P. H. Patterson's research while affiliated with Pennsylvania State University and other places

Publications (68)

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Insects have application in poultry feed because of their capacity to sustainably repurpose wastes into nutrient-dense feeds, combined with the demand for poultry meat and eggs in the diets of the growing human population. Additionally, poultry naturally consumes insects, thus insects may enhance poultry welfare. Several insects are commercially re...
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Recently, the US FDA and Association of American Feed Control Officials approved Black Soldier Fly larvae (BSFL) as a feed ingredient for poultry. The objectives of this work were 1) to evaluate the nutritional profile of BSFL oil and meal in laying hens, and 2) measure the impact of the BSFL treatments on hen performance and egg quality. In two ex...
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In the United States, every year an average of 287.1 eggs are consumed per person and over 14.1 billion eggs are set in hatchery incubators to produce chicks destined for the egg and meat bird industries. By reducing the microbial load on eggs, food-borne associated outbreaks can be reduced while good chick health is maintained. Pulsed Ultraviolet...
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This study evaluated the pulsed UV light treatment for the inactivation of Escherichia coli K12 and Salmonella Enteritidis in liquid egg white. Three parameters (treatment time, volume of liquid egg white, and distance from the sample to the pulse UV strobe) have been optimized for log reductions of microorganisms using response surface methodology...
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Unpasteurized liquid egg can be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms and may cause foodborne outbreaks. Thus, it is essential to decontaminate the liquid egg to ensure food safety. Pulsed UV light is one of the emerging technologies for food decontamination in recent years. This static treatment system has been studied previously in our labo...
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This study evaluated reduced dietary CP and supplementing amino acid analogs to sustain growth and carcass weight in 0- to 21-day-old Cobb × Avian-48 male broiler chicks. A total of 6 diets with 3 levels of CP (22.5, 19.5, and 16.5%) and 2 sources of AA analogs, either synthetic amino acids (SA) or keto-/hydroxy-acids (KA), were assigned randomly t...
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Vegetated filter strips (VFSs) are a best management practice (BMP) commonly implemented adjacent to row-cropped fields to trap overland transport of sediment and other constituents present in agricultural runoff. Although they have been widely adopted, insufficient data exist to understand their short and long-term effectiveness. High inter-event...
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The livestock industries are a major contributor to the economy of the northeastern United States. Climate models predict increased average maximum temperatures, days with temperatures exceeding 25 °C, and higher annual precipitation in the Northeast. These environmental changes combined with increased atmospheric CO2 concentration are expected to...
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The United States organic poultry industry is currently facing a limitation on dietary inclusion of synthetic methionine (Met). This study investigated Brazil nut protein powder (BNPP), spray-dried egg white (SDEW), and spray-dried egg blend (70:30 albumen: yolk) (SDEB) as alternatives to synthetic Met in organic laying hen diets. A total of 270 Hy...
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Consumption of shell eggs has been associated with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections in humans in the United States. Because of this, the Pennsylvania Egg Quality Assurance Program (PEQAP) was developed and implemented in 1994. The PEQAP involves periodic flock testing and management practices to minimize SE contamination of shell eggs. Subseq...
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The Pennsylvania Egg Quality Assurance Program (EQAP) provided the framework for Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) control programs, including the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandated Final Egg Rule, for commercial layer facilities throughout the United States. Although flocks with ≥3000 birds must comply with the FDA Final Egg Rule, smaller flock...
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Reduction of potential environmental pollutants is a major issue for the sustainable development of the poultry industry. Accumulation of excessive manure and nitrogen poses a risk to animal and human health and ground and surface water cleanliness. In conventional poultry, synthetic amino acids and enzyme supplementations are commonly used to bala...
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Organic agriculture has increased greatly over the past several years as consumer demand for these products has risen. Organic meat production, including poultry, has grown especially quickly, resulting in increasingly stringent guidelines being put in place to ensure safe, uniform, and ideal products for these consumers. Feed formulation and manuf...
