Pakkanut Bansiddhi's research while affiliated with Chiang Mai University and other places

Publications (17)

Article
Full-text available
Female leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) often oviposit in locations with high risk of predation, human activity, flooding, or erosion; thus, influencing hatching rates. It has been hypothesized that the relocation of these nests would significantly increase hatching success. In this study, we measured various nest traits to determine...
Article
Stereotypies are abnormal behaviors found in a wide range of animals that have been used as indicators of poor welfare. Elephants used in tourism have been reported to perform stereotypic behavior, but the occurrence has not been systematically assessed. The aims of this study were to ascertain the percentage of stereotypic behaviors exhibited by t...
Article
In Thailand, many elephants are used in tourism, with populations sustained by breeding of animals that are in captive habitats. Even though there are programs to promote breeding, there is not success in all camps. In this study, there was summarization of reproductive performance data of 407 elephants (150 males, 257 females) at seven tourist cam...
Article
Full-text available
Thailand is the epicenter of elephant tourism and visiting an elephant camp is a popular activity according to the Tourist Authority of Thailand. However, the welfare of these elephants has been questioned by animal activist groups, international tour operators, and the public. Conclusions that the vast majority of captive elephants are abused ofte...
Article
Full-text available
This review paper is a synthesis of results from multiple studies that we have conducted over the past several years using similar methodologies to identify factors related to welfare of captive populations of elephants in North American zoos and Thailand tourist camps. Using multiple conservation physiology tools, we found that, despite vastly dis...
Article
Full-text available
Elephant camps are among the most popular destinations in Thailand for tourists from many countries. A wide range of management strategies are used by these camps, which can have varied impacts on health and welfare of elephants. The objectives of this study were to examine relationships between FGM (fecal glucocorticoid metabolite) concentrations...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated how camp management and tourist activities affect body condition, adrenocortical function, lipid profiles and metabolic status in female tourist elephants. We compared twice monthly serum insulin, glucose, fructosamine, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL),...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Variation in management across elephant camps likely has differential effects on the well-being of elephants. Methods: This study calculated body condition, foot health and skin wound scores (WSs) for 122 elephants from 15 elephant camps in Chiang Mai province, and examined relationships to management factors using a multi-variable m...
Article
Full-text available
Additional measures of well-being would be beneficial to the management of a variety of species in human care, including elephants. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an immune protein associated with pathogen defense, which has been demonstrated to decrease during times of stress, and increase in response to positive stimuli. This paper describes the devel...
Article
Full-text available
We previously found relationships between body condition and physiological function affecting health and welfare of female tourist camp elephants in Thailand, and used that approach to conduct a similar study of bull elephants in the same camps (n = 13). A body condition score (BCS) was done every other month, and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (F...
Article
Elephant tourism in Thailand has developed into an important socio-economic factor after a logging ban initiated in 1989 resulted in thousands of out-of-work elephants. However, the welfare of captive elephants has been a topic of intense debate among tourists, scientists and stakeholders because of the range of working conditions and management pr...
Preprint
Full-text available
We previously found relationships between body condition and physiological function affecting health and welfare of female tourist camp elephants in Thailand, and used that approach to conduct a similar study of bulls elephants in the same camps (n = 13). Elephants received a body condition score (BCS) every other month, and fecal glucocorticoid me...
Article
Full-text available
Background Elephant camps are among the most attractive destinations in Thailand for tourists from many countries. A wide range of management strategies are used by these camps, which can have varied impacts on health and welfare of elephants. Methods This study surveyed 33 camps with 627 elephants in northern Thailand to quantify the types of man...
Article
Full-text available
Studies in western zoo elephants have found relationships between body condition and physiological function, and identified mitigating management strategies to optimize health and welfare. A similar methodological approach was used in this study, which evaluated a body condition score (BCS; 1 = thinnest, 5 = fattest) every other month and fecal glu...
Article
Full-text available
Numbers of wild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have been decreasing gradually throughout Asia due primarily to human activities, such as poaching, and habitat encroachment and destruction that lead to human–elephant conflict. Sustainability problems exist in captive populations as well, where morbidity and mortality rates are high and reproducti...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the use of handheld X-ray uorescence, for elephant tusk species identi cation. Asian (n = 72) and African (n = 85) elephant tusks were scanned and we utilized the species di erences in elemental composition to develop a functional model di erentiating between species with high precision. Spatially, the majority of measured elements (n =...
Article
Full-text available
Feto-maternal blood incompatibility causes hematological defects that can result in abortion and neonatal anemia and may lead to calf loss, including in elephants. The aim of this study was to examine blood compatibility in Asian elephants using the indirect antiglobulin technique, for use as a breeding management tool to reduce the risk of elephan...

