Paolo Cortesi's research while affiliated with University of Milan and other places

Publications (74)

Article
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Streptomycetes are promising candidates for the biological control of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in wheat. Studies involving the use of streptomycetes as biological control agents (BCAs) have been limited to the application when the wheat plant is developed, close to the infection on the spike during flowering. Here, we tested the effects of seed t...
Article
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Fusarium musae has recently been described as a cross-kingdom pathogen causing post-harvest disease in bananas and systemic and superficial infection in humans. The taxonomic identity of fungal cross-kingdom pathogens is essential for confirming the identification of the species on distant infected hosts. Understanding the level of variability with...
Article
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Ciborinia camelliae is the causal agent of camellia flower blight (CFB). It is a hemibiotrophic pathogen, inoperculate Discomycete of the family Sclerotiniaceae. It shows host and organ specificity infecting only flowers of species belonging to the genus Camellia, causing serious damage to the ornamental component of the plant. In this work, the fi...
Article
Ciborinia camelliae Kohn is the causal agent of camellia flower blight. The pathogen infects only flowers of camellias, causing serious damage to the plant. Seventy-one strains were collected from six Italian regions and were characterized at the phenotypic and genetic level. Morphotypes were identified based on their phenotypic differences in cult...
Article
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Purpose Bacteria belonging to the Streptomyces genus can be exploited in environmentally friendly approaches to food safety. Genome information can help to characterize bioactive strains opening the possibility to decipher their mechanisms of action. Methods The biocontrol and plant growth-promoting activity of two Streptomyces spp. strains, DEF1A...
Article
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Fusarium musae belongs to the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex. It causes crown rot disease in banana but also keratitis and skin infections as well as systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. Antifungal treatments in clinical and agricultural settings rely mostly on molecules belonging to the azole class. Given the potential risk of pa...
Article
Fusarium musae van Hove causes crown rot of banana and it is also associated to clinical fusariosis. A chromosome-level genome assembly of Fusarium musae F31 obtained combining Nanopore long reads and Illumina paired end reads resulted in 12 chromosomes plus one contig with overall N50 of 4.36 Mb, and is presented together with its mitochondrial ge...
Article
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Grapevine powdery mildew is a principal fungal disease of grapevine worldwide. Even though it usually does not cause plant death directly, heavy infections can lead to extensive yield losses, and even low levels of the disease can negatively affect the quality of the wine. Therefore, intensive spraying programs are commonly applied to control the d...
Article
There are billions of books that in recent and in ancient times have been produced by the human race containing evidence of its intellectual and cultural efforts. Even when stored in libraries, not all these books survive over time undamaged, because in the biosphere their materials are potential nutrients. This is the unfortunate case of the Histo...
Article
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The increasing emergence of fungicide-resistant pathogens requires urgent solutions for crop disease management. Here, we describe a structural investigation of new fungicides obtained by combining strobilurin and succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor pharmacophores. We identified compounds endowed with very good activity against wild-type Pyricularia...
Article
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Streptomyces spp. can be exploited as biocontrol agents (BCAs) against plant pathogens such as Fusarium graminearum, the main causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and against the contamination of grains with deoxynivalenol (DON). In the present research, four Streptomyces strains active against F. graminearum in dual plate assays were charact...
Article
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Selection of biological control agents (BCA) profits from an integrated study of the tripartite interactions occurring among the BCA, the plant and the pathogen. The environment plays a crucial role in the efficacy of BCA, therefore, the selection process shall utmost mimic naturally occurring conditions. To identify effective biocontrol strains ag...
Article
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Crop disease management often implies repeated application of fungicides. However, the increasing emergence of fungicide-resistant pathogens requires their rotation or combined use. Tank-mix combinations using fungicides with different modes of action are often hard to manage by farmers. An alternative and unexploited strategy are bifunctional fung...
Article
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Biocontrol microorganisms are emerging as an effective alternative to pesticides. Ideally, biocontrol agents (BCAs) for the control of fungal plant pathogens should be selected by an in vitro method that is high-throughput and is predictive of in planta efficacy, possibly considering environmental factors, and the natural diversity of the pathogen....
Article
Crown rot is a post-harvest fungal disease causing significant negative impact on fruit quality. The infection mainly occurs by different etiological agents at harvest time but the symptoms appear 10-14 days later, usually after overseas transportation. The use of synthetic fungicides to control this disease is frequently restricted and regulated i...
Article
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The global food supply has been facing increasing challenges during the first decades of the 21st century. Disease in plants is an important constraint to worldwide crop production, accounting for 20–40% of its annual harvest loss. Although the use of resistant varieties, good water management and agronomic practices are valid management tools in c...
