P C Molan's research while affiliated with The University of Waikato and other places

Publications (85)

Article
Honey has been used as a wound dressing for thousands of years, but only in more recent times has a scientific explanation become available for its effectiveness. It is now realized that honey is a biologic wound dressing with multiple bioactivities that work in concert to expedite the healing process. The physical properties of honey also expedite...
Article
The pollen grains in honey reveal the types of plants that were around when the bees produced the honey, thus it is valid to use melissopalynology to determine the geographical origin of honeys, but there are several reasons why it is less valid for determining the botanical origin of honeys. This article is published in the journal: Bee World. Use...
Article
The effectiveness of honey as a therapeutic agent has been unequivocally demonstrated in the literature reviewed in Part 1 of this article published in 1999, but the biochemical explanation of these effects is more hypothetical. However, a rational explanation can be seen when one looks at the scientific literature outside that on honey. Some of th...
Article
Honey has been used as a medicine since ancient times in many cultures and is still used in ‘folk medicine’. The use of honey as a therapeutic substance has been rediscovered by the medical profession in more recent times, and it is gaining acceptance as an antibacterial agent for the treatment of ulcers and bed sores, and other infections resultin...
Article
Honey has been used as a medicine for thousands of years and its curative properties are well documented. However, modern medicine turned its back on honey and it is only now, with the advent of multi-resistant bacteria, that the antibiotic properties of honey are being rediscovered. This is the published version of an article published in the jour...
Article
Honey is gaining acceptance by the medical profession for use as an antibacterial agent for the treatment of ulcers and bed sores, and other surface infections resulting from burns and wounds. In many cases it is being used with success on infections not responding to standard antibiotic and antiseptic therapy. Its effectiveness in rapidly clearing...
Article
Full-text available
Honey is a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent that has been reintroduced into clinical practice to treat wounds. Wounds support polymicrobial communities of bacteria that either colonise or infect wounds. Strains with resistance to antibiotics are difficult to eradicate and pose a risk of transfer to other patients. Manuka honey has been shown to i...
Article
The formation of free radicals by the iron-catalysed Fenton reaction is a major cause of oxidative damage in the body. Here a common assay of antioxidant capacity, inhibition of the β-carotene-linoleic acid model of lipid peroxidation, has been modified by the addition of ferrous iron (final concentration 36 μmol/l), which makes the rate of oxidati...
Article
Honey has been reported to have antifungal activity and so was tested against clinical isolates of the common dermatophyte species which cause tineas in man. A honey with an average level of hydrogen peroxide, and a manuka (Leptospermum scoparium J. R. and G. Forst, family Myrtaceae) honey with an average level of non-peroxide antibacterial activit...
Article
The susceptibility of common gastrointestinal bacteria against manuka honey with median level non-peroxide antibacterial activity (equivalent to that of 16.5% phenol) was investigated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) using a standardized manuka honey with the broth microdilution...
Article
Changes to adhesion molecule expression and lymphocyte populations were evaluated in alveolar mammary tissue collected from cows following an immunisation protocol that involved intra-mammary inoculation to induce an IgA response in mammary secretions. The right quarters of the udder were immunised; the left side acted as a control. Antibody titres...
Article
Since the ancient times, the antibacterial application of honeybee venom (BV) has been practised and persisted. We investigated the antibacterial activity of whole BV and purified melittin against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the postantibiotic effects (PAEs). The in vitro PAEs of wh...
Chapter
The ancient treatment of dressing infected wounds with honey is rapidly becoming re-established in professional medicine, especially where wounds are infected withantibiotic-resistant bacteria. This is because of the demonstrated sensitivity of suchbacteria to the antibacterial activity of honey, which is not influenced by whether ornot strains are...
Article
Full-text available
Summary A diverse range of illnesses has been treated with honey since ancient civilizations. There has been growing interest by health care professionals in wound care products based on New Zealand manuka honey and Australian honey of similar Leptospermum spp. In Fiji, local honeys have been used in homes to treat diabetic foot ulcers which have f...
