Paul H. Delfabbro's research while affiliated with University of Adelaide and other places

Publications (61)

Article
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The invention of blockchain technology, coupled with the growing interest in cryptocurrencies, has given rise to a new form of monetised gaming known as “Play to Earn” (PTE). “Axie Infinity” (AI) is currently the most popular PTE game, occupying a large portion of the online gaming market. In this paper, we profile the risks and benefits of PTE gam...
Article
Family reunification is an area of high policy importance for child protection systems. The safe return of children from out‐of‐home care to their biological parents or relatives and long‐term family preservation can potentially mitigate the subsequent detrimental effects of separating children from their families. In this paper we describe one typ...
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Gaming activities have conferred numerous benefits during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, some individuals may be at greater risk of problem gaming due to disruption to adaptive routines, increased anxiety and/or depression, and social isolation. This paper presents a summary of 2019–2021 service data from specialist addiction centers in Germany, S...
Chapter
Although digital media use confers many personal and social benefits, it is recognized that unrestricted and habitual use can have major negative health consequences, particularly for young people. Problematic gaming in its most serious form, for example, is recognized as an addictive disorder by the World Health Organization. In recent years, ther...
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Adolescents in out-of-home care generally have poor prospects for reunification with their birth families. However, for some adolescents in care, with deliberate support and intervention, there may opportunities for successful reunification. The Adolescent Reunification Program (ARP) is an Australian program designed to assist young people aged 12–...
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Although most people gamble safely, national prevalence rates indicate that approximately 0.2 to 1% of the Australian population experience problems with gambling. An issue that has not been extensively researched in Australia is whether the nature of gambling, and the associated harms is consistently observed across the nation. In particular, are...
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Hairdressing is one of the few non‐health professional occupations where workers physically interact with clients, who are often comfortable in confiding private information to them. Despite this, relatively little is known about how hairdressers understand and experience this role as informal confidants. This study aimed to address this using an i...
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Background and aims: Previous studies have reported that stronger avatar identification and negative self-concept are associated with gaming disorder (GD). This study aimed to examine the value and significance of avatars based on firsthand accounts from regular and problematic gamers, and to identify any potential links between avatar-related exp...
Article
This systematic review synthesized current knowledge about the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among young people known to have offended and examined evidence of associations between ACEs, trauma symptoms, and offending behavior. A systematic search of English-language, peer-reviewed studies published from the year 2000 onwards w...
Article
Organisations and security professionals design Security Education, Training, and Awareness (SETA) programs to improve cybersecurity behaviour, but they are often poorly received by employees. To understand employee negative perceptions of SETA programs, we conducted in-depth interviews with 20 Australian employees regarding their experiences with...
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Psychosocial problems arising from excessive gaming are a public health issue across the developed world. In its most serious form, problematic gaming is recognized as gaming disorder (GD) in the ICD-11. Research has tended to focus on the value of outpatient treatment for GD, but less attention has been paid to broader prevention strategies to add...
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Cybersecurity fatigue is a form of work disengagement specific to cybersecurity. It manifests as a weariness or aversion to cybersecurity-related workplace behaviors or advice and occurs as a result of prior overexposure to cybersecurity-related work demands or training. While some previous theoretical conceptualizations of cybersecurity fatigue ar...
Article
Public attitudes toward gambling have important implications for people’s engagement in the activity and receptivity to regulatory reforms. Such views are likely, however, to be influenced by variations in market conditions, perceptions of regulations and personal exposure to gambling. This article examines whether differences in gambling attitudes...
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Volatility refers to the variability of bet outcomes in gambling and has been recognized as a potentially important influence on behavior. The research literature has developed competing ideas for how different behavioral responses to volatility might influence player risk. However, few empirical studies have investigated how volatility influences...
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Some video-gaming activities feature customizable avatars that enable users to fulfil self-identity needs. Research evidence (e.g., fMRI and survey studies) has suggested that poorer self-concept and stronger avatar identification are associated with problematic gaming. Player-avatar relationships have thus been proposed to require attention in gam...
