P V Komi's research while affiliated with University of Jyväskylä and other places

Publications (202)

Article
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The Achilles tendon moment arm (MA_AT) and foot lever ratio (FLR) can play important roles for force production and movement economy during locomotion. This notion has become more relevant, and suggestion has been given that the Kenyan runners belonging to the world elite would have specific anatomical, mechanical, and functional properties in thei...
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The present study examined the muscle-tendon interaction of ten international level Kenyan runners. Ultrasonography and kinematics were applied together with EMG recordings of lower limb muscles during repetitive hopping performed at maximal level. The ten Kenyans had longer gastro Achilles tendon at rest (p < 0.01) as compared with ten control sub...
Article
Aging is related to multiple changes in muscle physiology and function. Previous findings concerning the effects of aging on motor unit discharge rate (DR) and fluctuations in DR and force are somewhat contradictory. Eight YOUNG and nine OLD physically active males performed isometric ramp (RECR) and isotonic (ISO) plantar flexions at 10 and 20% of...
Article
The present study investigated the regulation of leg and joint stiffness in hopping at different intensity levels. Eight male subjects performed bilateral hopping at various intensity levels that were determined by peak vertical ground reaction force (GRF). In addition to the GRF, the measurements included hopping kinematics and electromyography (E...
Article
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In animal studies, bone adaptation has been initiated successfully without the transient force spike associated with high impact exercises. Consequently, a 12-week bilateral hopping on the balls of the feet intervention was conducted. 25 elderly men (age 72(SD4) years, height 171(6) cm, weight 75(9) kg) were randomly assigned into exercise and cont...
Article
It was hypothesized that exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD)-related alterations in hormonal responses could be observed if a second exercise bout is performed soon after an identical unaccustomed bout leading to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Eight men (31 ± 7 years) and eight boys (14 ± 0 years) performed two exercise bouts (E1 and E2, w...
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Both contraction type and ageing may cause changes in H-reflex excitability. H reflex is partly affected by presynaptic inhibition that may also be an important factor in the control of MU activation. The purpose of the study was to examine age related changes in H-reflex excitability and motor unit activation patterns in dynamic and in isometric c...
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The osteogenicity of a given exercise may be estimated by calculating an osteogenic index (OI) consisting of magnitude and rate of strain. Volleyball involves repetitive jumping and requires high power output and thus may be expected to be beneficial to bone and performance. The purpose of the present study was to examine if habitual volleyball pla...
Article
Given the adaptation of bone to prevalent loading, bone loss should follow, but lag behind, the decline in physical performance during aging. Furthermore, bone responsiveness to load-induced strains is believed to decrease with aging. However, the relationship between bone and lean body ( approximately muscle) mass appears to remain rather constant...
Chapter
IntroductionCharacteristics of the Takeoff PerformanceOptimal Aerodynamic Position After the TakeoffLimiting Neuromuscular Factors in Ski-Jumping TakeoffUse of Electromyography During Ski-JumpingConcluding RemarksReferences
Chapter
IntroductionMuscle Mechanics and Performance Potentiation in SSCRole of Stretch Reflexes in Force Enhancement During SSCFatigue Effects of SSC ExerciseReferences
Article
Dystrophin associated protein alpha-syntrophin is known to interact with voltage-gated sodium ion channel (NaCh). Dystrophin is known to be sensitive to eccentric muscle actions. For this reason, the function of the NaChs might also be affected. Molecular adaptations of dystrophin, alpha-syntrophin and NaChs were investigated after fatiguing stretc...
Article
The aim of this study was to examine how the fascicle-tendon interaction takes place in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SOL) muscles during drop jumps (DJ) performed from different drop heights (DH). Eight subjects performed unilateral DJ on a sledge apparatus from different DH with maximal rebounds. Reaction forces and electromyography,...
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Muscle mass and strength have been shown to be important factors in bone strength. Low muscular force predisposes to falling especially among elderly. Regular exercise helps to prevent falls and resulting bone fractures. Better understanding of muscle function and its importance on bone properties may thus add information to fracture prevention. Th...
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Muscle- and movement-specific fascicle-tendon interaction affects the performance of the neuromuscular system. This interaction is unknown among elderly and consequently contributes to the lack of understanding the age-related problems on neuromuscular control. The present experiment studied the age specificity of fascicle-tendon interaction of the...
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Previous studies demonstrated that no significant relationships exist between salivary and serum IL-6 in resting conditions and following exercise and that appropriate saliva collection procedures allow to avoid analytical drawbacks. This investigation aimed to: (a) compare the effects of two methods of saliva collection on IL-6 assay; (b) search f...