Article
Methylglyoxal in New Zealand manuka honey has been shown to originate from dihydroxyacetone, which is present in the nectar of manuka flowers in varying amounts. Manuka honey, which was freshly produced by bees, contained low levels of methylglyoxal and high levels of dihydroxyacetone. Storage of these honeys at 37 degrees C led to a decrease in th...
Article
Sucrose is considered by many to be detrimental to health, giving rise to deterioration of the body associated with ageing. This study was undertaken to determine whether replacing sucrose in the diet long-term with honey that has a high antioxidant content could decrease deterioration in brain function during ageing. Forty-five 2-month old Sprague...
Article
Full-text available
To compare usual care with key recommendations for venous ulcer management in the New Zealand Guidelines for Care of People with Chronic Leg Ulcers. A cohort of participants enrolled in the usual care arm of the HALT trial had their management compared to four treatment recommendations: compression (use high compression); dressing selection (use si...
Article
Full-text available
We report the antimicrobial effect of manuka honey against Campylobacter spp. isolated by a diagnostic laboratory from specimens from a community in New Zealand. The isolates were differentiated according to species level using multiplex PCR. C. jejuni (20 strains) and C. coli (7 strains) were identified. The clinical isolates identified and type c...
Article
Full-text available
While the ancient Egyptians and Greeks used honey for wound care, and a broad spectrum of wounds are treated all over the world with natural unprocessed honeys from different sources, Medihoney has been one of the first medically certified honeys licensed as a medical product for professional wound care in Europe and Australia. Our experience with...
Article
The bovine mammary gland requires lymphocytes for immune protection of the gland from foreign pathogens and, in addition, to transfer immune protection to the neonate via colostrum and milk. The process of homing primed lymphocytes to tissues is mediated by the interaction of cell-adhesion molecules displayed on the surface of lymphocytes and count...
Article
The efficacy of honey as a treatment for venous ulcers has not been evaluated, despite widespread interest. This trial aimed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of honey as a dressing for venous ulcers. This community-based open-label randomized trial allocated people with a venous ulcer to calcium alginate dressings impregnated with manuka ho...
Article
Some clinicians are under the impression that there is little or no evidence to support the use of honey as a wound dressing. To allow sound decisions to be made, this seminar article has covered the various reports that have been published on the clinical usage of honey. Positive findings on honey in wound care have been reported from 17 randomize...
Article
Honey is primarily a herbal product with some modifications that are made by the bees that process the nectar or sap collected from the plants to store as honey. The types of phytochemicals present in a honey depend on the plant source of the honey. The hydrogen peroxide that is formed in honey by an enzyme the bees add, and sometimes also particul...
Article
Full-text available
Development of antibiotic-resistant strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci has complicated the management of infections associated with the use of invasive medical devices, and innovative treatment and prophylactic options are needed. Honey is increasingly being used to treat infected wounds, but little is known about its effectiveness against...
Article
Full-text available
Information about Leptospermum scoparium (Myrtaceae), the most widespread and important New Zealand indigenous shrub species, is reviewed. L. scoparium is a variable species, requiring more study of the genetically based differences between New Zealand populations and the affinity of these populations to Australian populations and other closely all...
Article
Full-text available
Honey is an ancient treatment that is increasingly earning its place in modern wound care. Evidence suggests it compares with other dressings in terms of its antibacterial properties, ease of use and ability to promote a moist environment This is the published version of an article published in the journal: Journal of Wound Care. Used with permissi...
Article
To assess the variation in antibacterial and antifungal activity of non-manuka honeys, a study was undertaken using 179 unifloral, unpasteurized honey samples obtained from commercial beekeepers throughout New Zealand. The honeys were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, Escherichia coli and the dermatophyte Trichophyton menta...
Article
Honey is an effective antiseptic wound dressing, mainly the result of the antibacterial activity of hydrogen peroxide that is produced in honey by the enzyme glucose oxidase. Because the rate of production of hydrogen peroxide is known to vary disproportionately when honey is diluted, and dilution of honey dressings will vary according to the amoun...
