Olga R. Brook's research while affiliated with Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and other places

Publications (56)

Article
Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas or myomas) are the most common neoplasm of the uterus. Though incompletely understood, fibroid etiology is multifactorial, a combination of genetic alterations and endocrine, autocrine, environmental, and other factors such as race, age, parity, and body mass index. Black women have greater than an 80% incidence of fibr...
Preprint
Full-text available
The molecular underpinnings of organ dysfunction in acute COVID-19 and its potential long-term sequelae are under intense investigation. To shed light on these in the context of liver function, we performed single-nucleus RNA-seq and spatial transcriptomic profiling of livers from 17 COVID-19 decedents. We identified hepatocytes positive for SARS-C...
Article
Biopsies of the lung, pleura, and mediastinum play a crucial role in the workup of thoracic lesions. Percutaneous image-guided biopsy of thoracic lesions is a relatively safe and noninvasive way to obtain a pathologic diagnosis which is required to direct patient management. This article reviews how to safely perform image-guided biopsies of the lu...
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Full-text available
Background Routine management after abscess drainage includes CT or fluoroscopic imaging to assess for residual abscess cavity prior to catheter removal. It is unclear whether this practice is necessary in patients without residual infection signs and symptoms. Purpose To evaluate safety of abscess catheter removal without follow-up imaging in pat...
Article
Purpose To assess whether adherence to a post-procedure close-out (PPC) checklist decreases adverse events during image-guided procedures. Materials and methods Based on the analysis of prior adverse events related to image-guided procedures, the radiology quality committee developed a PPC checklist. Rate of serious reportable events related to im...
Article
Background: Patients with interatrial shunts (patient foramen ovale/atrial septal defect) are potentially at increased risk for paradoxical air embolism following computed tomography (CT) scans with intravenous (IV) contrast media injection. IV in-line filters aim to prevent such embolisms but are not compatible with power injection required for d...
Article
Palpable scrotal abnormalities are caused by a variety of disorders, ranging from indolent benign conditions to aggressive tumors, and infectious and vascular processes. In these patients the diagnostic workup typically begins with a complete clinical, history, and physical examinations, including analysis of risk factors. If imaging is required, u...
Article
Pelvic floor disorders including pelvic organ prolapse (POP), urinary dysfunction, defecatory dysfunction, and complications after pelvic floor surgery are relatively common in the female population. Imaging tests are obtained when the initial clinical evaluation is thought to be incomplete or inconclusive or demonstrates findings that are discorda...
Article
Adenomyosis poses an important diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in women’s health because of a variety of clinical/imaging presentations and frequent coexistence with other benign gynecologic conditions. In recent years, uterine artery embolization (UAE) for the treatment of adenomyosis has shown encouraging and favorable outcomes and long-term...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To determine institutional practice requirements for personal protective equipment (PPE) in cross-sectional interventional radiology (CSIR) procedures among a variety of radiology practices in the USA and Canada. Methods Members of the Society of Abdominal Radiology (SAR) CSIR Emerging Technology Commission (ETC) were sent an eight-questio...
Article
Purpose To assess the long-term malignancy risk of incidental small pancreatic cysts.Materials and methodsIn this HIPAA-compliant, IRB-approved, retrospective, multi-institutional study, the long-term incidence of pancreatic cancer was compared between patients with and without small pancreatic cysts. Patients with incidental pancreatic cysts ≥ 0.5...
Article
Objectives Imaging evaluation is an essential part of treatment planning for patients with ovarian cancer. Variation in the terminology used for describing ovarian cancer on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can lead to ambiguity and inconsistency in clinical radiology reports. The aim of this collaborative project betwee...
Article
Background Emotional harm incidents in health care may result in lost trust and adverse outcomes. However, investigations of emotional harm in radiology departments remain lacking. Purpose To better understand contributors and clinical scenarios in which emotional harm can occur in radiology, to document incidences, and to develop preventative coun...
Article
Purpose To assess the impact of radiology review for discordance between pathology results from CT-guided biopsy vs. pre-biopsy diagnostic imaging. Materials and Methods In this HIPAA-compliant, IRB approved retrospective review, 926 consecutive CT-guided biopsies performed between 01/15–12/17 were included. 453 patients were reviewed in radiology...
Article
Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common potentially life-threatening medical condition frequently requiring multidisciplinary collaboration to reach the proper diagnosis and guide management. GI bleeding can be overt (eg, visible hemorrhage such as hematemesis, hematochezia, or melena) or occult (eg, positive fecal occult blood test or iron defi...
Article
Despite guidelines developed to standardize the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, significant variability remains in recommendations and practice. The purpose of this survey was to obtain information on practice patterns for the evaluation of overt lower GI bleeding (LGIB) and suspected small bowel bleeding. A 34-question...
