P. Bayman's research while affiliated with University of Puerto Rico at Ponce and other places

Publications (180)

Article
Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) infect insects and are of interest for understanding host-pathogen interactions and biological control of insect pests. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster offers an excellent model system for exploring the biology of EPF and their interactions with insects. In this review, we describe the advantages of using D. melan...
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he Caribbean is influenced by Sahara Dust Storms (SDS) every year. SDS can transport a diversity of microorganisms, including potential pathogens of humans, animals, and plants. In fact, SDS have been suggested as a source of Aspergillus sydowii, reported to cause aspergillosis disease in gorgonian sea fans. However, the diversity of fungal spores...
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The coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari is the most serious pest of coffee worldwide. Management of the CBB is extremely difficult because its entire life cycle occurs inside the fruit, where it is well protected. Knowing which life stages contribute most to population growth, would shed light on the population dynamics of this pes...
Article
The coffee berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei) is the most serious insect pest of coffee worldwide; understanding the dynamics of its reproduction is essential for pest management. The female CBB penetrates the coffee berry, eats the seed, and reproduces inside it. A mathematical model of the infestation progress of the coffee berry by the CBB d...
Article
The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (CBB) is a major pest of coffee, and the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bb) is used worldwide for its biological control. Commercial formulations of Bb are sprayed on coffee, but local isolates of Bb may also provide some level of natural control. We compared selected local Bb isolates from CB...
Article
Angular Leaf Spot (ALS), caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola, is an important disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Previous studies demonstrated that P. griseola and Phaseolus vulgaris have co-evolved, resulting in the classification of the fungus into Middle American and Andean populations that reflect the evolutionary history o...
Article
Fruit rots reduce coffee production worldwide. The most important pathogen is C. kahawae, which causes coffee berry disease (CBD) in Africa. It is unknown whether these fruit rot pathogens can be dispersed by the coffee berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei) or whether Beauveria bassiana (Bb, a natural enemy of CBB) might reduce coffee fruit rots....
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Aspergilloses in humans are caused by several Aspergillus species, including Aspergillus flavus. Although the immune system of Drosophila is extensively studied, little is known about the fly's specific responses to A. flavus infection. Different strains of A. flavus vary in virulence in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We compared gene expre...
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Can the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei, or CBB) use host plants other than coffee for food and shelter? The use of fruits other than coffee has been reported. However, the validity of these reports depends on accurate identification of CBB, which is sometimes uncertain. In this study we sampled potential alternate hosts in coffee farms in...
Article
Fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae family cause dieback, fruit rots, and stem cankers in many tropical fruit trees. To identify which species of Botryosphaeriaceae were present in tropical fruit in Puerto Rico and the symptoms they cause in rambutan and longan, a disease survey was conducted throughout the island from 2008 to 2016. Diseased organs of...
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Hurricanes Irma and Maria hit Puerto Rico in September 2017. According to initial estimates, 90% of coffee plants were destroyed. We surveyed damage to coffee plants in 81 plots throughout the coffee-growing area of west-central Puerto Rico; we used the change in the Landsat derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (ΔNDVI) to estimate damage...
Chapter
If forensic science is any science used for the purposes of the law (as defined by the American Academy of Forensic Sciences) or for solving a crime, then forensic phytopathology is the application of plant pathology to purposes of the law. In other words, it is the interface between plant pathology and civil and criminal legal affairs. It is a lar...
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The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and increased pest management challenges. Here, we outline the CBB situation, and summariz...
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Drosophila melanogaster has become a model system to study interactions between innate immunity and microbial pathogens, yet many aspects regarding its microbial community and interactions with pathogens remain unclear. In this study wild D. melanogaster were collected from tropical fruits in Puerto Rico to test how the microbiota is distributed an...
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The coffee berry borer (CBB) (Hypothenemus hampei: Ferrar) was first detected in Puerto Rico in 2007. Its distribution since then has been extensive, but not extensively documented. An island-wide survey was carried out from August to November 2014 (the coffee production season) to assess CBB distribution, infestation , and population per fruit. Th...
Article
The coffee berry borer (CBB) (Hypothenemus hampei: Ferrar) was first detected in Puerto Rico in 2007. Its distribution since then has been extensive, but not extensively documented. An island-wide survey was carried out from August to November 2014 (the coffee production season) to assess CBB distribution, infestation , and population per fruit. Th...
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Full-text available
Wolbachia are widely distributed endosymbiotic bacteria that influence the reproduction and fitness of their hosts. In recent years the manipulation of Wolbachia infection has been considered as a potential tool for biological control. The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is the most devastating coffee pest worldwide. Wolbachia infect...