Article
Aims: This study aimed to develop a new formulation of Cryphonectria parasitica hypovirulent mycelium suitable for inoculations of tall trees from the ground. C. parasitica hypovirulent strains are widely used for biological control of chestnut blight. However, it is often inconsistent and ineffective not only for biological reasons, but also beca...
Article
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Background In the search for new natural resources for crop protection, streptomycetes are gaining interest in agriculture as plant growth promoting bacteria and/or biological control agents. Because of their peculiar life cycle, in which the production of secondary metabolites is synchronized with the development of aerial hyphae and sporulation,...
Article
Crown rot is a postharvest disease with a great negative impact on banana fruit quality. The infections occur at harvest, but the symptoms appear after overseas transportation. Different fungal pathogens are involved in crown rot, varying according to farming area. In this study we focused on etiology of organic banana crown rot in the Dominican Re...
Chapter
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Abstract: Soil-borne fungal pathogens cause serious damage to horticultural crops. One of the most serious is Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, whose management relies mainly on chemicals, and more recently on use of biological control agents (BCA). Modern and sustainable disease management strategies for short cycle hort-crops should shift from chemicals...
Data
Number of lettuce dead plants recorded for the experiment B, when Lactuca sativa var. capitata, “Regina dei ghiacci” was sown one week after S. sclerotiorum and Streptomyces co-inoculation.
Data
Survival of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa var. capitata, “Regina dei ghiacci”) in the field experiment (ca. 60 days after transplanting) inoculated with (A) Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (inoculated control); (B) S. sclerotiorum + S. exfoliatus FT05W; (C) S. sclerotiorum + S. cyaneus ZEA17I; and (D) S. sclerotiorum + S. lydicus WYEC 108.
Data
Number of lettuce dead plants recorded for the experiment A, when Lactuca sativa var. capitata, “Regina dei ghiacci” was sown the same day of S. sclerotiorum and Streptomyces co-inoculation.
Data
Number of Lactuca sativa var. capitata, “Regina dei ghiacci” dead plants recorded for field experiment, Travacò Siccomario (Pavia, Italy).
Article
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Lettuce drop, caused by the soil borne pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is one of the most common and serious diseases of lettuce worldwide. Increased concerns about the side effects of chemical pesticides have resulted in greater interest in developing biocontrol strategies against S. sclerotiorum. However, relatively little is known about the m...
Article
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BACKGROUND Metrafenone has been used in Europe in integrated pest management programs since 2006 to control powdery mildews, including Erysiphe necator. Its exact mode of action is not known, but it is unique among fungicide classes used in powdery mildew management. Recently, resistance to metrafenone was reported in Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritic...
Conference Paper
Beneficial microorganisms with positive activity on plant growth and health offer an attractive alternative to conventional agriculture. However, the successful application of biological control agents (BCAs) in agriculture has been hindered by insufficient knowledge of mechanisms by which BCAs interact with the host plants and other microorganisms...
Article
Reports of decline and blight of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) in Italy and surrounding countries have recently increased. Two fungi were constantly isolated from cortical cankers and identified as Anthostoma decipiens (Cytospora decipiens) and Endothiella sp. A. decipiens was also found on dead branches of species other than hornbeam. The pathoge...
Article
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Beneficial microorganisms are increasingly used in agriculture, but their efficacy often fails due to limited knowledge of their interactions with plants and other microorganisms present in rhizosphere. We studied spatio-temporal colonization dynamics of lettuce roots and rhizosphere by genetically modified Streptomyces spp. Five Streptomyces strai...
Chapter
Basal drop caused by the soil borne pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is one of the most common and serious diseases of horticultural crops worldwide. The disease can be managed with biological control agents (BCAs) such as Coniothyrium minitans or streptomycetes. The aim of this work was to select new Streptomyces strains to widen the range of BCA...
Article
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Streptomycetes have been extensively studied for the production of bioactive compounds in pharmaceutical industry and to a lesser extent for their potential biological control activity in agriculture. The EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) approach was applied to study Streptomyces-mediated biological control of soil-borne fungal pathogens...
Article
Magnaporthe oryzae is the major pathogen of cultivated rice worldwide, which can cause substantial losses to rice production. Rice blast management is based predominantly on the application of fungicides; however, only a little is known about responses of pathogen populations to the most widely used fungicides. In this work, the baseline sensitivit...
Article
The benthic macro‐invertebrate community response to tricyclazole treatments in an experimental rice paddy field was analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. The observed community presented low species diversity, dominated by the gastropods Gyraulus albus and Physa fontinalis, the oligochaetes Branchyura sowerbyi, and the h...
