Patrick V. Vail's research while affiliated with United States Department of Agriculture and other places

Publications (49)

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Insects are a major cause of post-harvest losses of stored foods and food products the world over. Stored-product insect infestation can occur beginning at harvest and continuing through bulk storage; conversion into processed commodities in food processing facilities; storage in warehouses; transportation in trucks, railcars, and ships; presentati...
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These proceedings contain nearly 200 keynote, oral and poster papers and contributions highlighting the work on the pests and diseases that cause spoilage, adverse health effects and crop losses after harvest, and discussing new techniques for safe, effective and environmentally friendly management of stored commodities. The contents cover the futu...
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The granulovirus of Cydia pomonella (L.) (CpGV) offers potential for selective control of codling moth. Two major limitations of CpGV are its narrow host range and lack of persistence in the orchard agroecosystem. The nucleopolyhedroviruses of the alfalfa looper Autographa californica (Speyer) (AcMNPV) and those of the celery looper Anagrapha falci...
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Additional index words. disease, pest, and herbicide resistance; fruit and nut trees/quality; transgenic plants Whereas disease, pest and herbicide resistance have served as valuable entry points for plant biotechnology in general, the emphasis with crop plants is clearly shifting towards modifying traits that enhance quality, nutritional content a...
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We propose a treatment strategy combining an initial disinfestation treatment with one of three protective treatments as an alternative for chemical fumigation of almonds and raisins for control of postharvest insect populations. Initial disinfestation treatments using low oxygen controlled atmosphere (0.4% O2) were designed to disinfest product of...
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Walnut trees expressing a modified cry1A(c) insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis were developed from somatic embryos and established in field trials. The cry1A(c) gene was inserted into several walnut genotypes including the commercial cultivar 'Chandler'. Initial screening for transformants utilized kanamycin resistance and GUS marker...
Chapter
Insects are a major cause of post-harvest losses of stored foods and food products the world over. They not only consume these commodities but may also damage or contaminate them with insect fragments or whole bodies, feces, webbing, foul smelling metabolic products, and promote growth of a variety of microflora some of which pose serious health ha...
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Our strategy for reducing aflatoxin contamination has two major goals; (1) develop insect resistance to reduce insect damage and (2) identify genes that reduce A.flavus toxin production. For developing insect resistant walnuts, we have focused on the cryIAc gene from Bacillus thuringiensis. We have analyzed field grown transgenic plant material and...
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A variety of plant species are being considered for the phytoremediation of selenium (Se) contaminated soils in agricultural regions of central California. Use of this plant-based technology may also attract a wide range of insects to these Se-accumulating plants. The first field study surveyed the diversity of insects attracted to tall fescue, bir...
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Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs on 'd'Agen' cultivar of plums, Prunus salicina Lindl., were treated with methyl bromide to determine if a quarantine treatment could be developed so that the plums could be exported to Japan from the United States. Small-scale tests consisted of treating codling moth eggs on plums with various doses of methy...
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A number of the members of the Noctuidae (subfamily Plusiinae) are polyphagous insects that infest a variety of economically important crops world-wide. These hosts include but are not limited to cotton, vegetable and field crops and also such specialty crops as mint. Many of these crops require multiple applications of chemical pesticides to prote...
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A range of application volumes were tested in the field to produce Calcofluor white M2R residue concentrations on cotton leaves comparable to those found in earlier tests to be optimal for virus enhancement (i.e., ≥ 30 μg/cm2) as well as UV protection (i.e., ≥ 2 μg/cm2). Spectrophotometry of leaf washes on the day of application showed that the ran...
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We propose a treatment strategy combining an initial disinfestation treatment with 1 of 3 protective treatments as an alternative for chemical fumigation of walnuts for control of postharvest insect populations. The initial disinfestation treatment (0.4%O2 for 6 d) was designed to disinfest walnuts of field populations of navel orangeworm, Amyelois...
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A full-length synthetic version of the cryIA(c) gene, expressing a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal crystal protein (ICP), was transferred into walnut somatic embryos. Sixty one transgenic embryo lines or clones were obtained and bioassayed with first instar codling moth larvae. In 34% of these lines, designated as ‘class A’, expression was...
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Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki L. 'Jiro') was transformed using a disarmed strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, EHA101, carrying the binary plasmid vector, pDU92.710. The T-DNA region of pDU92.710 contained the kanamycin resistance gene (nptII), the β-glucuronidase gene (uidA), and a synthetic reconstruct of cryIA(c) encoding the insecticidal c...