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In the present study, the fascicle length (L(fa)) of the human medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle was monitored to evaluate possible input from the short-latency stretch reflex (SLR) during the stance phase of running and to examine its timing at various running speeds. Eight subjects ran at 2.0, 3.5, 5.0, and 6.5 m/s. The L(fa) was measured with the...
Article
Utilization of elastic energy in the tendinous tissues (TT) of the human skeletal muscle may be task dependent. The present study was designed to investigate this problem by comparing the fascicle-TT interaction of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) during ground contact of running and walking. Seven subjects ran and walked with a natural cadence...
Article
The present study examined the effects of muscle activity modulation on leg stiffness during an exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise in eight male subjects. Reaction force, electromyography (EMG) of the soleus (Sol), gastrocnemius (Ga) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles and sledge seat position were recorded during the SSC exercise, co...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was designed to examine fascicle-tendon interaction in the synergistic medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (Sol) muscles during drop jumps (DJ) performed from different drop heights (DH). Eight subjects performed unilateral DJ with maximal rebounds on a sledge apparatus from different DH. During the exercises, fascicle lengths (u...
Article
Effects of power training with stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercises on mechanical efficiency (ME) were investigated with 9 young women who trained 3 times a week for 4 months. The training included various types of jumping exercises. Before and after the training as well as after the detraining (2 months) the subjects performed 6 different subm...
Article
The influence of marathon fatigue on both running kinematics and economy was investigated with 8 subjects. The measurements included a treadmill test at 3 steady submaximal speeds performed before and after the marathon. One complete left leg cycle was videotaped at 100 Hz from the left side at each speed. The analysis included contact time (brakin...
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The influence of an individual marathon race was investigated among 7 subjects who performed 2 types of unilateral isometric strength tests before and after the race. The tests included maximal isometric voluntary actions (MVA) of the knee extensor muscles and isometric endurance of 60% of pre-marathon MVA. The results showed dramatic reductions of...
Article
Nine experienced endurance runners performed individual marathon runs that involved several tests of neuromuscular performance before, during and after the marathon. The tests were performed with special force platform and dynamometer techniques. The results showed an overall decrease in performance from the marathon. The maximal sprint velocity de...
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This study focused on the architectural changes in the muscle-tendon complex during the immediate and secondary (delayed) reductions of performance (bimodal recovery) caused by an exhaustive rebound type stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise. The isometric plantar flexor torque during maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was measured together with...
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The influence of exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle exercise (SSC) on skeletal muscle blood flow (BF) during exercise is currently unknown. Quadriceps femoris (QF) BF was measured in eight healthy men using positron emission tomography before and 3 days after exhaustive SSC exercise. The SSC protocol consisted of maximal and submaximal drop jumps...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine a course of force potentiation and/or inhibition during maximal voluntary eccentric action. Maximal voluntary force (MVC) of elbow flexion of ten healthy male volunteers was measured during isometric and isokinetic eccentric action starting from 80 degrees or 110 degrees and ending at 140 degrees elbow angle...
Article
It is known that the short-latency stretch reflex (SLSR) is modulated by the background muscle activity when it is elicited at matched torque levels. This study was designed to examine the effects of muscle contraction types before a stretch perturbation on SLSR in the human soleus muscle (SOL) when SLSR was elicited at the same levels of effort an...
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The interaction between fascicle and tendinous tissues (TT) in short-contact drop jumps (DJ) with three different drop heights [low (Low), optimal (OP), and high (High)] was examined with 11 subjects. The ground reaction force (F(z)) and ankle and knee joint angles were measured together with real-time ultrasonography (fascicle length) and electrom...
Article
The present study examines changes in muscle structure and neuromuscular performance induced by 15 weeks of power training with explosive muscle actions. Twenty-three subjects, including 10 controls, volunteered for the study. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the gastrocnemius muscle before and after the training period, while maximal voluntary i...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between muscle fatigue and hormonal responses in maximal repetitive sprinting. Ten active male sprinters performed a maximal intensity sprint exercise session (10 x 50m with four minute recoveries). Blood samples were taken at rest and before and after the exercise session to meas...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the combined effects of muscle history, activation and stretching velocity on short latency stretch response (SLR). Stretches (70, 120 and 200 deg s-1) were elicited to both passive and active (10-25% MVC) triceps surae muscle with constant (ISO), lengthened (LEN) or shortened (SHO) muscle length....