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Probiotics have been used to protect hosts from pathogens of gastrointestinal and reproductive systems, but their ability to protect against systemic pathogens is largely unexplored. In this study we ask whether orally administered bacteria and yeasts can protect Drosophila melanogaster against the opportunistic fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus....
Article
Full-text available
The coffee berry borer (CBB) (Hypothenemus hampei: Ferrar) was first detected in Puerto Rico in 2007. Its distribution since then has been extensive, but not extensively documented. An island-wide survey was carried out from August to November 2014 (the coffee production season) to assess CBB distribution, infestation , and population per fruit. Th...
Article
The coffee berry borer (CBB) (Hypothenemus hampei: Ferrar) was first detected in Puerto Rico in 2007. Its distribution since then has been extensive, but not extensively documented. An island-wide survey was carried out from August to November 2014 (the coffee production season) to assess CBB distribution, infestation , and population per fruit. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Premise of the study: Oeceoclades maculata is a naturalized, invasive, terrestrial orchid in Puerto Rico and elsewhere in the neotropics. We asked whether its success might be partly explained by its mycorrhizal associations, hypothesizing a relationship with many fungal partners or with one widely distributed partner. Methods: Oeceoclades macul...
Article
Forensic Phytopathology: a Critical Review, Page 1 of 2 Abstract Forensic phytopathology is the application of plant pathology to legal or criminal matters. It is an emerging field. The existing literature focuses mainly on potential agricultural bioterrorism threats to the United States. Here we try to take a broader view including agricultural...
Article
Sessile organisms such as octocorals cannot avoid threats such as predation, parasitism or fungal infections through evasive responses. Instead, they rely on strategies that deter or reduce the impact of these threats. One such strategy is the development of hard structures such as sclerites, which are minute calcium carbonate skeletal elements loc...
Article
Sun and shade coffee (Coffea arabica L.) provide different biotic and abiotic environments which can affect the damage, distribution and reproduction of coffee pests. However, the effect of shade on damage by the coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), the most important coffee pest worldwide, is controversial and unclear. We compar...
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div class="page" title="Page 1"> Orchid mycorrhizal fungi are characterized by the presence of complex, globose masses of hyphe, called pelotons, in the cortex of the root (Hadley et al. 1989, Esnault et al. 1994). Extent and patterns of infections are very variable, and this variation is observed in many epiphytic orchids and some terrestrial tro...
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Aspergilloses are fungal diseases in humans and animals that is caused by members of the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillus flavus is an important opportunistic pathogen, second only to A. fumigatus as a cause of human aspergillosis. Differences in virulence among A. flavus isolates from clinical and other substrates and mating types are not well known...
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Given that microbial interactions in nature are very complex, we propose that quorum-sensing, as well as quorum-quenching, phenazine and secondary metabolite production, resistance and toxin-antitoxin systems within a microbial community should all comprise the battery of processes involving the study of what we would define as the "sociomicrobiome...
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En Colombia existe una amplia diversidad de especies de orquídeas (cerca de 3.500 especies), muchas aún no descritas. También, dentro de la diversidad se incluyen los hongos micorrízicos del género-forma Rhizoctonia y sus teleomorfos en los géneros Thanatephorus, Sebacina, Ceratobasidium y Tulasnella. En algunas orquídeas terrestres de zonas templa...
Article
Sea fan aspergillosis, first reported in the Caribbean in the 1990s, is one of the best-characterized coral diseases. The disease is named after Aspergillus sydowii, which was proposed as the sole pathogen. Here, inoculation of healthy fans in aquaria with A. sydowii failed to induce purpling and tissue necrosis, the characteristic signs of aspergi...
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Ceratobasidium includes orchid mycorrhizal symbionts, plant pathogens and biocontrol agents of soilborne plant pathogens. It is not known to what extent members of the first guild also can participate in the others. Ceratobasidium spp. were isolated from roots of Colombian orchids and identified by phylogeny based on nrITS sequences. Phylogenetic g...
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Mycorrhizal symbiosis is important for growth of coffee (Coffea arabica), but differences among coffee cultivars in response to mycorrhizal interactions have not been studied. We compared arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) extraradical hyphae in the soil and diversity of AM fungi among three coffee cultivars, Caturra, Pacas, and Borbón, at three farms in...
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Aspergillus flavus is one of the most common fungal eukaryotes on the planet. It is notorious for production of aflatoxins, for causing aspergillosis in humans and animals, and as an opportunistic pathogen of animals and plants. Its role in marine habitats is unclear. Until now, little phylogeographic structure has been detected for the species, ex...
Article
Isolates of Aspergillus flavus belonging to at least 12 vegetative compatibility groups were characterized by aflatoxin production in vitro, morphology, and random amplified polymorphic DNAs. Aflatoxin B1 production differed significantly among vegetative compatibility groups; closely related isolates were similar intoxigenicity regardless of geogr...