Article
Dressing wounds with honey, a standard practice in past times, went out of fashion when antibiotics came into use. Because antibiotic-resistant bacteria have become a widespread clinical problem, a renaissance in honey use has occurred. Laboratory studies and clinical trials have shown that honey is an effective broad-spectrum antibacterial agent t...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of stage of lactation (SOL) and time of year on plasmin-derived proteolytic activity in the milk of pasture-fed dairy cows in New Zealand. Four herds of 20 Friesian cows were used, one herd calving in each of January, April, July and October. Cows grazed ryegrass/white clover pasture only, ex...
Article
Aims: To determine the sensitivity to honey of Gram-positive cocci of clinical significance in wounds and demonstrate that inhibition is not exclusively due to osmotic effects. Methods and Results: Eighteen strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and seven strains of vancomycin-sensitive enterococci were isolated from infected wounds...
Article
Full-text available
Because there is no ideal therapy for burns infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, there is sufficient need to investigate the efficacy of alternative antipseudomonal interventions. Honey is an ancient wound remedy for which there is modern evidence of efficacy in the treatment of burn wounds, but limited evidence for the effectiveness of its antiba...
Article
To determine the sensitivity to honey of Gram-positive cocci of clinical significance in wounds and demonstrate that inhibition is not exclusively due to osmotic effects. Eighteen strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and seven strains of vancomycin-sensitive enterococci were isolated from infected wounds and 20 strains of vancomyc...
Article
Honey is an ancient remedy for the treatment of infected wounds, which has recently been 'rediscovered' by the medical profession, particularly where conventional modern therapeutic agents are failing. There are now many published reports describing the effectiveness of honey in rapidly clearing infection from wounds, with no adverse effects to slo...
Article
Honey has been used as a medicine throughout the ages and in more recent times has been "rediscovered" by the medical profession for treatment of burns, infected wounds, and skin ulcers. The large volume of literature reporting its effectiveness indicates that honey has potential for the treatment of periodontal disease, mouth ulcers, and other pro...
Article
Honey is an ancient wound dressing, but does it have a place in the modern management of wounds and burns?
Article
Although evidence exists for the antibacterial effects of honey there is limited objective evidence for direct promotion of healing. We investigated the effect of manuka, pasture and an artificial honey on macrophage function. Reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) production was assessed by luminol enhanced chemoluminescence and tumour necrosis factor...
Article
The effects of storage time and the oxygenation state of the storage medium on motility, viability, and in vitro fertility of stored diluted sperm were investigated. Oocytes collected from abattoir material were matured and fertilized in vitro on defined days with sperm stored for up to 11 days in a citrate-based commercial diluent. The proportions...
Article
There has been a renaissance in recent times in the use of honey, an ancient and traditional wound dressing, for the treatment of wounds, burns, and skin ulcers. In the past decade there have been many reports of case studies, experiments using animal models, and randomized controlled clinical trials that provide a large body of very convincing evi...
Article
Full-text available
Honey has been used as a wound treatment for more than 2,000 years. Greater scientific understanding of how it works, particularly as an antibacterial agent, has led practitioners to reconsider the therapeutic value of honey. Once honey is commercially available as a regulated product in the UK, practitioners will have access to an effective, alter...
Article
Protein tyrosine phosphorylation plays a regulatory role in a multitude of physiological processes in sperm. Changes in protein tyrosine phosphorylation, viability, and motility were studied as a function of extended incubation of bovine sperm in vitro at ambient temperature (18-20 degrees C). Fresh ejaculates were incubated after dilution for 8 da...
Article
Two common genetic variants of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg), A and B, exist as co- dominant alleles in dairy cattle (Aschaffenburg, 1968). Numerous studies have shown that cows homozygous for β-lg A have more β-lg and less α-lactalbumin (α-la) and casein in their milk than cows expressing only the B variant of β-lg (Ng-Kwai-Hang et al. 1987; Graml et...
Article
Full-text available
Sperm were incubated for up to 9 days in the presence or absence of exogenous hydrogen peroxide, phenylalanine, catalase and aurintricarboxylic acid to assess the influence of reactive oxygen species and inhibition of deoxyribonucleases on sperm chromatin stability. The assessment of sperm DNA susceptibility to in situ acid denaturation by the sper...