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine neuromuscular factors that may contribute to post exercise force loss and subsequent recovery after exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise. Six subjects were fatigued on a sledge apparatus by 100 maximal rebound jumps followed by continuous submaximal jumping until complete exhaustion. Exercise-i...
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The present study investigates the effects of power training on mechanical efficiency (ME) in jumping. Twenty-three subjects, including ten controls, volunteered for the study. The experimental group trained twice a week for 15 weeks performing various jumping exercises such as drop jumps, hurdle jumps, hopping and bouncing. In the maximal jumping...
Article
Foot loading patterns and neuromuscular function of both limbs during walking were investigated on 25 patients with limb length discrepancy. Plantar pressures and 2-D ground reaction forces were recorded simultaneously with electromyographic activities at two different walking speeds. Bilateral comparison indicated that moderate limb length discrep...
Article
Foot loading patterns and neuromuscular function of both limbs during walking were investigated on 25 patients with limb length discrepancy. Plantar pressures and 2-D ground reaction forces were recorded simultaneously with electromyographic activities at two different walking speeds. Bilateral comparison indicated that moderate limb length discrep...
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Effects of endurance exercise on running economy, mechanics, force generating capacity and their interactions were examined. During the exercise, metabolic, kinetic and kinematic variables were recorded to find out adaptive mechanisms in the course of the fatiguing run. In addition, before and after it maximal force and power production was tested....
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This study examined the fatigue effects of stretch-shortening cycle exercises of different intensity and duration on stretch reflex EMG and mechanical responses of the triceps surae muscle. Twelve subjects performed either a 10-km run ( n=6) or short but exhaustive rebound exercise on a sledge apparatus ( n=6). Passive reflex tests (mechanically in...
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This study described the effect of leucine supplementation on serum amino acid concentration during two different exercise sessions in competitive male power athletes. The subjects performed a strength exercise session (SES; n = 16; 26 +/- 4 years) or a maximal anaerobic running exercise session (MARE; n = 12; 27 +/- 5 years) until exhaustion twice...
Article
The interaction between fascicle and tendinous tissue of human vastus lateralis muscle was investigated during varying intensity stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) jumps performed on a sledge apparatus. Eight subjects performed single leg squat (SJ) and drop jumps (DJ) from a constant dropping height but to different rebound heights. The fascicle lengt...
Article
This study investigated the force-velocity characteristics of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle fascicle and muscle-tendon unit (MTU) in isolated lengthening and shortening actions, and during natural movement. Four subjects performed maximal eccentric and concentric knee extensions (60, 120 and 180 degrees s-1). Unilateral counter movement jumps an...
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The present study examined the behaviour of the Achilles tendon (AT) - triceps surae (TS) muscle complex during running and long jump take-off. High AT forces were measured in the push-off phase in running even with very low EMG activity. In the long jump, high rate of stiffness development was a characteristic of the braking phase of the jump. The...
Article
Motor unit activation patterns were studied during four different force levels of concentric and eccentric actions. Eight male subjects performed concentric and eccentric forearm flexions with the movement range from 100 degrees to 60 degrees in concentric and from 100 degrees to 140 degrees elbow angle in eccentric actions. The movements were star...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the fatigue effect of repeated exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise on concentric muscle function. Ten healthy male subjects performed SSC exercise [92 (30) jumps] on a special sledge apparatus. Exhaustion occurred on average within 3 min. A squat jump (SJ) test utilizing a concentri...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate serum amino acid responses to 3 different exercise sessions in male power athletes (sprinters and jumpers; n=11). All subjects performed 2 running exercise sessions: a short run session (SRS) of 3 x 4 x 60 m with recoveries of 120 and 360 sec, and a long run session (LRS) of 20 sec runs with recoveries o...
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute and long-term fatigue effects of exhausting stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise on the stiffness of ankle and knee joints. Five subjects were fatigued on a sledge apparatus by 100 maximal rebound jumps followed by continuous submaximal jumping until complete exhaustion. Neuromuscular fat...
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the interaction between the pre-landing activities and the stiffness regulation of the knee joint musculoskeletal system and the takeoff speed during a drop jump (DJ). Nine healthy male subjects performed a DJ test from the height of 50 cm. The surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastu...
Article
Muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV) may be affected by the level of voluntary activation and by the diameter of the fiber. Both the frequency component of the electromyography (EMG) power spectrum, such the as median frequency (MF) or mean power frequency, and the duration of muscle compound action potential to single supramaximal electrical impu...