Citations

... Despite their importance, the number of captive elephants dramatically decreased by 95% in the last century in Thailand [1]. In countries other than Europe, the populations of Asian elephants are not self-sustainable, possibly due to the low birth rates, high mortality and imbalance of sex ratios [2,3]. It has been challenging to obtain optimal sperm quality consistently because high variations in sperm quality have been noted between bulls and even among ejaculates from an individual [4][5][6]. ...
... Behavioral incompetence may be dire for released animals, in particular where animals may cause harm to human lives or livelihoods (Gusset, 2009;Bansiddhi et al., 2020). Post-release success can be difficult to achieve, requiring iteration and evaluation, as noted often in the conservation translocation literature (Wolf et al., 1996;IUCN/SSC, 2013;Guy et al., 2014;Berger-Tal et al., 2020). ...
... Provision of appropriate social structure and ample behavioral and environmental enrichment may prevent the occurrence of conflict and stereotypical behaviors amongst herd members [23] and potentially reduce the incidence of unfavorable interactions. This study's findings support previous conclusions that improved welfare benefits the overall health of the individual elephant [39]. As elephant management continues to evolve [21], revisiting this survey model in the upcoming decade has the potential to elucidate the true impact of these management practices on reducing the incidence of tusk fractures in managed elephants globally. ...
... In recent years, there have been efforts by researchers and animal welfare scientists to work with elephant tourism operators in southeast Asia and southern Africa to engage in sharing of knowledge and expertise [34], and to co-develop evidence-based elephant management guidelines that are designed to provide positive elephant welfare [5,35]. However, whilst the outputs of this work in the Asian elephant tourism industry are well published (e.g., [5,10,36]), there is a paucity of published literature on elephants from southern African facilities. ...
... Furthermore, metabolism and fGCM concentration changes may be influenced by tourist numbers, nutrition from visitor feeding, or work activity. In addition, elephant work time and walking distance positively affected health status and reduced stress [54,55]. In a related study, the elevated fGCM of timber elephants may have been associated with intense workloads and may not represent chronic stress [12]. ...
... Concern about the elephants' welfare has grown. Research documents that management practices for these elephants sometimes have caused poor body condition, foot problems, and wounding [9]. Feeding sweet treats, maintaining elephants on hard substrates, and misusing disciplinary equipment were found to affect the health and welfare of the elephants. ...
... Munro, UC, Davis, CA, USA). Microtiter plates were coated following methods described in Edwards et al. [47] with the exception that wells were emptied and plates blotted dry to remove unbound antibody after the first incubation rather than washed with wash buffer. The R156/7 antibody (1:187,500) and HRP (1:100,000) were diluted in assay buffer (Cat. ...
... The youngest male exhibited a higher rate of change in inter-musth cortisol concentrations, with an increase of approximately 20 ng/mL, which could be related to exacerbation of his joint issues similar to other cases of poor joint health in elephants [77,78]. In the three older bulls, inter-musth basal cortisol levels did not increase with age, suggesting these individuals maintained good body condition and healthy metabolic profiles, consistent with findings by Norkaew et al. [79] for Asian elephant bulls ages 16-50 in tourist facilities in Thailand. ...
... However, there are potentially significant negative implications for the welfare of animals involved in these experiences [4]. One of the most highly debated and controversial of these is the elephant tourism industry [5]. Asian elephants have been used for work for several thousand years and they have a significant cultural-heritage value [6]. ...
... The management of captive Asian elephant populations, although genetic diversity, must be considered. Kriangwanich et al. (2018) reported the genetic diversity of captive Asian elephants in northern Thailand from 97 samples collected in 7 elephant camps. The genetic diversity index was 2.415±0.054, ...