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Currently, synthetic methionine (Met) use in organic poultry diets in the United States is limited to 1, 1, and 1.5 kg per metric tonne of feed for laying hens, broilers, and turkeys and other poultry, respectively. This limitation, and the push to ban the use of synthetic Met entirely, makes it challenging to formulate diets to meet the requiremen...
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Organic poultry is an alternative to conventional poultry which is rapidly developing as a response to customers' demand for better food and a cleaner environment. Although organic poultry manure can partially be utilized by organic horticultural producers, litter accumulation as well as excessive nitrogen still remains a challenge to maintain envi...
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Synthetic methionine use is currently limited to 1 kg and 1.5 kg per metric tonne (2, 2, and 3 lbs per short ton) of feed for organic laying hens, broilers, and turkeys and other poultry, respectively, in the United States of America. All other synthetic amino acids (AA) have been banned from use in organic poultry diets in this country. It is chal...
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SUMMARY Salmonella contamination of laying hen flocks and shell eggs is associated with various management and environmental factors. Foodborne outbreaks of human salmonellosis have been traced back to consumption of Salmonella-contaminated shell eggs. In the present study, a systematic literature review was conducted to identify and provide an evi...
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Phenylpyruvic acid is deaminated form of phenylalanine and being used in various areas such as development of cheese and wine flavors, diagnosis of phenylketonuria, and to decrease the excessive nitrogen accumulation in the manure of farm animals. However, reported phenylpyruvic acid fermentation studies in the literature have been usually performe...
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Alpha keto acids are important food additives, which commonly produced by microbial deamination of amino acids. In this study, production of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), which is the alpha keto acid of phenylalanine was enhanced in 2-l bench scale bioreactors by optimizing of fermentation medium composition using the Box-Behnken Response Surface Metho...
Article
Nitrogen excretion from poultry facilities is one of the environment concerns. High levels of nitrogen excretion in poultry manure could cause eutrophication, nitrate or nitrite contamination in water, ammonia volatilization and acid deposition in the air. Therefore, minimizing nitrogen excretion in poultry manure is essential to maintain a clean e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) is an alpha keto acid, which has the potential to be used in monogastric animals' diets to prevent excessive nitrogen accumulation in their manure and adverse effects on the environment. PPA is also used as a flavor enhancer in the food industry and for kidney patients' diets to decrease urea accumulation in the body. Howev...
Article
Alpha keto acids are deaminated forms of amino acids that have received significant attention as feed and food additives in the agriculture and medical industries. To date, their production has been commonly performed at shake-flask scale with low product concentrations. In this study, production of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), which is the alpha keto...
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Salmonella Enteritidis is a leading food-borne pathogen in the United States, with many outbreaks in humans traced back to shell eggs. As a result, the implementation of effective strategies for reducing Salmonella Enteritidis in commercial layer flocks has become a critical public health and economic objective. In this paper, we share the findings...
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Forty layer farms from 2 states participated in a study to examine the risk factors and incidence of Salmonella Enteritidis from multiple samples, including environmental drag swabs from the bird areas, feed, water, flies, rodents, live rodent traps, and environmental swabs from areas occupied by other livestock. Twenty-four of these farms had betw...
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This investigation sought to determine if reduced CP, amino acid (AA) balanced laying hen diets could maintain egg production and quality while reducing feed costs or increasing farm revenue under commercial-scale conditions. A total of 50,760 Lohmann LSL Lite laying hens were divided into 3 groups that were each fed least-cost formulated corn-soyb...
Article
One of the environmental challenges that the poultry industry has been faced with is ammonia emission from manure. One way to reduce nitrogen excretion and emissions is supplementing dietary trace minerals to inhibit the activity of microbial uricase, a key enzyme converting nitrogen compounds in the manure into ammonia. Several dietary minerals ar...
Conference Paper
Studies show that amendments to poultry litter reduce ammonia emissions by reducing pH and moisture content. However these amendments require multiple applications to be successful. Salix (willow) naturally contains salicylic acid which has the potential to maintain a low pH thereby yielding low ammonia. The goal of this study was to compare choppe...
