., 2012;Smith, 2006). On the other hand, it was shown that negatively stereotyped females report lower self-efficacy (Cadaret et al., 2017;Deemer et al., 2014;Spencer et al., 1999), performance expectations (Cadinu et al., 2003;Smith, 2006), interest (Smith et al., 2007) and motivation to improve their skills (Fogliati & Bussey, 2013). Considering these multiple aspects, motivational patterns under threat seem to be multifaceted and are still being discussed (for a review see Pennington et al., 2016). ...
... This work has done so because adaptability has evolved both conceptually and practically as a meta-competency for effective career construction and life design (Morrison & Hall, 2002;Rossier, 2015;Savickas, 1997Savickas, , 2012Savickas, , 2013Savickas et al., 2009). As a meta-competency alongside identity denoting intrapsychic clarity about self-inrole (Hartung & Taber, 2015;McAdams, 2001;Savickas, 2011), career adaptability involves the psychosocial capacity and skills to make changes in self and situations needed for managing tasks, transitions and traumas associated with career exploration, career choice and work adjustment. Underlying career adaptability are four dimensions: concern, control, curiosity and confidence (Savickas, 2012). ...