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The multiple nucleocapsid polyhedrosis virus (MNPV) isolated from the celery looper, Anagrapha falcifera (Kirby), has a relatively broad host range within the order Lepidoptera. Preliminary tests indicated that AfMNPV was infectious to the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker). The pathogenicity of AfMNPV to a laboratory colony of A. tran...
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The formation of chloroanisole in commercially processed and nonprocessed dried-on-the-vine (DOV) raisins under sterile, nonsterile, and low-moisture conditions was determined. The chloroanisoles of raisin samples were steam−solvent extracted using a modified Likens−Nickerson glass distillation apparatus and the concentrated extracts analyzed by ga...
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The influence of Calcofluor white M2R (=Tinopal LPW = fluorescent brightener 28), a fluorescent brightener, on the laboratory activity of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AfMNPV) isolated from the celery looper Anagrapha falcifera (Kirby) was determined. The species challenged with and without M2R included Heliothis virescens (Fabricius), Helicoverpa...
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Insecticidal crystal protein fragments (ICPFs) of Bacillus thuringiensis encoded by cryIA (c) and cryIA (b) were previously shown to be lethal to key target walnut insect pests (codling moth, navel orangeworm and Indianmeal moth). One of these genes, cryIA (c), was used to transform walnut somatic embryos using a binary vector (pWB139) in which thi...
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Insecticidal crystal protein fragments (ICPFs) of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) encoded by cryIA(c) gene were shown in diet incorporation studies to be lethal to codling moth (CM; Cydia pomonella) the key insect pest for walnut. However transformed walnut tissues expressing cryIA(c) with Bt codon usage patterns and native DNA sequence revealed very l...
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When rearing insects for experimental purposes, it is routine practice to treat eggs to assure that microbial pathogens and fungal spores are eliminated. Forty (40) ml of 37% (v/v) formalin (CH20) was placed into each of several one-quart, wide mouth canning jars. CM eggs (12 ± 12-h-old), oviposited on waxed paper, were exposed to CH20 by suspendin...
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Codling moth eggs (12 ± 12-h-old), oviposited on waxed paper, were submerged in water at 50°C or in a 5% solution of ethanol at 50°C for 0, 1, 3, or 5 minutes. The treated eggs were incubated at 27 ± 1°C for 7 days and then evaluated to determine the degree of development obtained. The number of eggs hatched, the number not hatched but showing deve...
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We compared three formulations of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk) for their insecticidal activity against first-instar OLR. Products tested included: (1) NOVO Laboratories Biobit, a flowable concentrate containing live bacteria with spores and parasporal crystal protein bodies; (2) Abbott Laboratories Dipel 2X, a wettable powder also containin...
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The nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AfMNPV)isolated from the celery looper, Anagrapha falcifera (Kirby), was tested against six species of production and postharvest lepidopteran pests and four insect cell lines. LC50s in PIB/mm2 were 23.9, 42.2, 47.3, and 510.4, respectively, for raisin moth, Cadra figulilella (Gregson), navel orangeworm, Amyelois tra...
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Healthy adult males of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) were contaminated with a freeze-dried powder formulation of a homologous granulosis virus (IMMGV) when attracted to a source by a pheromone lure. Surface contamination of males was transferred to adult females during copulation and larval food was subsequently contaminated by females during ovip...
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The current criterion for insect quarantine treatments in many countries is the probit 9 (i.e., 99.9968% mortality). This concept is used without due consideration for commodity infestation levels or types (multiple or solitary) or survival on the harvested commodity. Historically, probit 9 was based on security levels required for tropical fruit f...
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Residues and the toxic effects of methyl bromide (MB) were determined in fumigation tests with six cultivars of nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch. var. nectarina (Ah.) Maxim.]. `Fantasia', `Firebrite', and `Summer Grand' were treated in wooden field bins in a commercial facility, whereas `May Fire', `May Glo', and `May Diamond' were fumigated i...
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Table grapes are routinely fumigated with sulfur dioxide (S02) at 5,000 to 10,000 ppm for 20 to 30 min at ambient temperature or during cooling to control postharvest decay in storage. This translates to CT product exposure levels (defined below) of about 800 to 1,500 ppm-h. The grapes are refumigated weekly during cold storage with 1,000 to 5,000...