Article
Aspergillus flavus was isolated from soil from a single Arizona cotton field in 1987, 1988, and 1989. Isolates from infected cotton bolls were collected from the same field in 1988. Isolates were assigned to vegetative compatibility groups via complementation tests between nitrate-nonutilizing mutants. Sixty-one of 105 isolates composed 13 vegetati...
Article
IntroductionMethods Diversity of Mycorrhizal FungiDistribution of MycorrhizaeFunctional Specificity of Mycorrhizal Fungi of VanillaCan Mycorrhizal Fungi Protect Vanilla Plants from Pathogens?References
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Most fungal species from marine environments also live on land. It is not clear whether these fungi reach the sea from terrestrial sources as spores or other propagules, or if there are separate ecotypes that live and reproduce in the sea. The emergence of marine diseases has created an urgency to understand the distribution of these fungi. Aspergi...
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Resumen Las orquídeas se caracterizan por su relación micorrízica obligada para la germinación de las semillas. El micosimbionte es principalmente del género-forma Rhizoctonia, al igual que sus teleomorfos de los géneros Ceratobasidium, Tulasnella, Thanatephorus y Sebacina. En Colombia hasta la fecha son muy pocos los reportes sobre hongos micorríz...
Article
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Orchids require a mycorrhizal relationship for seed germination. Many mycorrhizal fungi are in the form-genus Rhizoctonia, with teleomorphs in the genera Ceratobasidium, Tulasnella, Thanatephorus and Sebacina. So far there are very few reports of orchid mycorrhizal fungi in Colombia. The objectives of the present study were to isolate mycorrhizal f...
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Sea fans Gorgonia ventalina in the Caribbean are being infected by disease attributed to the fungus Aspergillus sydowii. Little is known about the natural fungal community in sea fans, including spatial variation in community composition and the source of inoculum. Patterns of spatial variation may provide important clues to the source of pathogens...
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Resumen Se compara el crecimiento de plántulas de la orquídeas epifita Tolumnia variegata en medios de agar con y sin hongos micorrízicos. Los métodos de germinación simbiótica produjeron embriones de T. variegata más desarrollados que los métodos de germinación asimbiótica y las diferencias fueron estadísticamente significativas. Las semillas en l...
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The importance of diseases of sea fans (Gorgonia spp.) is widely recognized; however, previous studies have not always distinguished between causes of mortality and differential effects of disease on different size clases of sea fans. In this study, mortality and net growth of healthy, purple-spotted and diseased Gorgonia ventalina colonies of smal...
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We compared seedling growth of the epiphytic orchid, Tolumnia variegata in agar media with and without inoculated mycorrhizal fungi. Symbiotic germination produced more-developed embryos than asymbiotic germination. Differences were highly significant, although some isolates of Rhizoctonia-like fungi were parasitic on seeds. Control seeds in a cell...
Article
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Se compara el crecimiento de plántulas de la orquídeas epifita Tolumnia variegata en medios de agar con y sin hongos micorrízicos. Los métodos de germinación simbiótica produjeron embriones de T. variegata más desarrollados que los métodos de germinación asimbiótica y las diferencias fueron estadísticamente significativas. Las semillas en los contr...
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Endophytes are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing symptoms of disease. They are important components of plant microbiomes. Endophytes interact with, and overlap in function with, other core microbial groups that colonize plant tissues, e.g., mycorrhizal fungi, pathogens, epiphytes, and saprotrophs. Some fungal endophytes...
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Caribbean corals, including sea fans (Gorgonia spp.), are being affected by severe and apparently new diseases. In the case of sea fans, the pathogen is reported to be the fungus Aspergillus sydowii, and the disease is named aspergillosis. In order to understand coral diseases and pathogens, knowledge of the microbes associated with healthy corals...
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Tropical orchids constitute the greater part of orchid diversity, but little is known about their obligate mycorrhizal relationships. The specificity of these interactions and associated fungal distributions could influence orchid distributions and diversity. We investigated the mycorrhizal specificity of the tropical epiphytic orchid Ionopsis utri...
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Fungal communities from gorgonians have been poorly documented and most studies of these communities have lacked defined sampling strategies. The objectives of this study were: (1) to estimate fungal diversity in Gorgonia ventalina; (2) to compare two sampling and tissue processing strategies: tissue fragments of different sizes vs. homogenized tis...
Article
Mycorrhizal fungi are essential for the germination of orchid seeds. However, the specificity of orchids for their mycorrhizal fungi and the effects of the fungi on orchid growth are controversial. Mycorrhizal fungi have been studied in some temperate and tropical, epiphytic orchids, but the symbionts of tropical, terrestrial orchids are still unkn...
