P Ghadirian's research while affiliated with Canada College and other places

Publications (117)

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Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been associated with an excess risk of pancreatic cancer, but the magnitude of the risk and the time-risk relationship are unclear, and there is limited information on the role of antidiabetic medications. Patients and methods: We analyzed individual-level data from 15 case-control studies within the Panc...
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The risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is influenced by factors other than the genetic mutation itself. Modifying factors include a woman's reproductive history and family history of cancer. Risk factors are more likely to be present in women with breast cancer than in women without breast cancer, and therefore the risk...
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Human papillomavirus 45 (HPV45) is a member of the HPV18-related alpha-7 species and accounts for approximately 5% of all cervical cancer cases worldwide. This study evaluated the genetic diversity of HPV45 and the association of HPV45 variants with the risk of cervical cancer by sequencing the entire E6 and E7 open reading frames of 300 HPV45-posi...
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Background: The BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes confer increased susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer and to a spectrum of other cancers. There is controversy regarding the risk of colorectal cancer conferred by germline mutations in these two genes. Methods: We followed 7015 women with a BRCA mutation for new cases of colorectal cancer. Incidence ra...
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Peptic ulcer and its treatments have been associated to pancreatic cancer risk, although the evidence is inconsistent. We pooled 10 case-control studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Case-control Consortium (PanC4), including 4717 pancreatic cancer cases and 9374 controls, and estimated summary odds ratios (OR) using multivariable logistic regressio...
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Background: Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to pancreatic cancer. We estimated the incidence of pancreatic cancer in a cohort of female carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation. We also estimated survival rates in pancreatic cancer cases from families with a BRCA mutation. Methods: We followed 5149 women with a mutation for new cases...
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Background: Pancreatitis is a known risk factor for pancreatic cancer; however, an unknown fraction of the disease is thought to be a consequence of tumor-related duct obstruction. Patients and methods: A pooled analysis of a history of pancreatitis and risk of pancreatic cancer was carried out considering the time interval between diagnoses and...
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To evaluate the dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer and to examine the effects of temporal variables. We analyzed data from 12 case-control studies within the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4), including 6507 pancreatic cases and 12 890 controls. We estimated summary odds ratios (...
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Cigarette smoking is the best-characterized risk factor for pancreatic cancer. However, data are limited for other tobacco smoking products and smokeless tobacco. We conducted a pooled analysis of cigar and pipe smoking and smokeless tobacco use and risk of pancreatic cancer using data from 11 case-control studies (6056 cases and 11,338 controls) w...
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Heavy alcohol drinking has been related to pancreatic cancer, but the issue is still unsolved. To evaluate the role of alcohol consumption in relation to pancreatic cancer, we conducted a pooled analysis of 10 case-control studies (5585 cases and 11,827 controls) participating in the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium. We compu...
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The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of contralateral breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers; and measure the extent to which host, family history, and cancer treatment-related factors modify the risk. Patients were 810 women, with stage I or II breast cancer, for whom a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation had been identified in the family....
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In an ethnically-homogeneous population, it is valuable to identify founder mutations in cancer-predisposing genes. Founder mutations have been found in four breast-cancer-predisposing genes in French-Canadian breast cancer families. The frequencies of the mutant alleles have been measured neither in a large series of unselected breast cancer patie...
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#6084 We conducted a nested case-control study of 280 French-Canadian women with breast cancer who were non-gene carriers ( and 280 women without cancer who were also non-gene carriers. A validated lifestyle questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire were administered to obtain relevant information. It was found that age at the time the subje...
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Men with BRCA2 mutations have been found to be at increased risk of developing prostate cancer. There is a recent report that BRCA2 carriers with prostate cancer have poorer survival than noncarrier prostate cancer patients. In this study, we compared survival of men with a BRCA2 mutation and prostate cancer with that of men with a BRCA1 mutation a...
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Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation are at an elevated risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer; however, it is unclear to what extent family history influences the uptake of cancer prevention options. Women with a BRCA1/2 mutation completed a follow-up questionnaire that assessed uptake of cancer preventive options. The pedigree of each woman...
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The incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is very high among the Turkmen population of Iran. Family studies suggest a genetic component to the disease. Turkmen are ethnically homogenous and are well suited for genetic studies. A previous study from China suggested that BRCA2 might play a role in the etiology of ESCC. We screened fo...
