Paul Curzon's research while affiliated with Queen Mary, University of London and other places

Publications (199)

Chapter
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, that can lead to joint damage but also affects quality of life (QoL) including aspects such as self-esteem, fatigue, and mood. Current medical management focuses on the fluctuating disease activity to prevent progressive disability, but practical constraints mean periodic clini...
Article
Teachers in England are required to ensure that learners from the age of five are taught about algorithms and program design. Yet, there is evidence that despite teachers reporting that design is important, they are not converting this into classroom practice. This paper describes a survey study, in which we explored teachers’ difficulties in using...
Conference Paper
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We explore how Legitimation Code Theory, and, in particular, semantic waves, provides a useful way to understand what makes unplugged computing activities effective (or not) in the classroom. We overview the theory, discuss how it applies to unplugged activities , and describe a case study where we apply it to a specific, widely used, unplugged act...
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The Cambridge Handbook of Computing Education Research - edited by Sally A. Fincher February 2019
Conference Paper
K-5 teachers teach a range of subjects & develop generic teaching skills; when starting to teach computing, particularly programming, practitioners may not realise that they can draw on these other skills to support their teaching. In a small study of K-5 teachers, potential synergies were suggested between using planning in the the teaching of wri...
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Computer arbeiten exakt ihre Programme ab, machen also genau das, was die Anweisungen von ihnen verlangen. Funktioniert unser Gehirn wie ein Computer? Sind wir logisch? Können wir unsere Pläne genauso präzise befolgen, wie es ein Computer tut? Nein, denn die Leistungsfähigkeit unseres Gehirns ist begrenzt und deshalb greift es oft zu „kreativen Lös...
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Die Bedeutung von Gittern und auf diesen basierenden Spielen ist heute kaum mehr zu unterschätzen. Gitter bilden nicht nur die Basis vieler Brettspiele, sondern sind auch für Computeranwendungen wichtig, etwa um Bilder darzustellen. Und ein auf einem Gitter basierendes Spiel über das Leben führte sogar zu einer ganz neuen Methode, wie man mit Compu...
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Computertechnologie und Computational Thinking haben heute erheblichen Einfluss auf das moderne Gesundheitswesen. Die Grundlagen dafür legten Mathematiker und Wissenschaftler sowie Informatiker und Elektroingenieure, die Algorithmen und die Elektronik geschaffen und so die wissenschaftlichen und mathematischen Erkenntnisse in lebensrettende Technol...
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Wie lösen wir Logikrätsel? Logisches Denken ist bei Rätseln offensichtlich sehr wichtig, aber Verallgemeinerung und Mustererkennung sind die eigentlichen Werkzeuge der Könner. Sie werden genutzt, wenn man Rätsel lösen oder Informatik betreiben will, aber auch bei vielen anderen Gelegenheiten, angefangen vom Schachspiel bis hin zur Feuerbekämpfung....
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Die Fähigkeiten, die Sie benötigen, um ein großer Zauberkünstler zu werden und um selbst Zaubertricks zu erfinden, sind dieselben, die auch ein guter Informatiker benötigt: Computational Thinking. Denn Zaubertricks bestehen genau wie Computerprogramme aus Algorithmen. Als Computer früher nach Daten suchten, bedienten sie sich eigentlich eines Zaube...
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Mustererkennung ist der eigentliche Kern des Computational Thinking, und Muster gibt es überall. Informatiker sollten sehr gut darin sein, Muster zu erkennen, aber sie müssen auch Algorithmen finden, die mit Mustern umgehen können. Wir werden die Ideen dahinter besser verstehen, wenn wir uns die Mustererkennungsalgorithmen in den Tricks von Magiern...
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Wie muss sich ein Springer im Schachspiel bewegen, um jedes Feld auf einem Spielbrett genau einmal zu besuchen? Können Sie den perfekten Weg für die Tour eines Stadtführers finden und eine Touristeninformation bei der Planung eines Stadtspaziergangs beraten? Ach ja, und auch noch dem Touristen beim Packen helfen?