Article
Pre-commitment and limit-setting schemes have been widely discussed as potentially useful responsible gambling tools to minimize the financial harm associated with excessive gambling. Such systems allow gamblers to set time or monetary limits and can be implemented in a voluntary or mandatory form. Previous reviews have suggested that these technol...
Article
A significant international child protection issue is the gradual increase in the number of children in statutory out-of-home care (OOHC). This has led to strong policy interest in family reunification or family restoration; however, dedicated reunification programs that aim to reunify children who have been in care longer-term appear to be rare. I...
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Most public surveys indicate that people generally hold negative attitudes toward gambling which is considered harmful, too prevalent and not sufficiently regulated by the authorities. Despite this, reported past-year adult participation rates are often 70% or higher. In this paper, we conduct a narrative review of major studies of public attitudes...
Article
The concept of self has become increasingly relevant to understanding the psychological mechanisms of problematic online gaming. Many gaming activities feature in-game avatars that enable the adoption of, and experimentation with, different roles and identities. Avatars enable players to compensate for perceived deficiencies in their real-world sel...
Article
Background The introduction of an adult onset Separation Anxiety Disorder in the DSM-V recognises that separation anxiety can occur at any stage across the lifespan. In this paper, we examine whether adult separation anxiety, which is known to occur when people are apart from other people close to them, can also develop when people are separated fr...
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The inclusion of gaming disorder (GD) as an official diagnosis in the ICD-11 was a significant milestone for the field. However, the optimal measurement approaches for GD are currently unclear. This comprehensive systematic review aimed to identify and evaluate all available English-language GD tools and their corresponding evidence. A search of Ps...
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Aim Critics of gaming disorder (GD; i.e., Internet gaming disorder in the DSM-5; Gaming disorder in the ICD-11) have expressed concerns about the potential risks of misclassification (e.g., false positives). An important consideration of relevance to this discussion is the extent to which commonly used screening instruments contain appropriate, sen...
Article
A recent innovation contributing to the massive growth and profitability of the gaming industry has been the development of in-game monetisation. In-game purchasing features (e.g. ‘loot boxes’, ‘skins’, and other microtransactions) have also generated debate in some jurisdictions as to whether some activities constitute a form of gambling. This bri...
Article
Background & aims: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with high psychosocial burden and economic cost. Integrating psychological care into routine management might lead to savings. We performed a 2-year investigation of the effects of integrated psychological care in reducing healthcare use and costs. Methods: We performed a prospe...
Article
Monetized video games have received academic and regulatory scrutiny following concerns that these products may foster addiction-like behaviors, including compulsive spending. Previous studies have reported that individuals with markedly higher in-game financial expenditure are more likely to endorse symptoms of addictive behavior (i.e., gaming or...
Chapter
This chapter examines the nature and prevalence of adolescent gambling, its social and psychological correlates, and the extent to which gambling can contribute to problematic behavior and harm. Adult gambling patterns are often established during the teenage years and this is particularly true for boys. Some young people display many of the behavi...
Chapter
There is growing recognition that unrestricted screen time, particularly in younger people, can lead to harm and that gaming can be highly time-consuming and addictive for some vulnerable individuals. These developments have led to the recognition of gaming disorder (GD)—sometimes termed “video game addiction”—a disorder characterized by persistent...
Chapter
The extent to which young people engage in addictive behaviors, how they are affected, and whether they receive appropriate assistance has a broader social and political context. Drug policies in particular are highly political; such policies can change very quickly and are becoming highly variable around the world. It is useful to examine how broa...
Chapter
This chapter provides an introduction to gaming disorder (GD), also known as ‘video game addiction’, which is an acquired addictive disorder officially recognized in the ICD-11. Gaming disorder is also listed as a condition for further study in the DSM-5. Gaming disorder refers to persistent or recurrent gaming behaviour, characterized by impaired...
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Video games as a consumer product have changed significantly with the advent of in-game purchasing systems (e.g., microtransactions, ‘loot boxes’). This review examines consumer protections related to in-game purchasing by anticipating some of the potential design strategies that might contribute to higher risk consumer behavior. Attention was dire...