Article
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess self-reported breast cancer prevalence potentially associated with occupational radiation exposure from fluoroscopy-guided procedures in female physicians using current standard protection measures. Methods: An institutional review board-approved survey was shared as a link to self-identified female...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, can result in acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple-organ failure1–4, but little is known about its pathophysiology. Here, we generated single-cell atlases of 23 lung, 16 kidney, 16 liver and 19 heart COVID-19 autopsy donor tissue samples, and spatial atlases of 14 lung donors. Integrated computational ana...
Article
Acute and chronic kidney failure is common in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, yet the mechanism of injury and predisposing factors remain poorly understood. We investigated the role of complement activation by determining the levels of deposited complement components (C1q, C3, FH, C5b-9) and immunoglobulin along with the expression levels of t...
Article
Objective To assess accuracy of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) to differentiate uric acid from calcium urinary stones in dual-energy split filter vs sequential-spiral vs dual-source acquisition. Methods Thirty-four urinary stones (volume 89.0 ± 77.4 mm³; 17 calcium stones, 17 uric acid stones) were scanned in a water-filled phantom using a...
Article
Full-text available
Acute pelvic pain is a common presenting complaint in both the emergency room and outpatient settings. Pelvic pain of gynecologic origin in postmenopausal women occurs less frequently than in premenopausal women; however, it has important differences in etiology. The most common causes of postmenopausal pelvic pain from gynecologic origin are ovari...
Article
Objective: To determine safety of shortened observation time without follow-up chest X-ray (CXR) after CT-guided transthoracic procedures (lung biopsy or fiducial placement) in patients without immediate postprocedural pneumothorax (PTX). Methods: Consecutive patients that underwent CT-guided procedures between January 5, 2015, and June 19, 2017...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To determine the feasibility and safety of ultrasound-guided minimally invasive autopsy in COVID-19 patients. Methods: 60 patients who expired between 04/22/2020-05/06/2020 due to COVID-19 were considered for inclusion in the study, based on availability of study staff. Minimally invasive ultrasound-guided autopsy was performed with...
Article
Lung inflammation and damage is prominent in people infected with SARS-Cov-2 and a major determinant of morbidity and mortality. We report the deposition of complement components in the lungs of people who succumbed to COVID-19 consistent with the activation of the classical and the alternative pathways. Our study provides strong rationale for the...
Preprint
Full-text available
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has caused over 1 million deaths globally, mostly due to acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, or direct complications resulting in multiple-organ failures. Little is known about the host tissue immune and cellular responses associated with COVID-19 infection, symptoms, and lethality. To address this, we...
Article
Abdominal radiology as a field has historically played an important role in the training, research, and performance of image-guided procedures. With the emphasis on increased subspecialization and the more formal and rigorous interventional radiology training programs, the question of the future of image-guided procedures within abdominal radiology...
Article
Full-text available
Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) can be categorized as primary or early if occurring in the first 24 hours after delivery, whereas late or delayed PPH occurs between 24 hours and 6 weeks. Most of the causes of PPH can be diagnosed clinically, but imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of many causes of PPH. Pelvic ultrasound (transabdominal an...
Article
Full-text available
This publication summarizes the relevant literature for the imaging of patients with symptoms of abnormal uterine bleeding, including initial imaging, follow-up imaging when the original ultrasound is inconclusive, and follow-up imaging when surveillance is appropriate. For patients with abnormal uterine bleeding, combined transabdominal and transv...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to extensive morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Clinical features that drive SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in humans include inflammation and thrombosis, but the mechanistic details underlying these processes remain to be determined. In this study, we demonstrate endothelial disruption and vascular thrombosis in h...
Article
Purpose To evaluate diagnostic accuracy and clinical outcomes of patients with porcelain gallbladder (GB) diagnosed on CT. Materials and Methods In this IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study, consecutive patients with porcelain gallbladder reported on CT between December 1, 2000 and August 31, 2017 in a tertiary academic center were included. Two ra...
Article
Objectives To evaluate the impact of patient positioning during CT-guided lung biopsy on patients’ outcomes.Methods In this retrospective, IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study, consecutive CT-guided lung biopsies performed on 5/1/2015–12/26/2017 were included. Correlation between incidence of pneumothorax, chest tube placement, pulmonary bleeding wi...
Article
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to present strategies and guidelines that can be implemented in the performance of cross-sectional interventional procedures during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. CONCLUSION. Radiologists who perform cross-sectional interventional procedures can take several steps to minimize the risks to pati...