Conference Paper
Laboratory and field studies of diets containing distiller dried grains with solubles (DDGS) have reported reduced ammonia (NH3) emissions from egg laying hen manure. The study reported here was conducted on-farm in Pennsylvania, one of the major egg producing states. The goal was to document any changes in egg quality and gas emission improvements...
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This study evaluated whether broiler breeder hens immunized with uricase (UC), urease (UE), or UC + UE would develop antibody (IgY) titers against these enzymes to prevent manure-N degradation and NH(3) release. Ross × Arbor Acres hens were assigned to PBS (control), UC, UE, or UC + UE injection treatments. Each group had 19 hens per treatment. On...
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SUMMARY The potential of vegetative barriers to reduce dust and avian respiratory virus transmission from a 6-house commercial laying hen facility was evaluated in 3 trials using a combination spray vaccine for Newcastle disease virus (La Sota strain) and infectious bronchitis virus (Mass-Conn strains) as a model. Before each trial, 7-wk-old specif...
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An experiment was conducted to study the effects of microbial phytase (PHY), citric acid (CA), and Cu proteinate supplementation in broiler chickens (13 to 42 d of age) fed a low avail-able P diet (0.25%) on ileal and carcass microbiota of broiler chickens. A factorial arrangement of treatments (2 × 2 × 2) was used to evaluate 2 levels of PHY (0 an...
Conference Paper
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A USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Conservation Innovation Grant project coordinated by the United Egg Producers (UEP) conducted concurrent demonstrations in Iowa and Pennsylvania (PA) at commercial laying hen facilities. The goal was to document manure nutrient and gas emission improvements through the use of dried distiller’s grain...
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The majority of Salmonella Enteritidis outbreaks have been related to the consumption of raw or undercooked eggs or egg-containing foods. Therefore, the U.S. Department of Agriculture mandates egg washing for all graded eggs by use of a detergent solution and sanitizer. These agencies and the egg industry have been investigating alternative deconta...
Conference Paper
Camelina sativa is an oilseed plant from the Brassicaceae family. It has recently been grown in N. America for biodiesel production with the residual meal utilized as a dietary protein supplement with a significant complement of omega-3 fatty acids. An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary camelina meal (CM) supplementation...
Conference Paper
Camelina is an oilseed plant from the Brassicaceae family. It has recently been grown for biodiesel production with the meal utilized as a dietary protein supplement with a residual complement of omega-3 fatty acids. An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary camelina meal (CM) supplementation on broiler live performance and m...
Conference Paper
Diets including 10% DDGS with (D+P) or without (D) the probiotic Provalen (500g/1000kg) were compared with a corn-soybean based control diet (CON) in a commercial hen house. Three groups of 39,800 Lohmann LSL-Lite hens were fed isocaloric, amino acid balanced research diets from 20 to 65 wk of age with 2 of 6 rows of stacked cages with manure...
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An experiment was conducted to compare the responses of young broiler chickens to corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with flaxseed or camelina meal versus a corn-soybean meal control and the factorial effect of 150 mg/kg of Cu supplementation on performance and processing yield. A randomized complete block design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangemen...
Conference Paper
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different levels of camelina meal (CM) and flaxseed (FS) on egg yolk fatty acid (FA) composition of two strains of laying hens. Two hundred and ninety four Hy-Line W36 (W36) and two hundred and ninety four Hy-Line Brown (Brown) hens were allocated to a completely randomized block arrangement of...
Conference Paper
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An experiment was conducted to compare the responses of young broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with flaxseed (FS) or camelina meal (CM) versus a corn-soybean meal control diet and the factorial effect of 150 ppm added dietary copper (Cu) on performance and processing yield. A randomized complete block design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrang...
Conference Paper
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different levels of camelina meal (CM) and flaxseed (FS) on egg production and body weight of two strains of laying hens. Two hundred and ninety four Hy-Line W36 (W36) and two hundred and ninety four Hy-Line Brown (Brown) hens were allocated to a completely randomized block arrangement of...