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Although it has been suggested that dietary energy intake restriction may be related to reduced BRCA-associated breast cancer (BC) risk, it is currently not known whether overall diet quality could predict the BC risk among women with deleterious mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) genes who already have an elevated BC risk. To assess possible rela...
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The BRCAPRO, Couch, Myriad I and II, Ontario Family History Assessment Tool (FHAT), and Manchester models have been used to predict BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carrier status of women at high risk for developing the heritable form of breast and ovarian cancers. We have evaluated these models for their accuracy in classifying 224 French Canadian familie...
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Although the connection between diet, lifestyle and hormones suggests that nutritional and lifestyle factors may exert an influence in the etiology of breast cancer (BC), it is not clear whether these factors operate in the same way in women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) gene mutations who already have an elevated BC risk. A case-control study was co...
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Neutron activation analysis of toenails is often used to monitor body selenium in studies looking for an association between selenium deficiency and an increased cancer risk. In this study, 87 toenail samples were analyzed for Se four times, using neutron activation with 17.4-second 77mSe, to determine the possible systematic effects of long-term s...
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Although there are several plausible biologic mechanisms whereby coffee consumption might influence the risk of breast cancer, epidemiologic evidence is limited. We assessed the association between coffee consumption and breast cancer risk among high-risk women who carry BRCA mutations. We performed a matched case-control analysis on 1,690 women wi...
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A case-control study to explore associations between retinoids, tocopherols, total and beta-carotenes and breast cancer was conducted by analysing concentrations of these biomarkers in adipose tissue, cheek cells and plasma. A total of 414 French-Canadians in Montreal with new diagnoses of breast cancer were age-matched to 429 population-based cont...
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The possible association of specific fatty acid (FA) intake and pancreatic cancer risk was investigated in a population-based case-control study of 462 histologically confirmed cases and 4721 frequency-matched controls in eight Canadian provinces between 1994 and 1997. Dietary intake was assessed by means of a self-administered food frequency quest...
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Several studies have reported that the risk of breast cancer decreases with increasing duration of breast-feeding. Whether breast-feeding is associated with a reduced risk of hereditary breast cancer in women who carry deleterious BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is currently unknown. We conducted a case-control study of women with deleterious mutations i...
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The incidence of pancreatic cancer worldwide appears to correlate with increasing age, and it is slightly more common among men and Jewish people. There is evidence that the incidence rate is higher among blacks than among whites. The published literature was reviewed for preparation of an overview on epidemiology of pancreatic cancer. A possible r...
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Evidence suggests that dietary fats are associated with risk of colorectal cancer. The effect of fats depends not only on the quantity, but also on their composition in specific fatty acids. Moreover, fats are peroxidizable, and peroxidation products as well as antioxidants play a role in the pathogenic process of colorectal cancer. The published l...
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Neoadjuvant (preoperative) chemotherapy was initially developed as a first line treatment for locally advanced breast cancer. More recently, it has been used to treat earlier stage operable disease, with the hope that not only could the treatment be used as an in vivo assessment of tumour response, but also that it might more readily eradicate occu...
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It has been suggested that the small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) pattern of human hair can be used to diagnose breast cancer and possibly to identify BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, who are at significantly elevated risk for developing breast cancer. In particular, the presence of a diffuse ring in the SAXS pattern was said to be diagnostic of either...
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The frequency of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in women with breast cancer varies according to the age at diagnosis, family history of cancer, and ethnicity/country of origin. We set out to estimate the frequency of seven previously described founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in all eligible French Canadian women diagnosed with invasive breast cance...
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Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy among women. Since genetic factors such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 as well as reproductive history constitute only 30% of the cause, environmental exposure may play a significant role in the development of breast cancer. Likewise, the relevant enzymes involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics (from tobac...
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Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy among women. Since genetic factors such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 as well as reproductive history constitute only 30% of the cause, environmental exposure may play a significant role in the development of breast cancer. Likewise, the relevant enzymes involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics (from tobac...
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Breast cancer is a major health problem associated with high morbidity in many of the more developed countries of the world. Hormonal risk factors in association with environmental risk factors and lifestyle seem to play an important role in the etiology of this disease. We have yet to find a marker that will predict breast cancer occurrence. A pos...
