Paul C. Banko's research while affiliated with United States Geological Survey and other places

Publications (76)

Article
Effective species management and conservation require knowledge of species distribution and status. We used point‐transect distance sampling surveys of the endangered palila (Loxioides bailleui), a honeycreeper currently found only on the Island of Hawai'i, USA, to generate robust estimates of total abundance and simultaneously model the distributi...
Article
Full-text available
Landbird populations on Tinian Island have been periodically surveyed since 1982 to evaluate the status of non-native and native landbirds. We report the results of surveys in 2013 and the observed changes during 31 years in species population trends based on surveys since 1982. A total of 11 native and 3 non-native species were detected during the...
Article
Full-text available
Outbreaks of defoliating insects in low‐diversity tropical forests occur infrequently but provide valuable insights about outbreak ecology in temperate environments and in general. We investigated an extensive outbreak of the endemic koa moth (Scotorythra paludicola), which defoliated endemic koa trees (Acacia koa) over a third of their range on Ha...
Article
Testing how plant restoration influences animal taxonomic and functional diversity can shift restoration projects beyond mainly plant community considerations. We incorporated multi-trophic interactions into restoration by describing an ongoing functional trait-based restoration experiment in Hawaiian lowland tropical wet forest (Liko Nā Pilina Exp...
Article
Full-text available
In Hawaii and other oceanic islands with few native land mammals, black rats (Rattus rattus) are among the most damaging invasive vertebrate species to native forest bird populations and habitats, due to their arboreal behavior and generalist foraging habits and habitat use. We evaluated the nesting response of Hawaii Elepaio (Chasiempis sandwichen...
Data
Rat capture. A summary of rat captures during Fall 2016 and Spring 2017 trapping periods is provided in a Microsoft Excel file titled S2 Data. (XLSX)
Data
Hau kuahiwi (Hibiscadelphus giffardianus) with damaged petals and calyx, as is often observed after rat activity. (TIF)
Data
Hau kuahiwi (Hibiscadelphus giffardianus) flower and calyx. (TIF)
Data
Hau kuahiwi fruit retention and seedling recruitment. Monthly data on fruit retention and recruitment of hau kuahiwi (Hibiscadelphus giffardianus) in Kīpuka Puaulu and Kīpuka Kī from October 2016 through May 2017 (fruit) and August 2017 (recruitment) are contained in a Microsoft Excel file titled S1 Data. (XLSX)
Article
Full-text available
Biological invasions of rodents and other species have been especially problematic on tropical islands. Invasive Rattus rattus consumption of Hibiscadelphus giffardianus (Malvaceae; common Hawaiian name hau kuahiwi) fruit and seeds has been hypothesized to be the most-limiting factor inhibiting the critically endangered tree, but this has not been...
Data
Immature hau kuahiwi (Hibiscadelphus giffardianus) fruit. (TIF)
Poster
Full-text available
Landbird populations on Tinian were surveyed to evaluate the status of native landbirds, including species listed under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. • Point-transect surveys were conducted in 1982, 1996, 2008 and 2013. • Population sizes were estimated using distance sampling methods, and population trends were assessed using repeated measures an...
Article
Full-text available
For most avian species, social behaviour is critically important for survival and reproductive success. Many social behaviours in birds are culturally transmitted, and as bird populations decline across the globe, important elements of these behaviours may be lost. The Hawaiian crow or 'alalā, Corvus hawaiiensis, is a socially complex avian species...
Article
Full-text available
Both of the 2 passerines endemic to Nihoa Island, Hawai‘i, USA—the Nihoa Millerbird (Acrocephalus familiaris kingi) and Nihoa Finch (Telespiza ultima)—are listed as endangered by federal and state agencies. Their abundances have been estimated by irregularly implemented fixed-width strip-transect sampling from 1967 to 2012, from which area-based ex...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The arthropod community associated with tree bark contains a wide variety of taxa but is poorly described, particularly in Hawaiʽi. Our overall goals were to evaluate the abundance of arthropods available to foraging birds and how variation in bark substrates may contribute to arthropod distributions in native forests. Our study aimed to identify t...