Conference Paper
An experiment conducted to study the effects of microbial phytase (PHY), citric acid (CA) and copper proteinate (Cu) supplementation in broilers (13 to 42 d of age) fed a low available phosphorus diet (0.25 %) on ileal and carcass microflora of broiler chicks. A factorial arrangement (2 × 2 × 2) was used to evaluate 2 levels of PHY (0 and 750 u...
Article
Currently, most methods used by the food industry to decontaminate shell-eggs involve washing the egg surface with various chemical solutions. In this study, the effectiveness of pulsed UV-light was evaluated for the decontamination of shell-eggs. Samples inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis on top surface on the equator were treated with pulsed...
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The potential for plants to trap NH3 and dust [particulate matter (PM)] discharged from a layer house through the exhaust fans was evaluated at The Pennsylvania State University Poultry Education and Research Center in August 2006. Poultry and livestock NH3 emissions are a concern for air quality, surface deposition, and animal and human health. Pa...
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During Egg Safety Action Plan hearings in Washington, DC, many questions were raised concerning the egg temperature (T) used in the risk assessment model. Therefore, a national study was initiated to determine the T of eggs from oviposition through distribution. In part 1; researchers gathered data on internal and surface egg T from commercial egg...
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The Egg Safety Action Plan released in 1999 raised questions concerning egg temperature used in the risk assessment model. Therefore, a national study was initiated to determine the internal and external temperature sequence of eggs from oviposition through distribution. Researchers gathered data from commercial egg production, shell egg processing...
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The Egg Safety Action Plan released in 1999 raised many questions concerning egg temperature used in the risk assessment model. Therefore, a national study by researchers in California, Connecticut, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Texas was initiated to determine the internal and external temperature sequence of eggs from...
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The potential of vegetation to trap NH3 discharged from a layer house through the exhaust fans was evaluated at The Pennsylvania State University Poultry Education and Research Center in September 2005. Five tree species were planted in pot-in-pot containers in 5 rows downwind of the house fans and in 2 control rows upwind of the hen house. Each ro...
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This study sought to evaluate the potential of trees planted around commercial poultry farms to trap ammonia (NH(3)), the gas of greatest environmental concern to the poultry industry. Four plant species (Norway spruce, Spike hybrid poplar, Streamco willow, and hybrid willow) were planted on eight commercial farms from 2003 to 2004. Because tempera...
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This study evaluated the potential of trees planted around commercial poultry farms to trap ammonia (NH(3)) and dust or particulate matter (PM). Norway spruce, Spike hybrid poplar, hybrid willow, and Streamco purpleosier willow were planted on five commercial farms from 2003 to 2004. Plant foliage was sampled in front of the exhaust fans and at a c...
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Mash feed preparation is the widely practiced method of preparing and presenting feed to laying hens in the egg industry due to its economics, flexibility, and simplicity. However, this form of feed presents a wide range of particle sizes that are likely to segregate (i.e., large particles may separate from the small particles during feed delivery...
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A chamber study was conducted to evaluate the growth response and leaf nitrogen (N) status of four plant species exposed to continuous ammonia (NH3) for 12 weeks (wk). This was intended to evaluate appropriate plant species that could be used to trap discharged NH3 from the exhaust fans in poultry feeding operations before moving off-site. Two hund...
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6 USDA-NRCS-Big Flats Plant Materials Center, Corning, NY 14830. Abstract Trees have been planted for many years in agriculture settings for windbreaks and shade purposes. A new, but largely untested benefit may be as a visual screen for combating neighbor issues, as a barrier for flies, and as a filter for fan emissions from poultry and livestock...
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Air emissions generated by poultry production are numerous and can include dust, odors, endotoxins, microorganisms, and numerous gases. Ammonia (NH 3) emissions have the potential to contaminate surface waters and are an environmental concern on both a local and global scale. These emissions in and around poultry production facilities can be a heal...