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Seit etwa 40 Jahren lesen wir Bücher über Mathematik, Zauberei und Informatik, daher folgt hier einiges von dem, was wir geschrieben haben, und einiges, was uns im Laufe unseres Lebens inspiriert hat.
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Wir haben nun viele Beispiele für Computational Thinking und seine Anwendungen kennengelernt und Ihnen hoffentlich eine grundlegende Vorstellung davon vermittelt, um was es dabei geht und wie die verschiedenen Elemente, wie Abstraktion und algorithmisches Denken zusammenspielen, sodass sie eine leistungsfähige Methode ergeben, mit der wir Probleme...
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Computational Thinking ist eine zentrale Fähigkeit, die Informatiker erlernen und dann verwenden, um Probleme zu lösen. Sie ist derart wichtig, dass in vielen Ländern erwogen wird, bereits Schülerinnen und Schüler darin zu unterrichten. Doch worum handelt es sich dabei eigentlich?
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Nun kennen wir die Grundlagen des Computational Thinking. Und jetzt wollen wir erkunden, wie man damit Gehirne für Roboter entwerfen kann. Den Körper eines Roboters zu bauen mag Spaß machen, doch was ist schon ein Körper ohne Verstand.
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Wir kennen nun das Prinzip, wie man ein Gehirn oder einen Chatbot entwickeln kann, und haben festgestellt, dass einige Chatbots auf die dunkle Seite des Computerimperiums gewechselt sind. Jetzt wollen wir dies in der Praxis nachvollziehen. Es wird Zeit herauszufinden, wie man ein einfaches Robotergehirn baut, das in der Lage ist, Menschen hereinzul...
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Statt des Versuchs, gleich ein komplexes Gehirn zu bauen, werden wir mithilfe von Computational Thinking ein einfaches Modell davon aus seinen Grundbestandteilen entwickeln. Dadurch verstehen wir, wie unsere Gehirne, die aus vielen verknüpften Nervenzellen bestehen, tatsächlich funktionieren und wie dies zu den komplexen Verhaltensweisen des Mensch...
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Eine der schlimmsten Krankheiten, die man sich vorstellen kann, ist das Locked-in-Syndrom. Man ist vollständig gelähmt und kann höchstens mit den Augen blinzeln. Der wache Verstand ist in einem nutzlosen Körper eingesperrt, der zwar in der Lage ist, alles wahrzunehmen, aber nicht kommunizieren kann.
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Full-text available
Research indicates that understanding levels of abstraction (LOA) and being able to move between the levels is essential to programming success. For K-5 contexts we rename the LOA levels: problem, design, code and running the code. In our qualitative exploratory study, we interviewed five K-5 teachers on their uses of LOA, particularly the design l...
Book
In diesem Buch lernen Sie die Grundzüge und Vorteile des Computational Thinking kennen, also des analytischen, von Algorithmen geprägten Denkens. Die Autoren behandeln dabei unterhaltsam und anwendungsbezogen die Grundelemente dieser Denkweise - darunter Denken in Algorithmen, Zerlegung, Abstraktion und Mustererkennung. Diese Prinzipien werden ansc...
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Organisational competence in Human Factors and UX (user experience) has not been looked at before despite its relevance to project success. We define organisational competence as the collective competence of the individuals, bringing together their complementary abilities to deliver an outcome that is typically more than the sum of its parts. Twent...
Conference Paper
Recent research with middle school and university students highlights two factors that contribute to programming success: 1) understanding the level of abstraction that you are working at, and 2) being able to move between levels. In this qualitative study we explored levels of abstraction, and particularly the design level, with five K-5 teachers....
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Full-text available
Clinical incident reporting provides opportunities for organisational learning, ideally leading to improved patient safety. However, this process requires healthcare professionals to record experiences where patients were harmed, or had the potential to be harmed. It also requires others to interpret the language used in order to make recommendatio...
Conference Paper
One way of contributing to a demonstration that a medical device is acceptably safe is to show that the device satisfies a set of requirements known to mitigate hazards. This paper describes experience using formal techniques to model an IV infusion device and to prove that the modelled device captures a set of requirements. The requirements chosen...