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Mycorrhizal fungi are essential for the germination of orchid seeds. However, the specificity of orchids for their mycorrhizal fungi and the effects of the fungi on orchid growth are controversial. Mycorrhizal fungi have been studied in some temperate and tropical, epiphytic orchids, but the symbionts of tropical, terrestrial orchids are still unkn...
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The effects of four alkaloids on the biosynthesis of ochratoxin A (OTA), ochratoxin B (OTB) and citrinin were examined on four OTA-producing aspergilli: Aspergillus auricomus, A. sclerotiorum and two isolates of A. alliaceus. Piperine and piperlongumine, natural alkaloids of Piper longum, significantly inhibited OTA production at 0.001% (w/v) for a...
Article
This chapter reviews aspects of diversity of endophytic fungi: how sampling strategies affect results of diversity studies; how communities of endophytic and epiphytic fungi differ in a single leaf; how endophytic fungi vary from leaf to leaf; how endophytes are transmitted; and how endophytes may affect other microorganisms (including plant pathog...
Article
Ochratoxins have been overshadowed by better-known mycotoxins, but they are gaining importance. Here we consider ochratoxins in the context of aflatoxins, which are better understood than ochratoxins on many levels. We review recent work on taxonomic distribution, contamination of commodities, biosynthesis, toxicity and regulatory aspects of ochrat...
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El efecto de fungicidas sobre los hongos endófitos y la fotosíntesis en plántulas de un árbol tropical, Guarea guidonia (Meliaceae) ABSTRACT Endophytes are microorganisms that live within healthy plant tissues, and include fungi and bacteria. They can be mutualists, comensals or even latent pathogens. Presence of these endosymbionts may affect host...
Conference Paper
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Rhizoctonias binucleadas (RB) del género Ceratobasidium han sido importantes biocontroles de hongo patógeno Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. Varias RB son micorrizas de orquídeas sin embargo no se ha evaluado su potencial en biocontrol do las Rhizoctonias micorríticas. El primer paso para identificar RB de orquídeas con potencial de biocontrol es entender...
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Symbiotic seed germination is a critical stage in orchid life histories. Natural selection may act to favor plants that efficiently use mycorrhizal fungi. However, the necessary conditions for natural selection – variation, heritability, and differences in fitness – have not been demonstrated for either orchid or fungus. With the epiphytic orchid T...
Article
Plants harbor diverse communities of fungi and other microorganisms. Fungi are known to occur both on plant surfaces (epiphytes) and inside plant tissues (endophytes), but the two communities have rarely been compared. We compared epiphytic and endophytic fungal communities associated with leaves of coffee (Coffea arabica) in Puerto Rico. We asked...
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Orchids parasitize their mycorrhizal fungi and are dependent on them for seed germination. Controversy reigns over how specific the mycorrhizal association is in tropical species. Although there is little experimental evidence to support any viewpoint, some variation is known to exist. We compared mycorrhizal specificity and performance in two phyl...
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When WHEN ENRON EXECUTIVES WERE accused of using hidden transactions to siphon resources away from legitimate operations, orchidologists were not surprised. After all, orchids have been doing the same thing for years. Here we discuss the latest discoveries about scandalous, off-the-books transactions between orchids and their neighbors. Orchid seed...
Conference Paper
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div class="page" title="Page 1"> Desde hace cien años se sabe que las semillas de las orquídeas necesitan hongos micorrízicos para germi- nar. Todavía no se sabe si las orquídeas pueden evolucionar para aprovechar mejor los hongos micor- rízicos, y si las micorrizas han contribuido en la diversidad de las orquídeas. </div
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1 Mycorrhizal associations of tropical, epiphytic orchids have been studied in vitro, but the importance of the relationship has not been demonstrated in the field. We investigated the effect of fungicide treatment on seedlings and juveniles of the lithophytic orchid Lepanthes rupestris. If mycorrhizae increase fitness of orchids we would expect a...
Article
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All orchids have an obligate relationship with mycorrhizal symbionts. Most orchid mycorrhizal fungi are classified in the form-genus Rhizoctonia. This group includes anamorphs of Tulasnella, Ceratobasidium, and Thanatephorus. Rhizoctonia can be classified according to the number of nuclei in young cells (multi-, bi-, and uninucleate). From nine Pue...
Article
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Ochratoxin A is a toxic and carcinogenic fungal secondary metabolite; its presence in foods is increasingly regulated. Various fungi are known to produce ochratoxins, but it is not known which species produce ochratoxins consistently and which species cause ochratoxin contamination of various crops. We isolated fungi in the Aspergillus ochraceus gr...