P M Kris-Etherton's research while affiliated with Pennsylvania State University and other places

Publications (201)

Article
There is ongoing debate as to whether public health guidelines should advocate reducing SFA consumption as much as possible to reduce the risk of chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). In considering both sides of this question, we identified a number of points of agreement, most notably that the overall dietary patterns in whic...
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The proposition that dietary SFAs should be restricted to the maximal extent possible (e.g., to achieve approximately half of current consumption) is based primarily on observational and clinical trial data that are interpreted as indicating a benefit of such limitation on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Further support is believed to derive fro...
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Based on decades of research, there is strong evidence that supports ongoing dietary recommendations to decrease intakes of SFAs and, more recently, to replace SFAs with unsaturated fat, including PUFAs and MUFAs. Epidemiologic research has shown that replacement of SFAs with unsaturated fat, but not refined carbohydrate and added sugars, is associ...
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Epidemiologic studies suggest that consumption of potatoes is associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases. However, few clinical trials have empirically tested these observational findings. The aim of this single-blind, randomized, crossover study was to evaluate the effect of daily potato consumption, compared to refined grains, on...
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Historically, low-carbohydrate (CHO) and very-low-CHO diets have been used for weight loss. Recently, these diets have been promoted for type 2 diabetes (T2D) management. This scientific statement provides a comprehensive review of the current evidence base available from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of low-CHO and ver...
Article
Background: An Omega-3 Index (O3I; EPA+DHA as a % of erythrocyte total fatty acids) in the desirable range (8%-12%) has been associated with improved heart and brain health. Objective: To determine the combination of fish intake and supplement use that is associated with an O3I of >8%. Design: Two cross-sectional studies comparing the O3I to E...
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Background: Observational evidence suggests higher nut consumption is associated with better glycemic control; however, it is unclear if this association is causal. Objectives: We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to examine the effect of tree nuts and peanuts on markers of glycemic control in...
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Background: The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend that the general population should consume about 8 ounces (oz.) per week of a variety of seafood, providing approximately 250 mg per day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that pregnant and lactating women should consume 8–12 oz. per week of...
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Background Consumption of almonds or dark chocolate and cocoa has favorable effects on markers of coronary heart disease; however, the combined effects have not been evaluated in a well‐controlled feeding study. The aim of this study was to examine the individual and combined effects of consumption of dark chocolate and cocoa and almonds on markers...
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There is substantial evidence that a higher intake of fish and/or long-chain (LC) n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is associated with health benefits. Consequently, dietary recommendations for fish and/or LC n–3 PUFA have been issued by numerous expert authorities worldwide to promote health and reduce CVD risk. Oily fish are the primary die...
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Background: Most previous studies regarding chronic inflammation and risk of myocardial infarction (MI) have lacked repeated measures of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and/or white blood cell (WBC) count over time. We examined whether cumulative average and longitudinal changes in these biomarkers were associated with subsequent MI r...
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Objective: To determine the effect of diets low in saturated fatty acids and high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) or polyunsaturated fatty acids on body composition in participants at risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods: This study was a randomized, crossover, controlled feeding study. Participants (n = 101, ages 49.5 ± 1.2, BMI 29...
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A healthy lifestyle is fundamental for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Investment in primary prevention, including modification of health risk behaviors, could result in a 4-fold improvement in health outcomes compared with secondary prevention based on pharmacological treatment. Th...
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Cardiometabolic diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide and are strongly linked to both genetic and nutritional factors. The field of nutrigenomics encompasses multiple approaches aimed at understanding the effects of diet on health or disease development, including nutrigenetic studies investigating the relationship between genetic varia...
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Proteins from plant-based compared with animal-based food sources may have different effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Numerous epidemiologic and intervention studies have evaluated their respective health benefits; however, it is difficult to isolate the role of plant or animal protein on CVD risk. This review evaluates the cur...
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Sodium reduction is an important component of a healthy dietary pattern to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Numerous authoritative scientific bodies and professional health organizations have issued population sodium intake recommendations, all of which are at least 1000 mg/d lower than the current average American sodium intake of nearly 3500 m...
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Most health care professionals are not adequately trained to address diet and nutrition-related issues with their patients, thus missing important opportunities to ameliorate chronic diseases and improve outcomes in acute illness. In this symposium, the speakers reviewed the status of nutrition education for health care professionals in the United...
Article
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Moreover, ischemic heart disease was ranked recently as the number one health problem in the world and stroke was number three. The nutrition-related risk factors causing the greatest 'loss of health' globally include low fruit consumption; high sodiu...