Article
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The effects of tricyclazole treatments on benthic macroinvertebrates in the field and in laboratory were studied. In field conditions, low density of benthic populations was observed, both in treated and untreated plots, which was attributed to the short period of submersion of the rice field and high water temperature, fungicide treatments had no...
Chapter
Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of the rice blast disease, is one of the most important pathogens of cultivated rice worldwide. It can cause serious epidemics resulting in substantial yield and economic losses. Rice blast management relies on the use of fungicides in many regions. At present, there are approximately thirty fungicides registere...
Article
BACKGROUND: Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae B. Couch sp. nov., is one of the most destructive rice diseases worldwide, causing substantial yield losses every year. In Italy, its management is based mainly on the use of two fungicides, azoxystrobin and tricyclazole, that restrain the disease progress. The aim of this study was to investigat...
Article
Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of the rice blast disease, is one of the most important pathogens of cultivated rice worldwide. It can cause serious epidemics resulting in substantial yield and economic losses. Rice blast management relies on the use of fungicides in many regions. At present, there are approximately thirty fungicides registere...
Conference Paper
Soil-borne pathogens such as Pythium, Fusarium, Rhizoctonia or Sclerotinia spp. cause severe epidemics and extensive crop losses. Disease management employs cultivation of resistant varieties and use of fungicides. However, these strategies meet serious problems, such as evolution of virulent pathogen strains, environmental pollution or decreased d...
Conference Paper
Gli attinomiceti, componenti fondamentali delle comunità microbiche del suolo e della rizosfera, possiedono grandi potenzialità quali agenti di biocontrollo delle malattie radicali. In questa ricerca, ceppi di streptomiceti, isolati dalle radici di piante diverse, sono stati saggiati in vitro e in vivo nei confronti di diversi patogeni agenti di ma...
Article
Streptomycetes are well known as soil and rhizosphere inhabitants. Their role as plant pathogens has been extensively studied, whereas their activity as endophytes, that could influence plant development and health, is less known. Streptomycetes can also act as plant growth promoters or as biocontrol agents against soil-borne pathogens. Our aim was...
Article
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SUMMARY In spring 2008, in a nursery located in the Como province (Lombardy, northern Italy) leaf blight symp- toms were observed on potted box plants (Buxus sem- pervirens 'Suffruticosa') followed by a sudden and se- vere defoliation. Diseased plants, had been imported from a Belgian nursery. These symptoms were sugges- tive of box blight, a new d...
Article
Expanding populations are often less genetically diverse at their margins than at the centre of a species' range. Established, older populations of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, are more variable for vegetative compatibility (vc) types than in expanding populations in southeastern Europe where C. parasitica has colonized rel...
Article
SUMMARY Rice grain discolouration has a complex etiology and cannot be diagnosed prior to harvest. In Italy, the disease was thought to be associated with fungal infections, how- ever several studies contradicted this hypothesis. We re- port the distribution of grain discolouration, the most sus- ceptible Italian rice varieties, and the effects of...
Article
The population structure of the grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator (formerly Uncinula necator), has been hypothesized to vary from being clonal to highly diverse and recombining. We report here on the structure of an E. necator population sampled during a 4-year period from an isolated vineyard in northern Italy (Voghera, Pavia Province)...
Chapter
In Italy, panicle sterility and grain discolouration have emerged as serious problems throughout the rice growing areas. Surveys showed that the incidence of panicle sterility was highly variable, varying from low, barely observable in some fields, to more than 50% in other ones. In the Lombardy region the estimated average crop loss due to sterili...
Article
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Biological control of chestnut blight with hypovirulence depends on the successful transmission of hypoviruses between individuals of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Vegetative incompatibility inhibits horizontal virus transmission, but not completely. In an effort to assess the potential for the spread of hypoviruses in the R...
Article
Tester isolates of 20 vegetative compatibility (vc) types from 11 Italian subpopulations and tester isolates of 26 vc types from five Swiss subpopulations of Cryphonectria parasitica were compared by two different vc test methods. A total of 31 different vc types was identified; 15 vc types were common to both countries, five Italian vc types were...
Article
The overwintering mode of the grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator (syn. Uncinula necator), as mycelium in dormant buds (resulting in symptoms known as flag shoots) or as ascospores in cleistothecia, affects the temporal dynamics of epidemics early in the growing season. We tested whether distinct genetic groups (I and III) identified prev...
Article
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As in plants, fungi exhibit wide variation in reproductive strategies and mating systems. Although most sexually reproducing fungi are either predominantly outcrossing or predominantly selfing, there are some notable exceptions. The haploid, ascomycete chestnut blight pathogen, Cryphonectria parasitica, has previously been shown to have a mixed mat...