Article
The antibacterial action of honey in infected wounds does not depend wholly on its high osmolarity. We tested the sensitivity of 58 strains of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from infected wounds, to a pasture honey and a manuka honey. There was little variation between the isolates in their sensitivity to honey: minimum inhibito...
Article
A laboratory study was undertaken to extend existing knowledge about the effectiveness of the antibacterial properties of honey against pseudomonads. To date, sensitivity testing has used non-standardised honeys, which may vary greatly in their antibacterial potency. Pure cultures of Pseudomonas spp, isolated from swabs from 20 infected wounds, wer...
Article
Velocities of bovine spermatozoa in a medium containing glucose were similar under true anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Spermatozoa were not able to sustain motility under anaerobic conditions when glycolysis was inhibited, but regained motility when re-aerated. This demonstrates that immobilisation was due to lack of oxygen and that conditions u...
Article
Honey has been used as a medicine for thousands of years and its curative properties are well documented. However, modern medicine turned its back on honey and it is only now, with the advent of multi-resistant bacteria, that the antibiotic properties of honey are being rediscovered.
Article
The use of honey as a wound dressing is well established in traditional and modern medicine. There are many reports of its effectiveness in clearing bacterial infections in ulcers and abscesses, which suggest that it may be suitable for the intramammary treatment of mastitis. To evaluate this possibility, the species of bacteria that commonly cause...
Chapter
That honey has antibacterial properties has been known for more than a century1. Although it has been used as a medicine since ancient times in many cultures2,3, in its ancient usage there was no recognition of its antibacterial properties — it was just known to be an effective remedy. This is not surprising considering that it is only since the la...
Article
Testosterone regulation of antler growth may be via the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). Using histological autoradiography we have measured the specific binding of IGF-I and IGF-II to antler sections during normal growth and during the maturation which follows testosterone treatment of adult fallow deer. In antlers from 20 to 100 days following...
Article
There is increasing usage of honey as a dressing on infected wounds, burns and ulcers, but there is some concern that there may be a risk of wound botulism from the clostridial spores sometimes found in honey. It is well-established that the antibacterial activity is heat-labile so would be destroyed if honey were sterilized by autoclaving, but the...
Chapter
Honey is a completely natural product. Although most commercially distributed honey has been subjected to some degree of physical processing, raw honey can be used straight from the comb as taken from the beehive. The distinction of honey as a pure natural product is maintained by food regulations worldwide: anything sold as honey has to have been...
Article
Bovine seminal plasma proteins are in an aggregated form of high molecular weight in their native state. By immobilisation on a cation exchanger with exposure to disaggregating conditions (i.e., acetonitrile and low pH), the high-molecular-weight aggregates could be dissociated to slowly release the low-molecular-weight components. The anionic comp...
Article
Full-text available
Honey is a traditional remedy for dyspepsia, and is still used for this by some medical practitioners although there is no rational basis for its use. The finding that Helicobacter pylori is probably the causative agent in many cases of dyspepsia has raised the possibility that the therapeutic action of honey may be due to its antibacterial propert...
Article
Dialysis of diluted semen before cryopreservation is beneficial to sperm survival. This is due to removal of low molecular weight components from seminal plasma that are damaging to sperm. The apparent molecular weights (M(r)) of these components range between 1000 and 12,000 as estimated by gel permeation chromatography and electrophoresis. The de...
Article
Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) binding in the growing tip of the deer antler was examined using autoradiographical studies, radioreceptor assays and affinity cross-linking studies. Antler tips from red deer stags were removed 60 days after the commencement of growth, and cryogenically cut into sections. Sections were incubated with radiolab...
Article
Full-text available
To determine the cellular location, capacity, and nutritional sensitivity of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptors, we measured the in vitro binding of [125I]-IGFs to skeletal muscle using light microscopic autoradiography. Muscle was collected from 8-month lambs that had received high or low nutrition diets (3% and 1.25% of body weight/day in...
Article
Tissue and plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and relative levels of liver IGF-I RNA, were measured in 6-month-old ewe lambs which were well fed ( n = 10) or starved ( n = 10) for 5 days. Half of each nutrition group was given daily (09.00 h) injections of human GH (hGH; 0·15 mg/kg body weight per day). Blood was sampled daily f...