Conference Paper
We have used formal methods technology to investigate software and user interface design issues that may induce use error in medical devices. Our approach is based on mathematical models that capture safety concerns related to the use of a device. We analysed nine commercial medical devices from six manufacturers with our approach, and precisely id...
Article
Full-text available
One part of demonstrating that a device is acceptably safe, often required by regulatory standards, is to show that it satisfies a set of requirements known to mitigate hazards. This paper is concerned with how to demonstrate that a user interface software design is compliant with use-related safety requirements. A methodology is presented based on...
Chapter
We overview our research on the formal modelling of user behaviour, generic user modelling, as a form of usability evaluation looking for design flaws that lead to systematic human error. This involves formalising principles of cognitively plausible behaviour. We combine a user model with a device model so that the actions of the user model are the...
Chapter
This chapter explores a layered approach to the analysis of the Nuclear Power Plant Control System described in Chap. 4. A model is specified to allow the analysis of use-centred properties based on generic templates. User interface properties include the visibility of state attributes, the clarity of the mode structure and the ease with which an a...
Conference Paper
In popularizing computational thinking, Wing notes that 'abstraction is described as underlying computational thinking and computational thinking is described as fundamental to computing.' Emerging curricular now require educators to incorporate computational thinking and abstraction into their teaching. Many refer to Piaget's work as evidence of a...
Conference Paper
The paper describes a model that includes an explicit description of the information resources that are assumed to guide use, enabling a focus on properties of "plausible interactions". The information resources supported by an interactive system should be designed to encourage the correct use of the system. These resources signpost a user's intera...
Chapter
When describing criteria for the acceptable safety of systems, it is common practice for the regulator to provide safety requirements that should be satisfied by the system. These requirements are typically described precisely but in natural language and it is often unclear how the regulator can be assured that the given requirements are satisfied....
Article
Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) is a relatively new method that has been proposed to explore how functional variability can escalate into unexpected, and often unwanted, events. It has been used for accident analyses and risk assessments in safety. We apply (and slightly modify) FRAM, to analyse how functions are configured to create sy...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper briefly describes how property templates have been used to analyse and explore the interactive behaviour of a specific medical device (an IV infusion pump). It is proposed that interactive devices that satisfy properties based on the templates are easier and safer to use. The property templates act as heuristics for the development of su...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Interacting with numbers is a core part of using many interactive computer systems from the remote controls of electronic media appliances to user interfaces of high-integrity systems such as medical devices. Number entry systems are widely used on mobile devices. A wide variety of different user interface designs exist for interacting with numbers...
Conference Paper
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PVSio-web is a graphical environment for facilitating the design and evaluation of interactive (human-computer) systems. Using PVSio-web, one can generate and evaluate realistic interactive prototypes from formal models. PVSio-web has been successfully used over the last two years for analyzing commercial, safety-critical medical devices. It has be...
Conference Paper
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Integrated clinical environments (ICEs) consist of interoperable medical devices that seamlessly exchange data and commands to create safety interlocks and closed loop controls to improve the quality of care delivered to the patient. Currently at the prototype stage, they promise to form the basis of a new generation of healthcare systems for high...
Article
In-car route guidance is automatic, requiring a minimum of time and thinking. This paper explores the use of personalised information when providing instructions for navigating a journey. We focus on older women with a lifetime of experience. Ten female participants were interviewed to elicit their comfort zone with respect to navigating in a car f...
Conference Paper
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In this paper we present a case study of media reporting about medical technology issues. We discuss two incidents involving human error with medical devices that resulted in infant deaths, and their relevance for the medical device design and mobile health communities. Our analysis into the language and discourses of news reporting shows that the...
Conference Paper
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Interactive medical devices such as infusion pumps, monitors and diagnostic devices help save lives. However, they are also safety critical in that they may fail in use and patient harm or death ensue. It is not just that the software and hardware should meet their specification. The design should help ensure users do not make mistakes. Safety fact...
Conference Paper
A hazard is a potential source of physical injury or damage to people or environment, and a hazard analysis is the process of identifying all known and foreseeable hazards and their causes in a system. In this paper, we illustrate our ongoing work in collaboration with the FDA on defining a hazard analysis technique for early identification of the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Use errors, where medical devices work to specification but lead to the clinicians making mistakes resulting in patient harm, is a critical problem. Manufacturers need tools to help them find such design flaws at an early stage and regulators need tools to help check devices are safe to approve for market. We have developed a prototyping tool, PVSi...