Article
Background and Aims Little is known about the effect of various dietary fatty acids on pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. We investigated the effect of 5 oils containing various amounts of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), oleic acid (OA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on plasma inflammatory biomarkers and expression levels of key...
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Dear Editor, We thank Ankarfeldt for his comments regarding our article (1). As he acknowledges, our intention was not to minimize the relevance of observational data as an important element of the evidence base for dietary recommendations or, indeed, to propose that observational studies cannot be the basis for valid conclusions regarding exposur...
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Nutrition is a recognized determinant in 3 (ie, diseases of the heart, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases) of the top 4 leading causes of death in the United States. However, many health care providers are not adequately trained to address lifestyle recommendations that include nutrition and physical activity behaviors in a manner that c...
Article
Given the pressing need to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality, there has been a focus on optimizing dietary patterns to reduce the many contributing risk factors. Over the past 2 decades, many studies have been conducted that have evaluated the effects of walnut consumption on CVD risk factors. Walnuts have been shown to de...
Article
Data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide the strongest evidence for establishing relations between exposures, including dietary exposures, and health outcomes. However, not all diet and health outcome relations can be practically or ethically evaluated by using RCTs; therefore, many dietary recommendations are supported by evidence pri...
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Front-of-pack labeling systems may provide additional guidance to that already available to facilitate the identification of foods that improve diet quality. We examined the association between choosing foods that meet criteria of an established front-of-pack labeling system with food-group and nutrient intakes and cardiometabolic risk factors. The...
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The workshop discussions focused on how low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment can be enhanced with the use of health information technology (HIT) in different clinical settings. A gap is acknowledged in LDL-C goal attainment, but because of the passage of the American Recovery & Reinvestment Act and the Health Information Tech...
Article
Inflammation links obesity with development of insulin resistance. Macrophages and phagocytic immune cells communicate with metabolic tissues to direct an inflammatory response caused by overnutrition and expanding adipose tissue. Marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), modulate i...
Article
Dietary guidance issued by various global government agencies recommends nut consumption within the context of a healthy-eating pattern. Nuts are nutrient dense and may promote nutrient adequacy. As an energy-dense food, nuts must replace other foods in the diet to prevent an excess of calories. We evaluated how recommending the inclusion of walnut...
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The term "fat" may refer to lipids as well as the cells and tissue that store lipid (ie, adipocytes and adipose tissue). "Lipid" is derived from "lipos," which refers to animal fat or vegetable oil. Adiposity refers to body fat and is derived from "adipo," referring to fat. Adipocytes and adipose tissue store the greatest amount of body lipids, inc...
Article
Walnut consumption improves cardiovascular disease risk; however, to our knowledge, the contribution of individual walnut components has not been assessed. This study evaluated the acute consumption of whole walnuts (85 g), separated nut skins (5.6 g), de-fatted nutmeat (34 g), and nut oil (51 g) on postprandial lipemia, endothelial function, and o...
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This study compares the effects of oat and barley bread on lipid profiles and blood glucose of type 2 diabetic patients. In a cross-over short-term trial, 36 type 2 diabetic patients having one lipid parameters out of the normal limit were randomly assigned into two bread groups. They were given 250 g oat or barley bread daily for 3 weeks. A total...
Article
During the past 30 years, rates of partial sleep deprivation and obesity have increased in the United States. Evidence linking partial sleep deprivation, defined as sleeping <6 hours per night, to energy imbalance is relevant to weight gain prevention and weight loss promotion. With a majority of Americans overweight or obese, weight loss is a reco...
Article
Background: Poor lifestyle behaviors, including suboptimal diet, physical inactivity, and tobacco use, are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Although even modest population shifts in risk substantially alter health outcomes, the optimal population-level approaches to improve lifestyle are not well established. Methods and results:...
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Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO) compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB) suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM) in women more so than in men. To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Twelve m...
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Research dating back to the 1950s reported an association between the consumption of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and risk of coronary heart disease. Recent epidemiological evidence, however, challenges these findings. It is well accepted that the consumption of SFAs increases low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), whereas carbohydrates, mono...
Article
Ergothioneine (ET) is a sulfur containing amino acid that functions as an antioxidant. Mushrooms are a primary source of ET containing from 0.4 to 2.0mg/g (dry-weight). The bioavailability of ET from mushrooms in humans remains unclear. We evaluated the bioavailability of ET in healthy men (n=10) in a pilot study, using a randomized, cross-over, do...
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This scientific statement reviews the pivotal role of triglycerides in lipid metabolism and reaffirms that triglyceride is not directly atherogenic but represents an important biomarker of CVD risk because of its association with atherogenic remnant particles and apo CIII. Although some familial disorders of triglyceride metabolism are associated w...