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Air emissions generated by poultry operations are numerous and varied in form. The emissions have implications for the environment and for health of humans, animals, and plants. Regulations of emissions are being proposed and implemented; however, available data are inadequate to support the regulations. The current symposium began with a discussio...
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During commercial processing, eggs are washed in an alkaline detergent and then rinsed with chlorine to reduce dirt, debris, and microorganism levels. The alkaline and acidic fractions of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water have the ability to fit into the 2-step commercial egg washing process easily if proven to be effective. Therefore, the efficacy...
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The present study was conducted to determine the adverse effects of high temperature and humidity not only on live performance and egg quality but also on immune function in commercial laying hens. One hundred eighty 31-wk-old laying hens at peak production were used in this study. Hens were housed in cages (15 cages of 4 birds/cage) in each of 3 e...
Conference Paper
During commercial processing, eggs are washed in an alkaline detergent and then rinsed with chlorine to reduce dirt, debris, and microorganism levels. The alkaline and acidic electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water have the ability to fit into the two-step commercial egg washing process if proven to be successful. Therefore, the efficacy of EO water to d...
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Appetite suppressant activity of dietary excess Met was investigated in a 7-wk trial for the potential to restrict feed intake and the early growth of broilers as a means of reducing the incidence of ascitic mortality. A basal starter diet meeting the minimum NRC (1994) requirements for broilers was compared with a diet providing Met above the requ...
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This study was conducted to take advantage of the appetite-suppressant effect of excessive dietary amino acids in reducing feed intake and, in turn, restricting the early rapid growth of broilers to minimize metabolic disorders. Dietary amino acids were supplemented to a basal diet to yield a total of 1.57, 2.57, and 3.57% His; 2.7, 4.3, and 5.9% L...
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Two surveys were conducted to determine the quality of eggs offered to consumers in large supermarkets in various regions of the US. The first survey was conducted in California (CA) in 1994 and included 38 samples of large (L) and extra large (XL) white eggs in 15 markets. Individual eggs were weighed, candled, and broken out for Haugh unit (HU) d...
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Large eggs promoted as having one or more features beyond conventional white or brown shell eggs (specialty eggs) were evaluated for quality and price in a national retail study. Subtypes of specialty eggs included: nutritionally altered eggs, organic eggs, fertile eggs, eggs from welfare-managed hens, or hens fed all-vegetable diets. Extension Pou...
Article
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of plant species to trap NH3 discharged from poultry houses. The four plant species (cedar, locust, poplar, and grass) used in experiment (Exp) 1 and four species (spruce, arborvitae, poplar, and willow) used in Exp 2 were transplanted into 4- to 8-L pots and grown in four environmentally con...

Citations

... ruddin et. al., 2022). The BSF has a larger size than most other flies with a length of about 15-20 mm, black and transparent in the abdominal segment (Amrul et. al., 2022;Oliveira et. al., 2015). The larvae of BSF/BSFL has been known as a substitute for animal feed among fish, chicken, or even bird breeders Heuel et. al. [5]; (Katya et. al., 2017;Patterson et. al., 2021). Several study informed that BSFL reduces the cost of large animal feed production (Al-Qazzaz et. al., 2016) and has a fairly high protein content of about 40% and the BSFL prepupae has a capability to accumulate 58% of lipid in its body (Mohd-Noor et. al., 2017). Besides high protein content, BSFL also has benefits for the environment, ...
... Pulsed light (4.9 J/cm 2 ) delivered to the surface of shell eggs on a moving conveyor achieved reductions of 4.62 and 3.82 Log 10 CFU/cm 2 of Escherichia coli K12 and Enterococcus faecium, respectively (Cassar et al., 2021). Guner and Topalcengiz (2018) reported microbial reductions of 1.97 and 1.27 Log 10 CFU/g of yeast and mold, respectively on the surface of blueberries following a 90 s exposure to pulsed light. ...
