P L Ghilardi's research while affiliated with Università di Pisa and other places

Publications (33)

Chapter
Acupuncture [1] may be considered a valid and efficacious tool in the treatment of cervically originated vertigo, since it intervenes on a known physiopathological substrate [2]. It exerts its function through the activation of the transducers in the skin and in the surface and deep muscles in the neck, which are capable of affecting the vestibulos...
Chapter
The quiet upright position (Stance) is controlled by three distinct sensorial cues organs: visual, somatosensorial (from skin and pressure sensors in the feet) and vestibular (mainly from otolithic maculae).
Article
Viral infection is the most frequent cause of unilateral acute peripheral vestibulopathy (APV). Another possible cause is a vascular disorder in the labyrinth area associated with alterations in hemostasis. In a group of 45 patients with APV and in a series of 25 patients with Ménière's disease (control group), we evaluated blood parameters, includ...
Article
Balance disturbances are some of the most common symptoms among the clinical manifestations of chronic myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) with a high platelet count, such as essential thrombocythaemia (ET) and polycythaemia vera (PV). In this study, we evaluated the vestibulo-oculomotor and vestibulospinal reflexes in a group of patients suffering...
Article
Full-text available
Forty-five patients suffering from Menière's disease were submitted to pressure chamber therapy: 20 with constant pressure (2.2 ATA, hyperbaric treatment) and 25 with continuous variations in pressure levels (from 1.7 to 2.2 ATA, alternobaric treatment). Oxygenation therapy consisted of one session per day lasting 90 minutes for 15 days during the...
Article
Various proteins have been detected in human nasal mucus, but their electrophoretic pattern has not been extensively investigated. Therefore, we have studied this pattern in nasal mucus samples from a group of 40 healthy subjects (20 males and 20 females). The electrophoretic separations have been performed under both native and denaturing conditio...
Chapter
Acupuncture [26] may be considered a valid and efficacious tool in the treatment of cervically originated vertigo since it intervenes on a known physiopathological substrate [7]. It exerts its function through the activation of the transducers in the skin and in the surface and deep muscles in the neck, which are capable of affecting the vestibulo-...
Chapter
Traumatic damage to the soft tissue in the neck may cause the onset of vertigo and dizziness in a large number of cases [13, 31, 47, 49]. The attacks of vertigo and dizziness may last for months after the injury, although these usually decrease significantly as the neck pain subsides. The dizzy Symptoms which follow even a rather light case of whip...
Article
Recently, high levels of anti-collagen II (CII) antibodies have been found in a significant percentage of patients with Meniere's disease (MD). An immune response against other collagens (C) present in the basal membranes has also been suggested by the presence of anti-CIV and anti-laminin antibodies in a number of instances of progressive systemic...
Article
Delayed Endolymphatic Hydrops (DEH) is a clinical entity which is characterized by an early phase with a profound sensorineural hearing loss in one ear. After a prolonged period of time (from 1 to 68 years) a late phase of the disease appears with different otologic symptoms. The ipsilateral type of endolymphatic hydrops appears in the deaf ear wit...
Article
11 pazienti portatori di neoplasia in fase avanzata del distretto otormolaringojatrico sono stati sottoposti a Chemioterapia intraarteriosa (CHIA) con Carboplatino somministrato in cicli ripetuti. Sono stati valutati gli effetti collaterali secondo criteri clinico-ematologici con l'obiettivo di testare la massima dose tollerata del farmaco (studio...
Article
This study on equilibrium disturbances employed the Head Shaking Test (HST), with manoeuvres similar to those used in studying the Vestibule Oculomotor Reflex (VOR) as well as the Vestibule Spinal Reflex (VSR), following a posturographic technique. Two hundred and forty-eight patients suffering of equilibrium disturbance of peripheral (168 cases) a...
Article
Among the various aetiopathogenetic hypotheses regarding Ménière's disease, the immunologic one has recently received a considerable amount of interest. Several studies have been performed using specific inner ear antigens (cell-mediated immunity) or by the evolution of circulating autoantibodies (i.e. against type II collagen or immune complex, et...
Article
Dizziness is doubtlessly one of the most common symptoms to arise in ischemia of the brainstem. In such cases the circulatory deficit can not only cause a direct lesion of the vestibular structures but it may also block the compensatory process. There are, however, significant difficulties in establishing whether such dizziness can be attributed to...
Article
A thorough study of vestibular function cannot be limited to the evaluation of VOR alone; it must also include the study of VSR which serves to control erect stance under both static and dynamic conditions. In unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions (UVL) computerized stabilometry makes it possible to perform a more accurate evaluation of the VSR...
Article
A case of leiomyoma of the nose is reported. The nose is a very rare site for tumours of myogenic origin. Up to date, only seven cases have been published. Anatomopathological considerations and etiopathogenetic hypotheses are discussed.
Article
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is quite frequently found as an otological consequence of cranial traumas; thus leading to medico-legal implications. An attempt has herewith been made to evaluate these implications on the basis of data available. Therefore, 158 patients suffering from BPPV were examined between 1984-1986. Of these 23% o...
Article
Vestibular Paresis (PL) and Directional Preponderance (PD) are the measurements found on caloric testing described by Fitzgerald and Hallpike (1942); frequency nystagmogram is the typical result of the torsion swing test of the French school. The differences between the two methods stimulated us to make a comparison of the results. Seventy-eight pa...
Article
Fifty-two adult patients affected by infectious otorhinolaryngological diseases were treated rectally with clofoctol, a new chemotherapeutic phenol derivative. The clinical diagnoses included tonsillitis, paranasal sinus infections, nose and nasopharyngeal infections, external ear canal and middle ear infections. Evaluation of the results was based...
Article
Twenty normal subjects have been submitted to a set of vestibular sinusoidal stimulations, the maximal acceleration per hemiperiod being constant. However the nystagmic response (number of beats per hemiperiod) was not constant, but increased during every single trial. The clinical consequences of this observation are discussed. In particular autho...
Article
The authors compare the results of three types of vestibular tests: the head-shaking test (HST), the detection of nystagmus of cervical origin, and caloric tests, in a group of vertigo sufferers. A positive HST was significantly correlated with caloric tests, which shows the complementary value of these two tests. By contrast, there was no correlat...
Article
For the vestibulo oculomotor reflex, a mathematical model capable of reproducing the main characteristics of ENG tracing, in both physiological and pathological conditions is proposed. In the model the fast phase was implemented only on the basis of mathematical facilities, while the slow phase path was structured on both anatomical and physiologic...