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Women with a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 have a high risk of developing breast cancer and of contralateral cancer after the initial diagnosis of breast cancer. Tamoxifen protects against contralateral breast cancer in the general population, but whether it protects against contralateral breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers is not known....
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A prospective study of 149 unselected incident cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 146 ethnically-matched controls found no associations between GSTM1 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.14), GSTT1 (AOR: 1.19) and CYP1A1 (AOR: 1.08) polymorphisms and pancreatic cancer susceptibility. Smoking and drinking status did not affect results. These polymorphis...
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An initial report suggested that patients homozygous for the arginine allele at codon 72 of P53 were at increased risk for human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cervical cancer, but other groups have not confirmed this finding. Since approximately 18-36% of head and neck cancers are HPV-related, we examined the genotypic frequencies at that locus in 1...
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To study the possible role of dietary and supplementary selenium intake in the etiology of cancer, we carried out a case-control study of breast, colon, and prostate cancer in Montreal between 1989 and 1993. In this study, we were able to interview a total of 1,048 incidence cases of colon (402), breast (414) and prostate (232) cancer subjects and...
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Early age at first full-term pregnancy and increasing parity are associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. However, whether pregnancy decreases the risk of early-onset hereditary breast cancer is unknown. There is concern that pregnancy may increase breast-cancer risk in carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations. We aimed to establish w...
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Over recent years, there appears to have been an explosion of public interest in facial rejuvenation. With the recent development of short-pulsed high-peak power and rapidly scanned carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers, it is now possible to remove photo-damaged skin precisely and reproducibly, while leaving behind a narrow zone of thermal damage. This deve...
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It has been suggested that nutrition and food patterns, particularly high consumption of animal fat and low intake of fish products, may play a role in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). The relation between nutritional factors and MS was studied among 197 incident cases and 202 frequency matched controls in metropolitan Montreal during 1992...
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Background It has been suggested that nutrition and food patterns, particularly high consumption of animal fat and low intake of fish products, may play a role in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods The relation between nutritional factors and MS was studied among 197 incident cases and 202 frequency matched controls in metropolitan M...
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The aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains poorly understood. Dental amalgams containing mercury have recently been suggested as a possible risk factor for MS. In a case-control study conducted between 1991 and 1994, we interviewed a total of 143 MS patients and 128 controls, to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics and the...
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Mycoplasma fermentans is a likely causative agent of HIV-associated nephropathy. In a pilot study, M. fermentans DNA was detected with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in urine samples from renal allograft recipients; nine (39.1%) out of 23 renal allograft recipients (most of whom had chronic allograft rejection) and none of the 20 controls, were in...
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The association between dietary patterns and breast cancer risk remains one of the most important unresolved questions in epidemiology at the present time. In order to contribute to this debate, a case-control study of breast cancer was conducted in members of the Francophone community in Montreal. In total, 414 cases and 429 population-based contr...
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Prostate cancer shows evidence of familial aggregation, particularly at young ages at diagnosis, but the inherited basis of familial prostate cancer is poorly understood. Smith et al. recently found evidence of linkage to markers on 1q, at a locus designated "HPC1," in 91 families with multiple cases of early-onset prostate cancer. Using both param...
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In a population-based case-control study of colon carcinoma and nutrition involving the francophone community in Greater Montreal, a total of 402 cases (200 males and 202 females) and 668 controls (239 males and 429 females) were interviewed. Cases from 1989-1993 were identified through the admission offices of 5 major francophone teaching hospital...
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The Canadian Heart Health Surveys are cross-sectional, population-based cardiovascular disease risk factor surveys that took place in each of the 10 Canadian provinces between 1986 and 1992. Hypertension awareness, treatment, and control status are examined. Of 23,129 randomly selected, noninstitutionalized respondents aged 18 to 74 years, 85% had...
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There are few previous epidemiologic studies of gallbladder cancer, a rare but nearly always lethal gastrointestinal cancer with a demonstrated greater frequency in adult women and older subjects of both sexes, and also in the members of populations throughout central and eastern Europe and certain racial groups such as native American Indians. Unf...
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The relationship between cigarette smoking and risk of prostate cancer was examined in a case-control study conducted in Ontario and British Columbia, Canada. In each centre, cases were men with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the prostate notified to the provincial cancer registry. In Ontario, controls were selected rando...