Article
While certain player vulnerabilities are known to increase risk of gaming disorder (GD), the topic of maladaptive player × game relationships in GD has received limited attention. This review aimed to: (1) identify game types associated with GD symptomatology; and (2) evaluate individual differences (e.g., age, personality, depression) in the relat...
Chapter
This chapter examines how academics working in the field of gambling studies understand the concept of responsible gambling (RG). The authors begin with a discussion of the concept, theory, and objectives underpinning RG. They discuss the varying definitions of RG and how it has been featured in recent applications of public health theory in the ga...
Article
Background and aims: Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with psychosocial issues which reduce quality of life and impair medical management. However, these issues are rarely addressed in routine care. A model of integrated psychological screening and intervention was trialled to measure prevalence, patient participation, and potential benefi...
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Video games are becoming increasingly monetized with the addition of in-game purchasing options, which has prompted some comparisons of these products to electronic gaming machines. The expansion and sophistication of ‘microtransaction’ options in online games (e.g., ‘loot boxes’) has also led to concerns about vulnerable users (e.g., adolescents)...
Article
To reduce the threat caused by phishing attacks, it is vital to investigate why some phishing attacks are successful, and why some people are more susceptible to them than others. To examine this, we used a social influence framework, and applied the Susceptibility to Persuasion Strategies scale within a dual-process model of persuasion framework....
Article
Objective While there is sufficient research and clinical evidence to support the inclusion of gaming disorder in the latest revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD‐11), relatively little is known about the effectiveness of first‐line psychological treatment for gaming disorder or Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as it is listed...
Article
There is now convincing evidence that childhood maltreatment is associated with youth offending; however, relatively little is known about the characteristics and needs of those who are involved in both the child protection and youth justice systems, and the extent to which these might differ according to level of child protection involvement. This...
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Predatory monetization schemes (e.g., 'loot boxes') in video games are purchasing systems that disguise or withhold the long-term cost of the activity until players are already financially and psychologically committed. Such schemes contribute to the increasing similarity of gaming and gambling and the potential for financial harm for those with In...
Article
Adolescents who engage in habitual digital gaming activities may be at risk of gaming disorder. Regular periods of gaming abstinence may reduce gaming urges and control gaming at healthy levels. This study examined the impact of 84-hour gaming abstinence on withdrawal, affect, and psychological distress in adolescent habitual gamers. A two (Group:...
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Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a proposed condition that refers to persistent gaming leading to clinically significant impairment. However, there have been few attempts to study the different types and degrees of harm caused by IGD. This commentary describes some of the negative intrapersonal and interpersonal effects of an extreme time investme...
Article
Anecdotal evidence indicates that supplementation with vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) before bed can enhance dream vividness and recall. In a single pilot study, Ebben, Lequerica, and Spielman (2002) found that vitamin B6 had a dose-dependent effect of increasing scores on a composite measure of dream vividness, bizarreness, emotionality, and color. The p...
Article
Research into the effectiveness of interventions for problematic gaming has been limited by a lack of data concerning the clinical characteristics of voluntary treatment-seekers; the nature and history of their gaming problems; and, their reasons for seeking help. The study aimed to identify variables predictive of short-term commitment to gaming a...
Article
Background and aims The criterion of tolerance in DSM-5 Internet gaming disorder (IGD) refers to a need for increasing time spent gaming. However, this focus on “need for gaming time” may overlook some of the broader motivations, outcomes, or effects of gaming that underlie excessive play. This study aimed to explore regular and problematic gamers’...
Article
Tolerance in DSM-5 Internet gaming disorder (IGD) refers to a need for increasing time spent in gaming activities. However, the focus on ‘time’ has been criticized for being a superficial imitation of tolerance in substance-based addiction. Gaming tolerance may require a broader conceptualization of its motivational and cognitive features. The pres...