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Recent advances in genetic engineering have provided the opportunity to induce walnut plants to produce Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner insecticidal crystal protein fragments (ICPFs) for insect control. We studied the effects of two ICPFs CryIA(b) and CrylA(c) previously shown to be encoded by the cryIA(b) and cryIA(c) genes in the B. thuringiensis...
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Commercially produced, experimental lots of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), granulosis virus (CMGV) formulations were field-tested for control of codling moth larvae on commercial walnuts. Because it has little or no effect on beneficial species and probably would not disturb the control of the walnut aphid, Chromaphis juglandicola (Kaltenbach)...
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Unshelled walnuts were artificially infested with diapausing fifth-instar codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and fumigated with 56 g/m' methyl bromide for 4 hat 15.6 under a reduced pressure of 100 mm Hg. When 34,959 were treated, 1 larva survived, indicating a survival rate of 2.91Iarvae/100,000 treated. The upper 95%CL for this survival rate was...
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California walnuts were fumigated unshelled with a quarantine treatment to control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). The treatment was done with 56 glm' methyl bromide for 4 h at 15.6 and a chamber pressure of 100 mm Hg. There were no significant differences in organic or inorganic bromide residues regardless of walnut cultivar or size. Inorganic...
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Laboratory tests were conducted on the temperature stability of a formulation of a granulosis virus of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). Efficacy of the formulation on raisins during extended high temperature storage was of particular interest as was the ability of the formulation to control incipient populations in the commodity. Two concentrations...
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Fumigations with phosphine (PH3) were conducted to determine minimum lethal exposure times and concentrations at various temperatures for control of NOW or IMM in inshell almonds. A dosage of 30 g/ 1000 ft3 PH3 gas generated from aluminum phosphide pellets was used on infested almonds at 10, 15.6, 21.1, 26.7 or 32.2°C. Insect eggs, 0-24 h old, or e...
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LC50 values were determined for six populations (two laboratory and four wild-type) of Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), to peroral inoculations of a granulosis virus. Various biological parameters of the populations were measured to determine similarities or differences among the moth populations tested. A significantly (P < 0.05) h...
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Damage to raisins, almonds, and walnuts due to feeding by irradiated larvae of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hubner), and the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), was determined. Larvae of both species were reared on bran diet. Age of the larvae when irradiated was 8 d for Indianmeal moth and 13 d for navel orangeworm. Lar...
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Larvae of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hubner), and the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), reared individually in small beakers containing artificial diet, were irradiated at doses ranging from 149 to 627 Gy. Adult emergence was prevented by all doses. Only 13% of the oldest Indianmeal moth larvae irradiated at the lowe...
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Raisins, almonds, and walnuts infested with pupae of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hiibner), were treated with gamma radiation (14.4-92.1 krad). Effects of radiation on adult emergence and reproduction were similar in all commodities. Adult emergence was reduced or eliminated at the two highest doses;adults that did emerge were deform...
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Fumigation of inshell pistachio nuts, Pistacia vera L. 'Kerman', with 32 g/m3 methyl bromide (MB) at 15.5°C for 24 h and 16 or 24g/m3 MB at 26.6°C for 24 h resulted in >98.5% mortality of the egg, larval, and pupal stages of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker). Inshell pistachio nuts fumigated three times with MB using the approved...
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Dose/responses of certain stages of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), to methyl bromide (MB) when fumigated at different temperatures (l0, 20, or 30°C)and at normal atmospheric (NAP) or reduced (VAC) pressures were estimated. Stages and parameters tested were separated into two distinct groups. Stages in group 1 were less tolerant of MB; this...
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Current insect control measures for the dried fruit and nut industry depend on fumigation to disinfest large volumes of incoming products during harvest, as well as to control storage infestations. The ban on use of methyl bromide (MB) after 2005, and possible restrictions on phosphine (PH3) create a critical need for economical alternative systems...
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The Indianmeal moth (IMM) granulosis virus (GV) was first isolated and characterized in 1968 by Arnott and Smith. As a group, the Baculoviridae are considered to be safe because extensive testing has demonstrated their safety. Twelve have been registered world-wide. In the late 1960s, interest increased in the use of microbial agents to control sto...
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The genes encoding the insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs) of BacIllus thuringiensis are good candidates for protecting walnut plants against insect pests. Ve have estimated the dose response of three important walnut pests (codling moth, navel orangeworm and Indianmeal moth) with two highly purified insecticidal proteins of Bacillus thurJ.nglensi...