Article
The range and concentrations of extractable organic substances occurring in 14 samples of New Zealand manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey taken in the 1989–1990 season were compared with those found in some 1985–1987 samples. The samples were analysed using gas chromatography with flame ion detection and combined gas chromatography- mass spectrom...
Article
Both honey and sugar are used with good effect as dressings for wounds and ulcers. The good control of infection is attributed to the high osmolarity, but honey can have additional antibacterial activity because of its content of hydrogen peroxide and unidentified substances from certain floral sources. Manuka honey is known to have a high level of...
Article
To assess the variation in antibacterial activity of honey a survey was carried out on 345 samples of unpasteurized honey obtained from commercial apiarists throughout New Zealand. Most of the honeys were considered to be monofloral, from 26 different floral sources. The honeys were tested against Staphylococcus aureus in an agar well diffusion ass...
Article
The major part of the antibacterial activity of bovine seminal plasma is associated with the predominant proteins, of molecular weight around 250 and 500 kDa. These are large aggregates which readily disaggregate to 20 kDa moieties at pH ≤3, which slowly disaggregate to a molecular weight below 3.5 kDa. The large aggregates are re-formed at pH 7.
Article
The effect of seminal plasma on spermatozoa was studied during freezing in a buffered diluent. The effect was assessed after thawing, both by visual assessment of motility and by colorimetric assay of aromatic L-amino acid oxidase activity. The presence of seminal plasma caused damage to the spermatozoa, as reflected by an increase in the release o...
Article
The effect on young lambs of 0·25 mg recombinant bovine GH (bGH)/kg per day on plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), glucose, specific hepatic GH binding and body composition changes was examined at two levels of nutrition (lucerne pellets; 3 and 1·7% of body weight/day). Lambs on low levels of nutrition had low plasma IGF-...
Article
Some components responsible for the exceptionally high antibacterial activity of manuka honey were isolated by testing fractions of the honey for activity against Staphylococcus aureus. An ethanol-ether extract of the honey was separated by preparative-layer chromatography and the fractions thus obtained were assessed for antibacterial activity. On...
Article
The results of gas chromatagraphic analyses of the concentrated diethyl ether liquid-liquid extracts of 10 honey samples from a variety of floral sources are presented. The chemical composition was compared with the pollen composition and found to be related to the floral source. The gas chromatographic profile of honey extractives is proposed as a...
Article
A range of New Zealand monofloral honeys was assayed for antibacterial activity with and without the hydrogen peroxide present (inactivated by the addition of catalase). It was found that in the honeys with high antibacterial activity a large part of this activity was due to a factor other than hydrogen peroxide. The test micro-organism used, Staph...
Article
There is increasing interest in the use of honey for the treatment of bacterial infections. Because of the variation known to occur between different honeys in the strength of antibacterial activity, it is important to choose the right type of honey for medicinal use. A range of New Zealand monofloral honeys was assayed to compare their antibacteri...
Article
A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the aggregating and disaggregating properties of anti-bacterial proteins. in seminal plasma. Little of the antibactenal activity of bovme seminal plasma diffused through dialysis membrane of retentivity 10 kDa at pH 7, but at pH 3 or with 0.1 mol/litre citrate at pH 7 most of the activity diffuse...
Article
When ejaculated bovine semen was washed twice with Ficoll the spermatozoa, resuspended in buffer, became immotile. Motility could be restored by addition of seminal plasma from vasectomized bulls and by addition of both bovine serum albumin (BSA) and theophylline. Motility could be restored and maintained at 37 degrees C to a variable extent with B...
Article
Full-text available
Ancient civilizations used honey to heal wounds. Despite the rediscovery of honey by modern physicians1 its use in conventional medicine, unlike in complementary medicine, remains limited. Much anecdotal evidence, some clinical observations, some animal models and some randomised controlled trials support the efficacy of honey in managing wounds2,3...