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Background and aims Familial influences are known to affect the likelihood of an adolescent becoming a problem gamer. This systematic review examined some of the key findings in empirical research on family factors related to adolescent problem gaming. Methods A total of 14 studies in the past decade were evaluated. Family-related variables includ...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to extend the external validity of an earlier longitudinal study of school leavers by including participants from a representative sample of secondary schools. Questionnaires were administered annually to a sample of South Australian school leavers over a 10-year period. At Time 1 participants were in the last c...

Citations

... This is concordant with our clinical observations. Patients seeking treatment for online video gaming addiction often declare negative consequences being the triggering factor for seeking help, and they often report important intolerance to boredom and a very negative inner experience of it [62,63]. ...
... Third, due to the self-report nature of the study, participants may be less likely to report negative associations characterised by IGD, therefore skewing the data to align with social desirability bias (Jeong et al. 2018). Regardless, the presence of the negative association in contention with literature emphasises the need for a better understanding of the interaction between the Proteus Effect and IGD symptoms, particularly across a variety of gaming genres (Green et al. 2021b). ...
... The letter by Galanis et al. [1] discusses an important topic within the Gaming Disorder (GD) field, namely its relationship with possible stigma. Although we agree with many views expressed, we argue that they proposed a 'glass half empty' perspective because the authors offered a relatively narrow focus regarding future research in the field. ...
... However, there is limited empirical evidence to demonstrate causal associations between ACEs, trauma and offending. In fact, a recent systematic review by Malvaso et al. (2021) concluded that, although up to 90 percent of justice-involved young people will report exposure to traumatic events, the pooled mean score across 40 studies that specifically assessed post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) shows that, on average, these young people will fall short of the diagnostic cut-off for mild PTSD. It is apparent that not every young person who experiences adversity will be 'traumatised' and that not all of those who experience trauma symptomatology will go on to offend. ...
... It is also likely that both advice and action simultaneously can fatigue employees, requiring cyber security managers to address both. Figure 2 provides a summary of the four components with concrete illustrations of each taken from employee sentiments recorded as part of this project (Reeves et al., 2020a). ...
... Until now, the mainstream view considers excessive and uncontrollable gaming behavior as an addictive disorder (namely, GD). Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to GD (5,6) and often experience a series of negative consequences, including low self-esteem, intense negative mood states (e.g., sadness, irritability, and boredom) (7), relationship conflicts, and problems at work or school (8)(9)(10)(11). ...
... Many organisations have implemented an information security programme consisting of formal, informal, and technological controls to mitigate risk exposure (Whitman and Mattord 2017). However, a key challenge is poor employee engagement with the security programme (Reeves et al. 2021). Terms such as 'the weakest link' and 'the enemy within' have been used to describe employees/users given their propensity to engage in risky security behaviour (Bélanger et al. 2017;Crossler et al. 2013;Agudelo-Serna et al. 2015;Abdul Molok et al. 2018). ...
... The current study examined a sample of university students in four different countries: Australia, Canada, Croatia and Israel. Two of these countries (Australia and Canada) have mature liberalized gambling markets; Croatia has a more recently liberalized gambling market that has experienced recent rapid growth; and, Israel is a country with relatively stricter gambling legislation which encourages more negative attitudes towards gambling as an acceptable past-time (Delfabbro et al., 2021;Gavriel-Fried, 2015). The first aim was to examine international differences in the stigma associated with problem gambling; in particular, the level of contempt and ostracism directed towards problem gamblers as perceived by samples of young people in similar age cohort (18-30 years) with similar educational backgrounds. ...
... Generally, the measures in question were used by a relatively small proportion of the gamblers. This is in line with other studies, reporting that only a minority of gamblers actively use tools to regulate their gambling behaviours (e.g., to set money limits) (25). The most used measure was to set limits for affordable amounts. ...
... Third, extraversion may have different predictive pathways for different subtypes of internet addiction that were not distinguished in this study. For example, a study on game avatars suggested individuals' avatar identification could predict problem gaming through self-concept clarity [62]. From this perspective, self-identity integration may be a predictor of internet gaming disorder in the model. ...