Article
Full-text available
The western Pacific island of Rota is the fourth largest human-inhabited island in the Mariana archipelago and designated an Endemic Bird Area. Between 1982 and 2012, 12 point-transect distance-sampling surveys were conducted to assess bird population status. Surveys did not consistently sample the entire island; thus, we used a ratio estimator to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Some of the most isolated islands in the Pacific Ocean are home to US National Parks and Wildlife Refuges. These islands are known for flora and fauna that occur nowhere else, but also for invasive species and other factors which have resulted in the disproportionate extinction of native species. The control of invasive mammals is the single most e...
Article
Full-text available
Seeds and flowers of the leguminous māmane (Sophora chrysophylla) tree are the primary food resource of the federally endangered Palila (Loxioides bailleui; Fringillidae: Drepanidinae), which is now restricted to dry subalpine woodland on Mauna Kea Volcano on the island of Hawai‘i because of centuries of habitat degradation by non-native ungulates....
Technical Report
A massive outbreak of the koa moth (Geometridea: Scotorythra paludicola) defoliated more than a third of the koa (Acacia koa) forest on Hawai‘i Island during 2013−2014. This was the largest koa moth outbreak ever recorded and the first on the island since 1953. The outbreak spread to sites distributed widely around the island between 800−2,000 m...
Conference Paper
Irruptions of the endemic koa moth (Geometridae: Scotorythra paludicola) have defoliated stands of the endemic koa (Acacia koa) numerous times over the past 125 years, but the last outbreak on Hawaiʻi Island was reported in 1953. In January 2013, the largest recorded outbreak was first observed along the windward slope of Mauna Kea Volcano on Hawai...
Article
Full-text available
Under the multiple-use paradigm, conflicts may arise when protection of an endangered species must compete with other management objectives. To resolve such a conflict in the Critical Habitat of the endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper, palila (Loxioides bailleui), federal courts ordered the eradication of introduced ungulates responsible for damaging...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Island ecosystems are undergoing shifts in ecosystem resilience due to habitat conversion and invasive species. In particular, perturbations that lead to resource pulses may be particularly beneficial to invasive species. Various hypotheses suggest that invaders are more able to take advantage of abundant resources, al...
Article
Full-text available
AN ENDANGERED AVIFAUNA Dennis A. Lapointe a, Carter T. Atkinson a, Paul C. Banko a, Richard J. Camp b, P. Marcos Gorresen b, James D. Jacobi a, Thane K. Pratt a, Michael D. Samuel c. a US Geological Survey, Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, Kilauea Field Station, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, HI 96718, USA; bHawai'i Cooperative Studies...
Chapter
This chapter identifies four key challenges and opportunities for long‐term conservation of biodiversity in the Hawaii's Islands. Following are the challenges that need to be resolved for remaining species of native forest birds to survive into the next century: invasive species, landscape processes, social factors, and climate change. These...
Article
Full-text available
Feral cats (Felis catus) have spread throughout anthropogenic and insular environments of the world. They now threaten many species of native wildlife with chronic depredation. Knowledge of feral cat population dynamics is necessary to understand their ecological effects and to develop effective control strategies. However, there are few studies wo...
Article
Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes Nationa...
Article
We observed an adult male Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) repeatedly feed a fledgling Palila (Loxioides bailleui). We observed 16– 19 food provisions during 14 hrs of observation between 21 and 29 June 2006. The presumed biological parents were frequently seen nearby, but adult Palila were not observed feeding the fledgling.
Article
Obtaining reliable population estimates is crucial to monitoring endangered species and developing recovery strategies. The palila (Loxioides bailleui) is an endangered seed-eating Hawaiian honeycreeper restricted to the subalpine forests of Mauna Kea, a volcano on the island of Hawai‘i, USA. The species is vulnerable to extinction primarily becaus...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the long history of Feral Cats Felis catus in Hawai'i, there has been little research to provide strategies to improve control programmes and reduce depredation on endangered species. Our objective Was to develop a predictive model to determine how landscape features on Mauna Kea, such as habitat, elevation, and proximity to roads, may affe...