Article
Een overzicht van het voordeel van het gebruik van honing in de locale wondbehandeling tezamen met praktische aanbevelingen voor zijn klinisch gebruik. De wijdverspreide ontwikkeling van antibioticaresistente bacteriën 1 brengt een verhoogde belangstelling met zich mee voor het gebruik van alternatieve therapieën in de behandeling van geïnfecteerde...

Citations

... These have included leg ulcers [65], cavity wounds resulting from hematomas [80] and surgical wounds [81]. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have also been shown to be sensitive to honey [82][83][84]. The most frequently isolated bacteria from burns and wounds, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, are also reported to be sensitive to honey [85,86]. ...
... The intrinsic properties of honey have been reported to affect the growth and survival of microorganisms by bacteriostatic actions [13,14] . Its antifungal action has been observed against the yeast Candida albicans and most species of Aspergillus baumannii as well as Penicillium chrysogenum [15] and all the common dermatophytes also [16] . ...
... Свойствата на пчелните продукти могат да се намерят в китайски, корейски, руски, египетски и гръцки източници (Russian Federation 2017) Медът е широко използван в древен Египет. Те описват пчелите, произвеждащи прополис, лепкав материал от дървета, изобразени на вази и орнаменти (Molan, 1999). Рисунки по стените на пирамидите свидетелстват, че там са се отглеждали пчели. ...
... Molan et al. [34] compared the antibacterial activities of native honeys, including kāmahi honey (n = 3 pure kāmahi, n = 1 blended kāmahi honey), on S. aureus with an agar diffusion assay. The results showed that kāmahi was active against the bacteria; however, it was less active than kānuka and mānuka honeys. ...
... Honey is a natural foodstuff produced by bees that has been used since ancient times as a traditional medicine for wounds, microbial infections, and burns, among other conditions (Bogdanov, 2016). Many research papers highlight a variety of potentially functional properties of honeys (Alevia et al., 2021;Molan, 1992;Seraglio et al., 2019;Á lvarez-Suárez, Tulipani, Romandini, Bertoli, & Battino, 2010), mainly attributed to phenolic compounds, organic acids, amino acid, enzymes and Maillard reaction products (Álvarez-Suárez et al., 2010;Bogdanov, Jurendic, Sieber, & Gallmann, 2008). Honey is increasingly used as sugar's substitute in candies, confectionery and bakery products, being also added to different foods, such as sausages, beef patties, fish, fruits and vegetables, in order to extend their shelf life, and/or to enhance their bioactive properties (Chen, Mehta, Berenbaum, Zangerl, & Engeseth, 2000;Hakim, Tjahjaningsih, & Sudarno, 2019;Johnston, Sepe, Miano, Brannan, & Alderton, 2005;Półtorak et al., 2018). ...
... 35 3-Phenyllactic acid was reported as being a major component of honey and may have an impact on honey taste. 36 Hydroxyphenyllactic acid (ID 57) has been isolated from the bacteria Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Hydroxyphenyllactic acid is derived from phenyllactic acid and has a reported antioxidant activity. ...
... The value obtained helps fight free radicals resulting in the fact that honey acid is a compound that has antioxidant properties. Honey acts as a buffer, which means that by adding small amounts of acids and bases, the pH does not change, which prevents chemical processes [53,54]. ...
... From observations on the increased diffusibility of the antibacterial activity at pH 3, and from the heterogeneity of theantibacterial constituents at pH 7, Shannon et al. (1974Shannon et al. ( ,1975 suggested that the nondiffusible antibacterial activity present in seminal plasma at pH 7 is in the form of aggregates of a smallermolecule. They later demonstrated (Shannon et al. 1987) thatmostof thisactivity willpass through a dialysis membrane of molecular weight cut-off 10 kDa at pH 3 and becomesnon-diffusible again at pH 7. ...
... In another study, Brady et al. [36] investigated the antibacterial and antifungal activity of non-mānuka NZ native honeys. They tested two bacteria, Escherichia coli and S. aureus. ...
... A list of the extractives of kānuka monofloral honey (n = 2) is available in papers by Tan et al. [39,40]. The authors analysed ether extracts made from aqueous solutions of mānuka, kānuka and clover honeys with a continuous liquid/liquid extractor. ...