Conference Paper
We present a case study of how research can influence practice in the procurement of healthcare technology based on the CHI+MED project. CHI+MED is concerned with interaction design and the safety of medical devices. It has combined scientific research on underlying human error, and the development of engineering tools and techniques based on this...
Article
Medical devices are becoming more interconnected and complex, and are increasingly supported by fragmented organizational systems, e.g. through different processes, committees, supporting staff and training regimes. Distributed Cognition has been proposed as a framework for understanding the design and use of medical devices. However, it is not cle...
Conference Paper
Many countries are introducing new school computing syllabuses that make programming and computational thinking core components. However, many of the teachers involved have major knowledge, skill and pedagogy gaps. We have explored the effectiveness of using 'unplugged' methods (constructivist, often kinaesthetic, activities away from computers) wi...
Conference Paper
There is a widely accepted need for methodologies to verify the security of services. A typical service requires user data and then makes them available through the Internet independently from access platforms or user locations, but the layman is rarely aware of the entailed risks and seldom acts cautiously. The combined human-and-technology system...
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There is relatively little guidance on the situated ergonomic assessment of medical devices, and few case studies that detail this type of evaluation. This paper reports results of a detailed case study that focuses on the design and use of a modern blood glucose meter on an oncology ward. We spent approximately 150 h in-situ, over 11 days and 4 ni...
Article
Computational thinking sits at the heart of the new statutory programme of study for Computing: “A high quality computing education equips pupils to use computational thinking and creativity to understand and change the world” (Department for Education, 2013, p. 188). This document aims to support teachers to teach computational thinking. It descri...
Conference Paper
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An approach to integrating PVS executable specifications and Stateflow models is presented that uses web services to enable a seamless exchange of simulation events and data between PVS and Stateflow. Thus, it allows the wide range of applications developed in Stateflow to benefit from the rigor of PVS verification. The effectiveness of the approac...
Conference Paper
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This paper discusses empathy when researching errors with interactive medical devices. Medical professionals who have made errors when using these devices can be seen as 'second victims' who are working within a culture that is quick to assign blame. We suggest a number of strategies for employing empathy when researching medical error, devices, an...
Conference Paper
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We present a formal verification approach for detecting design issues related to user interaction, with a focus on user interface of medical devices. The approach makes a novel use of configuration diagrams proposed by Rushby to formally verify important human factors properties of user interface implementation. In particular, its first translates...
Conference Paper
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This paper presents a generic infusion pump user interface (GIP-UI) architecture that intends to capture the common characteristics and functionalities of interactive software incorporated in broad classes of infusion pumps. It is designed to facilitate the identification of use hazards and their causes in infusion pump designs. This architecture c...
Technical Report
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The use of critical information is ubiquitous in today’s world, and often distributed across multiple participants of a socio-technical work-system. However, incidents sometimes unfortunately happen, because the dual constraints of using correct, and consistent information were not fully satisfied. To support investigation, and learning from such i...
Article
This paper describes the use of an automated theorem prover to analyse properties of interactive behaviour. It offers an alternative to model checking for the analysis of interactive systems. There are situations, for example when demonstrating safety, in which alternative complementary analyses provide assurance to the regulator. The rigour and de...
Article
It is common practice in the description of criteria for the acceptable safety of systems for the regulator to describe safety requirements that should be satisfied by the system. These requirements are typically described precisely but in natural language and it is often unclear how the regulator can be assured that the given requirements are sati...
Article
We present PVSio-web which extends the simulation component of the PVS proof system with functionalities for rapid prototyping device user interfaces. The tool presents itself as a classic image-editing environment with functionalities such as area selection and hyperlink creation, thus reducing the barriers that prevent non-experts in formal metho...