Article
This study was designed to examine the effects of varying types of background muscle activity on the stretch-reflex mechanical response. A rapid stretch was applied to the calf muscles after an isometric (pre-ISO), shortening (pre-SHO) and lengthening contraction (pre-LEN) with several pre-contraction levels, respectively. The stretch perturbation...
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The current investigation examined the effect of various types of background muscle contractions on the short-latency stretch reflex (SLR) elicited from the soleus muscle while subjects were in a sitting position. A stretch was applied to the calf muscles while they performed an isometric (pre-ISO), shortening (pre-SHO) and lengthening contraction...
Article
The aim of this study was to test the suitability of inverse dynamics method for instantaneous expression of joint kinetics and muscle function with various parts of the ground contact when running at different speeds. Nine male runners ran at speeds of 4.0 m x s(-1), 6.0 m x s(-1) and at their maximal speed. 2-D video analysis (200-frame x s(-1))...
Article
The frequency characteristics of the electromyogram (EMG) power spectrum, such as the median or the mean power frequency, as well as the duration of the muscle compound action potential response to a single supramaximal electrical stimulus (maximal M-wave) may both be related to the conduction velocity (CV) of the muscle fibre. To investigate this...
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In order to understand the possible mechanisms contributing to enhanced concentric performance in stretch-shortening cycle exercises in vivo the present study examined knee extension torque, electromyogram (EMG) activity and fascicle length of the vastus lateralis muscle in maximal and submaximal human movements. Maximal concentric knee extensions...
Article
Plantar pressures and activation of the four muscles (VL - vastus lateralis, GL - gluteus, TA - tibialis anterior and GA - lat. gastrocnemius) were measured from ten ski jumpers under simulated laboratory conditions with training shoes (Lab TS) and with jumping boots (Lab JB) as well as in actual hill jumping conditions (Hill). The most significant...
Article
The EMG power spectrum may shift towards higher frequencies with higher movement velocities. Fatigue, on the other hand, can cause a decrease in the frequency components. The purpose of this study was to examine acute effects of explosive (EE) and heavy resistance (HRE) concentric leg press exercise on muscle force, EMG and blood lactate. The EE in...
Article
The aim of the present study was to examine changes in the EMG power spectrum and in the maximal M-wave due to different activation levels of eccentric and concentric actions. Average EMG (aEMG) increased as the force increased but no consistent differences were observed in the amplitude of the maximal M-wave in any of the conditions. However, as t...
Article
The present study was designed to identify possible asymmetries between feet in human walking. Foot loading patterns of the slow (1.11 m·s-1), normal (1.53 m·s-1) and fast (1.94 m·s-1) speeds were investigated on 12 healthy volunteers. 2-D ground reaction forces (GRF) were measured by a 10m long force platform and a data-acquisition system was used...
Article
Eccentric and concentric force and median frequency of the EMG power spectrum were measured during and immediately after maximal eccentric (EE) and concentric (CE) exercise and during the recovery period of 1 week. Eight male subjects performed EE and CE consisting of 100 maximal eccentric and concentric actions with elbow flexors during two separa...
Article
Gait patterns of the preferred speed were investigated on 17 patients recovering (9 months-14 years) after reconstruction of severe tibial fractures. A novel data-acquisition system was used to record the plantar pressures as well as electromyographic (EMG) activities during walking. The results indicated incomplete recovery of symmetrical gait pat...
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The present study was designed to investigate interactions between running economy and mechanics before, during, and after an individually run marathon. Seven experienced triathletes performed a 5-min submaximal running test on a treadmill at an individual constant marathon speed. Heart rate was monitored and the expired respiratory gas was analyze...
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This study was undertaken to evaluate if possible changes in stretch- and H-reflexes could be related to the changes in the EMG activity of the cooled lower leg muscles observed during a stretch-shortening cycle exercise. Eight subjects wearing shorts and jogging shoes were exposed once to 27 degrees C and twice to 10 degrees C for 60 min each. Dur...
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of stretch-shortening-cycle-induced muscle damage on the time course of mechanical behaviour in the drop jump. Ten healthy male subjects performed submaximal stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise on a special sledge apparatus. Exhaustion occurred on average within 3 min. A drop jump (...
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An optic fiber (0.5 mm) was utilized for the study of Achilles tendon forces (ATF) in eight volunteers who walked over a 10 m force platform at three speeds [1.1+/-0.1 m x s(-1), 1.5+/-0.1 m x s(-1) and 1.8+/-0.2 m x s(-1)]. The presented ATF-time curves showed great intersubject variation in magnitudes of the sudden release of force after initial...