... O processamento dos ovos para o controle da bactéria como a pasteurização (Moura-Alves et al., 2020) e tratamentos alternativos como por exemplo a luz Ultravioleta pulsada (Ouyang et al., 2020) e a radiofrequência (Yang & Geveke, 2020) são importantes maneiras de reduzir a carga microbiana dos ovos para consumo, assim como seus derivados, inclusive por serem métodos de conservação que pouco interferem nas propriedades funcionais dos ovos. No entanto, a qualidade inicial da matéria-prima é indispensável para garantir a qualidade do produto final, pois uma alta carga microbiana inicial pode resultar numa menor eficiência para reduzir a presença de bactérias patogênicas no produto final. ...
... All the investigated carcass characteristics: the carcass and body weight, dressing parentage, breast yield and abdominal fat were negatively affected by the restriction except for the leg yield, which increased with increasing the restriction level (Englmaierová et al., 2021). Lowering dietary CP levels from 22.5% to 16.5%, had a negative effect on the breast weight and fat pad weight (Adrizal et al., 2019). The replacement of soybean meal with fullfat black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens l.) larvae meal in the diets exceeding 50% significantly compromised the carcass, which contained less meat and more abdominal fat (Murawska et al., 2021). ...
... Consequently, selection and location of BMPs in a sub-basin needs to consider both the spatial and temporal inequalities of the sub-basin. For example, one of the most common structural BMPs, riparian buffers, is known to have lower effectiveness during higher flow events (Gall et al 2018;Liu et al 2017), but is most effective when spatially located to intersect shallow sheet flow (Piechnik et al 2012, Wallace et al 2018. Other BMPs to effectively capture high flow events may need to capture and treat the runoff over extended periods of times, such as retention ponds or detention basins, that are common in urban/suburban settings but less commonly implemented in agricultural landscapes. ...
... Salmonella enteritidis (SE) is a foodborne pathogen that colonizes the gastrointestinal tract of chickens, leading to persistent infection [1]. Recently the incidence of SE has increased in chickens, accounting for over half of the Salmonella serotypes identified [2]. ...
... However, broilers have different requirements for different responses (maximum body weight gain, maximum feed intake, maximum breast meat yield) based on strain/breed, age and gender. However, the use of synthetic MET in the diets of organic poultry and/or broilers is banned in the European Union [7] and the possibility of eliminating supplemental MET from organic poultry diets fully in the near future in the U.S. is possible [11]. The National Organic Standards Board has come up with a step-down program to reduce and eventually eliminate the use of MET by 2040 for newer organic poultry operations [9]. ...
... Cold stress is a major consequence of climate change, especially in the Northern hemisphere (Kang et al., 2016;Hristov et al., 2018), and results in economic losses and welfare issues in the worldwide livestock industry (Nguyen et al., 2016;Toghiani et al., 2020). Therefore, lower ambient temperatures during the winter season are a concern for cattle production systems in areas with harsh winters because it results in decreased growth (Kang et al., 2016), production (Young, 1981), and reproductive performance (Sasaki et al., 2016), as well as a compromised immune response (Kang et al., 2016). ...
... These antigenic variants are called H1 and H2 in the KWL scheme. National responses and regulatory actions for the three serotypes are different, and the U.S. poultry industry has eradicated S. Gallinarum and S. Pullorum due to their threat to the entire poultry industry; in contrast, S. Enteritidis remains a constant threat to the safety of the food supply [11,12]. Detection of S. Gallinarum or S. Pullorum in U.S. poultry flocks necessitates stringent quarantine and eradication measures to protect the economic viability of the egg industry. ...
... Excretion of both nitrogen and phosphorus were not measured from feces in the present study. Earlier studies have shown a better utilization of dietary nitrogen in laying hens fed on diets with decreased dietary CP contents without any substantial reduction in egg production (Summers, 1993;Meluzzi et al., 2001;Chalova et al., 2016). For more nutrition precision when aiming to determine nutrient requirements (e.g., energy, CP, amino acids, etc.) on an individual clutch basis, in addition to recording the number and weight of the eggs laid, the proportions of yolk and albumen should be also considered for modeling (Johnston and Gous, 2007). ...