Article
'Computer Science for Fun' (cs4fn) is a public engagement project aiming to both enthuse school students about inter-disciplinary computer science and support computing teachers. It started in 2005, with cs4fn resources now widely used in UK schools as well as internationally. We overview the approach cs4fn has used to inspire students and teachers...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A realistic user interface is rigorously developed for the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Generic Patient Controlled Analgesia (GPCA) pump prototype. The GPCA pump prototype is intended as a realistic workbench for trialling development methods and techniques for improving the safety of such devices. A model-based approach based on the use o...
Article
The design of a human–computer interactive system can be unacceptable for a range of reasons. User performance concerns, for example the likelihood of user errors and time needed for a user to complete tasks, are important areas of consideration. For safety-critical systems it is vital that tools are available to support the analysis of such proper...
Conference Paper
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It is widely agreed that there is a need to excite more school students about computing. Considering teachers' views about student engagement is important to securing their support for any solution. We therefore present the results of a qualitative, questionnaire-based study on teachers' perceptions of the best ways to make the subject interesting....
Conference Paper
Medical device regulators such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) aim to make sure that medical devices are reasonably safe before entering the market. To expedite the approval process and make it more uniform and rigorous, regulators are considering the development of reference models that encapsulate safety requirements against which so...
Conference Paper
Medical device regulators such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) aim to make sure that medical devices are reasonably safe before entering the market. To expedite the approval process and make it more uniform and rigorous, regulators are considering the development of reference models that encapsulate safety requirements against which so...
Conference Paper
It is well known that human error in the use of interactive devices can have severe safety or business consequences. It is important therefore that aspects of the design that compromise the usability of a device can be predicted before deployment. A range of techniques have been developed for identifying potential usability problems including labor...
Article
Investigations into incidents are an important means of improving the safety and security of sociotechnical systems. Numerous models and approaches have been proposed, but little research has been done to understand the link between such theories and their practice in actual investigation. We propose an analytical framing of this link to facilitate...
Article
The rigorous analysis of socio-technical systems is challenging, because people are inherent parts of the system, together with devices and artefacts. In this paper, we report on the use of PVS as a way of analysing such systems in terms of distributed cognition. Distributed cognition is a conceptual framework that allows us to derive insights abou...
Article
A demonstration is presented of how automated reasoning tools can be used to check the predictability of a user interface. Predictability concerns the ability of a user to determine the outcomes of their actions reliably. It is especially important in situations such as a hospital ward where medical devices are assumed to be reliable devices by the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Participatory design research is often used in work involving older people who are using digital technology. This type of research typically opens up both the researcher and the participant to vulnerabilities in the process. We discuss these issues of vulnerability as it relates to our current study using a local running group as platform for suppo...
Conference Paper
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Games have been used as a tool to introduce older people to digital technology. Here we are developing a gameful system to facilitate the social interactions between older people and young adults in a community run club. We discuss opportunities for gamification as it relates to our current study using a local running group as platform for supporti...
Conference Paper
You've been asked to talk to an elementary or high school class about Computer Science, but how can you ensure that the talk is engaging? Or perhaps you're trying to introduce a concept from Computer Science to a school group, but you want a fun way to get the class engaged. This workshop is a hands-on introduction to Computer Science Unplugged (ww...
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Full-text available
A formal verification approach is presented for identifying interaction design issues in software for medical device user interfaces. It is based on theorem proving, but utilizes a combination of formal verification tools and testing. The approach starts with a translation of software source code into a formal model. Property templates formalizing...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A major challenge facing secondary schools is to encourage students to take computing courses. One approach is to invite external speakers from universities or industry to give lectures. The cs4fn project, a large UK-based initiative to enthuse students about computer science, includes this approach. Speakers from Queen Mary, University of London,...
Conference Paper
This paper reports the lessons learnt about the benefits of using a formal verification tool like PVS to support field studies. The presentation is based on a field study in the healthcare domain which was designed to investigate the resilience of human behaviour in an oncology ward of a hospital. The automated reasoning tool PVS was used systemati...
Conference Paper
Differential formal analysis is a new user interface analytic evaluation method based on stochastic user simulation. The method is particularly valuable for evaluating safety critical user interfaces, which often have subtle programming issues. The approach starts with the identification of operational design features that define the design space t...