Article
A large body of data from epidemiologic, clinical trial, animal, and in vitro studies demonstrate adverse consequences of industrially synthesized trans fatty acids (TFAs) on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). A growing database of more recent research from virtually all experimental models demonstrates evidence of detrimental consequences o...
Article
Of the edible Soybean (SB) products in the U.S. market, the consumption of Soybean Oil (SBO) is the greatest because of its contribution to the diet. SBO is the major edible oil in the United States. The predominant dietary sources of SBO are salad and cooking oil (48%), and baking and frying fats (34%). SBO has a unique fatty acid profile; it is c...
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Nuts (ground and tree) are rich sources of multiple nutrients and their consumption is associated with health benefits, including reduced cardiovascular disease risk. This has prompted recommendations to increase their consumption. However, they are also high in fat (albeit largely unsaturated) and are energy dense. The associations between these p...
Article
On the basis of the information discussed in this review, we can conclude that the effects of a high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) from olive oil include a wide range of healthy benefits beyond improvement in cholesterol levels, suggesting that this type of diet has great potential in preventing cardiovascular disease. MUFA-enriched...
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Weight loss causes bone mineral loss. Higher protein diets continue to be criticized for further potential harmful bone effects, including elevated urinary calcium, but may promote bone health if protein sources include dairy. Overweight middle-aged subjects (n = 130, 59 males) were randomized to a diet providing 1.4 g.kg(-1).d(-1) protein and 3 da...
Article
During the past few decades numerous studies have reported the atherogenic potential of saturated fatty acids, trans-fatty acids, and cholesterol, and beneficial effects of fiber, phytostanols/phytosterols, n-3 fatty acids, a Mediterranean diet, and other plant-based approaches. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive and systemat...
Article
ardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Approximately 80% of patients with coronary heart disease have at least one of the four major risk factors— hypertension, dyslipidemia, di- abetes, and smoking—that can be modified through life- style changes (1,2). Trained in biological and food science as well as nutrition...
Article
To examine the effect of substituting canola oil for selected vegetable oils and canola oil-based margarine for other spreads on energy, fatty acid, and cholesterol intakes among US adults. Twenty-four-hour food recall data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to calculate the effect of substituting...
Article
Modeling analyses using the MyPyramid intake patterns were conducted in collaboration with the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in response to their research questions and to determine likely effects of possible recommendations on overall dietary adequacy. Scenarios modeled included the feasibility of using the food patterns for lacto-ovo...
Chapter
Introduction Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a leading cause of death in the UK. Coronary heart disease, the most prevalent CVD, accounts for 117 000 deaths yearly in the UK. Moreover, almost 270 000 individuals have a heart attack annually, and approximately 30% die before reaching health-care facilities. Priorities for CHD prevention in clinica...
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The dietetic community must actively participate in the implementation of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for both individuals and populations. By virtue of our training and practice experience, we are well positioned to assume a leading role in improving the health of Americans. Moreover, the dietetic community should make use of the research opportun...
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1. Ageing represents a great concern in developed countries because the number of people involved and the pathologies related with it, like atherosclerosis, morbus Parkinson, Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, cognitive decline, diabetes and cancer. 2. Epidemiological studies suggest that a Mediterranean diet (which is rich in virgin olive oil...
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Aging represents a great concern in developed countries because the number of people involved and the pathologies related with it, like atherosclerosis, Parkinson, Alzheimer, vascular dementia, cognitive decline, diabetes and cancer. Epidemiological studies suggest that a Mediterranean diet (which is rich in virgin olive oil) decreases the risk of...
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We examined the acute postprandial effects of meals containing unsaturated fatty acids on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery and triacylglycerols in individuals with type 2 diabetes. We hypothesised that consumption of omega-3 fatty acids would enhance vascular function. Saturated fat reduces FMD for several hours, but there is inc...
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At this time, the scientific data do not justify the use of antioxidant vitamin supplements for CVD risk reduction. This position is consistent with recommendations that have been made by the AHA in 2004 for the prevention of CVD in women as well as by the American College of Cardiology and AHA in 2002 for patients with chronic stable angina. CVD r...
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Identifying bioactive compounds and establishing their health effects are active areas of scientific inquiry. There are exciting prospects that select bioactive compounds will reduce the risk of many diseases, including chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Recent findings have established that cardiovascular disease is a disease of infl...
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Since the first AHA Science Advisory “Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Lipids, and Coronary Heart Disease,”1 important new findings, including evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), have been reported about the beneficial effects of omega-3 (or n-3) fatty acids on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with preexisting CVD as well as in he...