Citations

... Notably, Ghilardi, et al., reported that "cervical torsion trauma and balance disorders with cervical origin in general, such as those connected with pronounced antalgic contracture of the nape muscles due to cervical arthrosis, are the conditions which responded best to acupuncture. In fact, other groups of patients suffering from vertigo of other natures did not respond so well" (Ghilardi et al., 2014). ...
... Also, antibodies against collagen type II have been found in serum of MD patients (Yoo et al., 2001(Yoo et al., , 1982. Besides that, a study found the presence of autoantibodies in the serum of MD patients, but the authors could not determine whether the autoantibodies were the result of an inner ear inflammation or they occur before MD symptoms started (Fattori et al., 1994). ...
... The pathology of Meniere's disease is still unknown; however, previous studies had proposed that viral infections and autoimmune processes may play a role in the induction of the disease. Since last century, Ryan [38] postulated that Meniere's disease might be an immune-mediated or even an autoimmune condition. Many studies have demonstrated that they have extracted circulating antibodies against antigens in bovine inner ear of patients with Meniere's disease such as anti-heat shock protein 70 (HPS70) antibody, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, antinuclear antibody (ANA), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and so on [8,32,[39][40][41][42]. ...
... SPECT was to be a more valuable test than CT, MR and doppler ultrasonograph in this study. Casani et al. mentioned that SPECT demonstrated hypoperfusion in 15 of 18 patients with vertigo, in contrast CT and MR were normal [22]. ...
... A quiet stance is usually not impaired in patients with compensated vestibular disorders [16,17] but may become unstable when other sensory inputs (e.g. visual, proprioceptive, somatosensory) are manipulated [18– 20], when adopting unusual attitudes [17,21] or during movement of the head [22,23] or body [24]. ...
... In the majority of patients, the cause of BPPV is unknown. Possible causes include head trauma [13,14] or after viral neuro labyrinthitis [15,16] .There is an increased incidence of BPPV in patients with Menieres disease and or migraine [17,18] .Other causes are vestibular lesions in combination with sudden deafness, aerotitis, blood diseases (polycythemia), hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and dental surgery and drilling [19] . Occasionally BPPV can occur ...
... This antibacterial drug was developed in the late 1970s. Its efficacy has been demonstrated for the treatment of Streptococcus pneumoniae-the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide-and Staphylococcus aureus [15,16]. The drug was marketed in France until 2005 under the trade name Octofène and is still prescribed in Italy under the trademark GramPlus. ...
... NHHL in CDEH has been referred to congenital and acquired forms and, in the latter group, the hearing suffering con be due to sudden hearing loss, head or acoustic trauma, ear surgery, viral infection, otitis media, streptomicin, meningitis, inner ear abnormality or idiopathic (Nadol JB et al., 1975;Casani A et al., 1993;Shojaku H et al., 2010). The age of appearance of NHHL is between birth and 70 and the interval between the two events ranges from 1 to 70 years (Wolfson RJ et al., 1975;Shuknecht HF et al., 1978;Giannoni B et al., 1998;Shuknecht HF et al., 1990;Casani A et al., 1993;Shojaku H et al., 2010). ...
... Several techniques have been described for the collection of nasal secretions and tears. Standardization is needed, because the sampling method has an important influence on the results obtained [9]. The present review aims to get an overview on the most common methods of nasal secretions and tears sampling and on testing of their content in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and other mediators. ...
... 11 HBOT is also capable of causing a reduction in hematocrit and blood viscosity, and this can lead to a rheologic effect in the cochlear region. 15 Few studies evaluated the efficacy of salvage HBOT in patients who failed conventional primary medical therapy. The rate of patients who showed auditory improvement after salvage HBOT ranged from 23% to 86%. ...