Article
The parasitoid wasp Woldstedtius flavolineatus (Gravenhorst) (Ichneumonidae) attacks the larvae of syrphid flies (Syrphidae). Woldstedtius flavolineatus was collected in Hawaii for the first time during an extensive malaise trap-based survey of parasitoids in Hawaiian forests. Since its initial collection on Hawaii Island in January 2006, it has be...
Article
Full-text available
Through intentional and accidental introduction, more than 100 species of alien Ichneumonidae and Braconidae (Hymenoptera) have become established in the Hawaiian Islands. The extent to which these parasitoid wasps have penetrated native wet forests was investigated over a 1,765 m elevation gradient on windward Hawai’i Island. For >1year, malaise t...
Article
Full-text available
Population genetics can provide information about the demographics and dynamics of invasive species that is beneficial for developing effective control strategies. We studied the population genetics of feral cats on Hawai ' i Island by microsatellite analysis to evaluate genetic diversity and population structure, assess gene flow and connectivity...
Article
Full-text available
Feral cats Felis catus in dry subalpine woodland of Mauna Kea, Hawai'i, live in low density and exhibit some of the largest reported home ranges in the literature. While 95% fixed kernel home range estimates for three females averaged 772 ha, four males averaged 1 418 ha, and one male maintained a home range of 2 050 ha. Mean daily movement rates b...
Article
Full-text available
Cats ( Felis catus ) brought to Hawaii in the 1700s now occupy most habitats throughout the islands, including montane and sublapine zones. We studied home range, population genetics, diseases, and diet of feral cats on Hawaii Island. Feral cats o n Mauna Kea live in low densities and exhibit some of the largest reported home ranges. While 95% kern...
Article
Full-text available
We determined prevalence to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in feral cats (Felis catus) on Mauna Kea Hawaii from April 2002 to May 2004. Six of 68 (8.8%) and 11 of 68 (16.2%) cats were antibody positive to FIV and antigen positive for FeLV, respectively; 25 of 67...
Article
Full-text available
We documented the diet of feral cats by analysing the contents of 42 digestive tracts from Kilauea and Mauna Loa in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Small mammals, invertebrates, and birds were the most common prey types consumed by feral cats. Birds occurred in 27.8-29.2% of digestive tracts. The total number of bird, small mammal, and invertebrat...
Article
Full-text available
We measured mature tree and sapling density, tree associations, crown size, age structure, recovery from ungulate browsing, and grass cover at four study sites in two types of subalpine woodland on Mauna Kea volcano, island of Hawaii. Beginning in 1981, introduced ungulates were reduced in number to allow regeneration of Sophora chrysophylla (maman...
Article
Full-text available
Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai‘i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai‘i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have...
Article
Full-text available
Alien parasitic wasps, including accidental introductions and purposefully released biological control agents, have been implicated in the decline of native Hawaiian Lepidoptera. Understanding the potential impacts of alien wasps requires knowledge of ecological parameters that influence parasitism rates for species in their new environment. Sophor...
Article
We quantified nesting behavior of Palila (Loxioides bailleui), an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper, by recording at nests during three breeding seasons using a black-and-white video camera connected to a videocassette recorder. A total of seven nests was observed. We measured the following factors for daylight hours: percentage of time the female w...
Article
Full-text available
This study describes the chemical ecology of a tritrophic interaction among species endemic to the island of Hawaii, USA: a tree (Sophora chrysophylla: mamane), an endangered bird (Loxioides bailleui; palila), and moth larvae (Cydia spp.). Palila and Cydia both specialize on the seed embryos of mamane but avoid eating the seed coats. Palila activel...
Article
AimWe evaluated how an elevation gradient affects: (1) the availability of food required by a specialist seed-eater, Loxioides bailleui Oustalet (Drepanidinae), or palila, and hence the distribution of this endangered Hawaiian bird, and (2) the distribution of alien threats to Loxioides populations, their primary foods, and their dry-forest habitat...