Article
ABSTRACT Erysiphe necator overwinters as ascospores in cleistothecia and mycelium in dormant buds of grapevines. Shoots developing from infected buds early in the growing season are covered with dense mycelium and are known as "flag shoots". Combining epidemiological and genetic analyses, the objective of this study was to analyze the spatial and g...
Article
Most hypovirulence in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, is associated with infection by fungal viruses in the family Hypoviridae. Hypovirulence has controlled chestnut blight well in some locations in Europe and in Michigan in the United States. In contrast, with few exceptions, biological control has failed almost completely in...
Article
Programmed cell death (PCD) is an essential part of the defence response in plants and animals against pathogens. Here, we report that PCD is also involved in defence against pathogens of fungi. Vegetative incompatibility is a self/non-self recognition system in fungi that results in PCD when cells of incompatible strains fuse. We quantified the fr...
Article
Vegetative incompatibility in fungi has long been known to reduce the transmission of viruses between individuals, but the barrier to transmission is incomplete. In replicated laboratory assays, we showed conclusively that the transmission of viruses between individuals of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica is controlled primarily...
Article
A total of 134 Cryphonectria parasitica isolates were sampled from the two most important chest-nut-growing areas of Turkey. Isolates were screened for vegetative compatibility (vc) by pairing them with the 64 EU testers. All isolates belonged to one vegetative compatibility type, which was compatible with the vc type EU-1. Twenty-four randomly sel...
Article
SUMMARY The sources of inoculum of Eutypa dieback of grapevines, caused by Eutypa lata, are not fully under- stood. Ascospores are thought to be the main source, but in populations with low disease incidence conidia may be important. Earlier studies of this disease in Italy and Germany did not report sexual structures (perithe- cia) of E. lata on g...
Article
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Chestnut blight, caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, has been effectively controlled with double-stranded RNA hypoviruses in Europe for over 40 years. The marked reduction in the virulence of C. parasitica by hypoviruses is a phenomenon known as hypovirulence. This virus-fungus pathosystem has become a model system for the study of biolo...
Article
ABSTRACT A full understanding of the pathology of esca, a chronic disease of grapevines, has been problematic, in part because the identity of the pathogen (or pathogens) has been difficult to determine. The wood decay symptoms of esca have been most often associated with Phellinus igniarius or Fomitiporia punctata. However, Koch's postulates have...
Article
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ABSTRACT In France, chestnut blight, caused by Cryphonectria parasitica, has been controlled since 1974 in orchards, but never in coppice forests, by releasing hypovirulent strains infected with CHV1 hypovirus. We tested the hypothesis that this biological control (BC) has lead to a decrease in blight severity, spread of hypovirulence, and change i...
Article
Vegetative incompatibility is a self/nonself-recognition system in fungi that has often been used for describing phenotypic diversity in fungal populations. A common hypothesis is that vegetative incompatibility polymorphisms are maintained by balancing selection. However, understanding the evolutionary significance of vegetative incompatibility an...
Article
Vegetative incompatibility in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, in Europe is controlled by six unlinked vic loci, each with two alleles. Four previously identified vic loci (vic1, vic2, vic3, and vic4) were polymorphic in European vegetative compatibility (vc) types. Two new loci, vic6 and vic7, also were identified among Europe...
Article
Full-text available
Density and viability of populations of cleistothecia of Uncinula necator from bark, leaves, and soil were determined in three vineyards in the Florence and Siena provinces of Tuscany for 3 years. A higher density of cleistothecia was found on fallen leaves than on bark. However, the percentage of viable cleistothecia was higher on bark. No viable...
Article
Genetic diversity and multilocus genetic structures of four populations of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, were analyzed. Two populations in Michigan had very low vegetative compatibility (vc) type diversity and also low diversity of DNA fingerprints and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes. A population in Teano, in southern...
Article
Using a medium that discriminated with high resolution, 20 vegetative compatibility (vc) types were detected among a sample of 716 isolates of Cryphonectria parasitica from 11 widely separated subpopulations throughout Italy. Each isolate was assigned unambiguously to a single vc type; no isolates were compatible with more than one vc type. Most is...

Citations

... Extensive mitochondrial genome comparisons within the fungal kingdom have shown that any gene has a mitochondrial localization in all fungal species [13], suggesting that the use of mitochondrial gene diversity cannot be applied as a universal marker for fungi. Nonetheless, the analysis of mitochondrial diversity can be successfully applied to differentiate species within orders [14] or species [15,16]. For example, a unique feature apparently common in all Fusarium species is the presence of a large open reading frame with an unknown function (LV-uORF) firstly described in mitogenomes of F. graminearum, F. verticillioides and F. solani [17] and probably acquired prior to the divergence of Fusarium species. ...