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In a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer conducted in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver between 1989 and 1993, a total of 640 newly incident cases and 639 aged-matched population controls were interviewed as to their family history of prostate cancer as well as nutritional and other lifestyle and environmental factors. In total, 94...
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Identification by medical providers of families at higher risks for breast cancer relies on patients' recollection of family histories. While patients seem to report the occurrences of breast cancer in their first-degree relatives accurately, little is known about the precision of reports of ages at diagnosis of cancers in relatives, one of the mos...
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Basing our views on recent works of an Ontarian research group, we analyze the profiles of incidence of the main types of cancers observed in the province of Québec for the periods 1984-1986 and 1989-1991. Using the Québec Tumors Registry, we have calculated standardized incidence rates according to sex for each of the 32 departments of community h...
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To assess the effectiveness of nifedipine treatment in elderly hypertensives. A single-blind trial was conducted under the direction of the Shanghai Institute of Hypertension in 1632 subjects aged 60-79 years alternatively allocated to either nifedipine or placebo after a 4-week placebo run-in period between 1987 and 1990 with mean follow-up of 30...
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This study describes the geographical variations in the incidence of and mortality due to, the most frequent cancers in Quebec. They are breast, colon and tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancers in women and prostate, colon and trachea, bronchial and lung cancers in men. Data for the periods 1984 to 1986 and 1989 to 1991 for the whole of the Quebec C...
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This study describes the geographical variations in the incidence of, and mortality due to, the most frequent cancers in Quebec. They are breast, colon and tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancers in women and prostate, colon and trachea, bronchial and lung cancers in men. Data for the periods 1984 to 1986 and 1989 to 1991 for the whole of the Quebec...
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The relationship between the risk of prostate cancer and dietary intake of energy, fat, vitamin A, and other nutrients was investigated in a case-control study conducted in Montreal (Quebec), Canada. French Canadians aged 35 to 84 years with a recent, histologically confirmed diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the prostate were identified through the a...
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A multi-centre case-control study of pancreas cancer, designed to be population-based, to use a random sample of local populations as controls and to use a common protocol and core questionnaire, was conducted as the first study of the SEARCH programme of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. “Ever-smokers” were found to be at increased...
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A representative sample of French Canadian Montrealers was surveyed to compile data on food habits, nutrient intakes and sociodemographic characteristics, using interviewer-administered questionnaires and 7-day food records (7D-FR). Complete 7D-FR and sociodemographic data were obtained from 614 adults aged 19 and over (40.1% males), and 182 childr...
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A survey was carried out in 1988-89 among French Canadians in Montreal, to provide data on food habits, dietary intakes and sociodemographic factors. Interviewer-administered questionnaires and 7-day food records (7D-FR) were used to gather data. Some 1,450 individuals (in 845 families) were studied. Complete 7D-FR and sociodemographic data were ob...
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The cause of pancreatic cancer remains elusive. The most consistently identified epidemiological risk factor is cigarette smoking. Genetic factors are known to play a significant role in perhaps 5% of the total pancreatic cancer burden. Recent discoveries in molecular biology, particularly germline mutations in inherited conditions which feature pa...
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We identified a large French-Canadian family with 21 cases of breast cancer, including two affected brothers. Segregation of markers from chromosome 13q in this family showed linkage to the BRCA2 gene locus (lod = 3.67 at D13S289). A number of cancers of other types occurred in this family, including three cases of prostate cancer and two cases of...
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In a population-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer and nutrition among the Francophone population of Montreal (Quebec, Canada), a total of 179 cases and 239 controls matched for age, sex, and language (French) were interviewed between 1984 and 1988. Data on food habits, methods of food preparation and preservation, and related informatio...
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Risk factors associated with women's reproductive life and sexual growth do not adequately predict cancer incidence of the breast, uterus and ovary. The heterogeneous worldwide distribution of these cancers could imply that some environmental and cultural risk factors are involved in their cancerogenesis. The few attempts made so far to unravel the...
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Since the 1960's, marked sociocultural and economic changes have affected lifestyle, religious practices, and family structure among French Canadians in Quebec. Recent nutritional assessment was unavailable, despite indications of change. A survey was carried out in 1988 in a representative sample living in Greater Montreal, to obtain current data...