Article
The biology and ecological importance of Hawaiian endemic Cydia spp. (Lepidop­ tera: Tortricidae) are poorly known. Cydia larvae arc an important food to palila, an endangered Hawaiian bird that inhabits Sophora woodlands on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. We quantified Cydia larval abundance in seeds of Sophora chrY~'ophylla Salisbury (Fabaceae) and larval mor...
Article
Entanglement and mortality of Palila (Loxioides bailleui), an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper, occurred when birds were radio-tagged with transmitters equipped with a long, limp, solder-tipped antenna. Birds were found suspended in trees by their transmitter antenna on eight occasions. Although these birds eventually freed themselves or were freed...
Article
The application of molecular techniques to conservation genetics issues can provide important guidance criteria for management of endangered species. The results from this study establish that PCR-based approaches for sex determination developed in other bird species (Griffiths and Tiwari 1995; Griffiths et al. 1996, 1998; Ellegren 1996) can be app...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated the effects of three translocation trials on Common Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) and Japanese White-eyes (Zosterops japonicus). Trial 1 involved capturing birds, transporting them on rough roads for 4 hr followed by holding in an aviary for 48 hr without overnight thermal support prior to release. Trial 2 involved capture, then holding...
Article
Full-text available
Ant surveys were conducted at high elevations (1680-3140 m) on the western slope of Mauna Kea Volcano on the island of Hawai'i to determine the extent of ant infestation in those highland communities and particularly to evaluate the potential threat of ants in the highlands to native Hawaiian species. Ants were surveyed at 10 long-term sampling sit...
Article
Full-text available
A single, relictual population of Palila Loxioides bailleui, a Hawaiian honeycreeper, survives on the slopes of Mauna Kea volcano on the island of Hawai'i, where it feeds principally on flowers and green seeds of the mamane tree Sophora chrysophylla. The Palila was listed as an endangered species by state and federal governments because of continui...
Article
Full-text available
Annual survival, age, and sex ratios of the endangered Palila (Loxioides bailleui) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, were determined from multiple captures and resightings of 984 individuals during 1987-1993. The proportion of Second Year (SY) Palila in the population was relatively constant among years, whereas the proportion of Hatching Year (HY) birds range...
Article
One year of climatological measurements in a high elevation forest on the island of Hawai'i are analyzed to partially characterize the habitat of the palila bird, an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper. At 2600 m, the site lies below the tree line, above the usual level of the trade wind inversion, and is strongly influenced by the diurnal thermal win...
Article
lIethods to sex and age Palila (Loxiozdes bailleui), an endangered Hawaiian finch restricted to subalpine woodlands on Hawai'i, were identified on the basis of mea- surements and plumage characteristics of 17 museum specimens and 96 known-age, live Palila. Palila undergo a single annual molt during September-December following the breeding season....
Article
Specimens (a downy fledgling and a hatch-year juvenile) and nocturnal calling of the Band-rumped Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma castro) are evidence that this rare seabird breeds on the island of Hawaii. Noctumal calling over land and sightings near the coast indicate that populations nest on the southwest rift and possibly the upper western slope of Ma...

Citations

... In fact, three endangered bird species in the US are considered to have population level impacts due to vehicle collisions: The Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), Audubon's Crested Caracara (Polyborus plancus audubonii), and the Hawaiian Goose or Nēnē (Branta sandvicensis; [10]). Amongst these three species, one of particular concern is the Nēnē, which is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands and faces a host of other threats (e.g., introduced mammalian predators, habitat loss; [11]). Originally occurring across a number of the islands in the archipelago, the population was estimated at over 25,000 in the late 1700s but was reduced to less than 50 individuals by the 1940s [12]. ...
... Ecological engineering approaches can rely on spontaneous species recolonization by habitat restoration following passive restoration (e.g. Frainer et al., 2018;Ostertag et al., 2020). Other approaches use active restoration that consists in introducing target organisms into the ecosystem based on their specific role (e.g. ...