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The annual production of dried fruits and nuts in California exceeds 1 million tons, worth over $2 billion after processing. Insects cause postharvest losses conservatively estimated at $96 million each year. Currently, postharvest insect control for dried fruits and nuts is dependent on the use of methyl bromide and phosphine fumigants. Various to...
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The granulosis virus of the Indlanmeal moth (Plodia interpunctella (Htlbner)) was first described by Arnott and Smithlf68). Since that time, it has been studied intensively as a microbial agent for this insect by numerous investigators. Major impediments to the use of this virus were the relatively labor intensive production and the unavailabi lity...

Citations

... That said, prior to its regulation methyl bromide was the preferred postharvest treatment for almonds and pistachios (Aegerter and Folwell 2001). Currently, postharvest treatment primarily relies on phosphine (Hartsell et al. 1991, Hartsell et al. 2005. Sulfuryl fluoride can also be used (Leesch and Zettler 2000), sometimes in combination with propylene oxide as an antimicrobial. ...
... Research has shown that ethanol can also kill quarantine pests such as Tetranychus urticae Koch (Dentener et al., 1998), Epiphyas postvittana (Dentener et al., 2000) and Cydia pomonella (Rohitha et al., 1993;Tebbets et al., 1993). These studies used ethanol immersion at high temperatures or ethanol vapour at ambient temperatures to kill insects and mites. ...
... The US Department of Agriculture, as well as scientists at various universities, played central roles importing, breeding and releasing a wide variety of insect predators, parasitoids and herbivores from around the world (Clausen 1956). A large number of successes have been recorded in the USA (Vail et al. 2001). The propensity for classical biological control in North America and Hawaii may be at least partially attributed to the dominance of non-native pest species there. ...
... Transgenic Insect-resistant cotton (Monsanto) plants also contain BT toxin. crops Biotechnology may offer unique opportunities for pest control in perennial tree and vine crops(Dandekar et al. 2002). Insects are attracted to the trap plant, but they multiply there and can spread to the adjacent crop. ...
... Although primary formulation of a product is important for the reasons given thus far, it has been proposed that it is unlikely that shelf formulation alone can significantly improve field performance . Numerous studies have succeeded in demonstrating improved performance due to the addition of formulation ingredients in laboratory bioassays; however, many of these are subsequently found to not make a significant difference to the efficacy recorded in the field (Vail et al., 1999). Thus in practice shelf formulation more often serves as a marketing tool for the manufacturer rather than making a real and observable difference to the end user. ...
... Fumigation with SO 2 (routinely applied for fungal control), alone or combined with carbon dioxide, may provide pest control, though this possibility has received little attention (Vota, 1957). Only Vail et al. (1992) reported that SO 2 contents comparable to those used in the routine fumigation of grapes killed the key pest Platynota stultana Walshingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in a laboratory experiment, suggesting that SO 2 has the potential to control both fungi and insects. Preliminary work with S. oryzae on rice (Riudavets et al., 2008) indicated the potential of such mixtures for pest control. ...
... Gene transfer techniques have been in use for walnuts since 1988 [10] and field trials of mature transgenic trees are under way. Genes of interest include Bt from Bacillus thuringiensis for insect resistance [11] and crown gall silencing for resistance to crown gall [12] . Tree architecture has been modified by the rol ABC genes from A. rhizogenes, but the goal of increasing root ability was not achieved [13] . ...
Reference: WALNUT BREEDING
... With the increasingly abundant data from genome [3], transcriptome, proteome [4,5], and miRNA sequencing [6] in persimmon, a large number of important differentially expressed genes (DEGs) have been screened and isolated, but their functions need to be further verified. Some research on in vitro regeneration and genetic transformation has been carried out by explants of Japanese persimmon [7][8][9] and rootstock D. lotus [10]. The phenotype of the transgenic lines presented remarkable changes, such as plant dwarfing [7,11] and rooting ability reduction [7], salt stress or other environmental stress tolerance enhancements [12][13][14], and the downregulation of polygalacturonase biosynthesis [15]. ...
... An economic assessment suggested that costs would be comparable with fumigation and modified atmospheres (Vail and Tebbets, 1991). ...
... Cherries, peaches, and apricots also tolerated 0.3 kGy, but softening and internal breakdown were seen at doses of 0.6 kGy (Drake and Neven, 1998). Blueberries tolerated doses up to 0.75 kGy (Miller et al., 1994), and walnuts, almonds, and pistachios tolerated up to 0.45 kGy (Vail et al., 1987). Various factors can affect tolerance of a specific type of produce to irradiation, including seasonal and cultivar differences. ...