Article
Full-text available
The most common known causes of female infertility are male factor (26%), ovulatory failure (21%), and tubal damage (14%), while in 28% a couple’s infertility remains unexplained. Female-specific causes of infertility include deterioration of oocyte quality with increasing maternal age; ovulatory disorders, most notably polycystic ovarian syndrome;...
Article
Full-text available
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive gastrointestinal malignancy with a poor 5-year survival rate. Its high mortality rate is attributed to its aggressive biology and frequently late presentation. While surgical resection remains the only potentially curative treatment, only 10–20% of patients will present with surgically resect...
Article
Full-text available
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive gastrointestinal malignancy with a poor 5-year survival rate. Accurate staging of PDAC is an important initial step in the development of a stage-specific treatment plan. Different staging systems/consensus statements convened by different societies and academic practices are currently used....
Article
Objectives: The aims of the study were to systematically analyze causes for radiation dose outliers in emergency department noncontrast head computed tomographies (CTs), to develop and implement standardized system solutions, and audit program success for an extended period of time. Methods: This study was performed in a large, tertiary academic...
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Full-text available
Purpose To assess the impact of pre-procedural evaluation of patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids and adenomyosis in interventional radiology (IR) clinic. Method In this IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, consecutive patients evaluated in the IR clinic in a tertiary academic hospital between 1/1/2015 and 9/30/2018 by a single...
Article
Objective: To assess impact of single-energy metal artifact reduction (SEMAR) algorithm utilizing retrospective adaptive thresholding in reducing metal artifacts in the abdomen and pelvis. Methods: In this prospective institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study, 90 patients with variou...
Article
Objective To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of split-bolus single-scan computed tomography angiography (CTA) protocol for evaluation of acute mesenteric ischemia and alternate diagnoses.Materials and methodsIn this IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, consecutive patients from 21 October 2016 to 6 May 2018 evaluated for mesenteric i...
Article
Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the impact of preprocedural time-out on workflow and patient safety in computed tomography (CT)-guided procedures. Methods: In this institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study, preprocedure time-out was assessed by an independent obs...
Article
Purpose: To compare clinical and technical outcomes of transradial (TRA) uterine artery embolization (UAE) with those of the transfemoral (TFA) approach. Materials and methods: Consecutive patients who underwent UAE with TRA and TFA in an academic hospital between May 2014 and June 2018 were included in this study. The ability to perform the pro...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Gender dysphoria is defined as a conflict between the biological gender and the gender with which the person identifies. Gender reassignment therapy can alter external sexual features to resemble those of the desired gender and are broadly classified into two types, female to male (FTM) and male to female (MTF). In this paper we describe...
Article
Purpose: To evaluate the technical and clinical success rates and safety of bilateral gelfoam uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic acquired uterine arteriovenous shunting due to prior obstetric or gynecologic event. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study of consecutive patients of reproductive age who presented with a...
Article
Purpose To formulate consensus recommendations for CT angiography technical parameters used to evaluate overt gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Methods An electronic questionnaire consisting of 17 questions was sent to a panel of 16 radiologists with expertise on the imaging of GI bleeding from the Society of Abdominal Radiology GI Bleeding disease-...
Article
Purpose To investigate rates and causes of 30-day readmission for patients who undergo percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) procedures. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, PTBD procedures performed at a tertiary care institution (June 2008 to May 2013) were reviewed. For each patient, the first 30-day readmission was use...
Article
Objectives To assess a disease-specific structured report (dsSR) for CT staging of ovarian malignancy compared to a simple structured report (sSR). Methods This is a HIPAA-compliant, IRB-approved study with waiver of informed consent. An adnexal mass-specific structured reporting CT template was developed in collaboration between gynecologic oncol...
Article
Purpose: To describe the implementation and efficacy of electronic capture of interventional radiology (IR) group peer review performed during morning rounds in an academic institution. Materials and methods: Peer-review submissions 24 months before (July 2012 through June 2014) and 24 months after (July 2014 through June 2016) implementation of...
Article
In high-reliability industries that are dedicated to ensuring safety, safety event reporting is the cornerstone of improvement. However, human factors can interfere with consistent reporting. Common human factors that are barriers to safety event reporting include liability concerns; time constraints; physician autonomy; self-regulation; collegiali...
Article
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the value of opportunistic endometrial thickness measurement on postcontrast computed tomography (CT) as a predictor of endometrial cancer in asymptomatic postmenopausal women. Methods: For this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, institutional review board-approved retro...

Citations

... However, cautious administration of bubble study investigations is still important to avoid air embolism through venous lines (40,41). Valsalva maneuvers, which are routine during bubble study investigations, can increase right-sided pressures, which may increase embolic events (42,43). Intravenous filters (44,45) and possible PFO closures (46) may be warranted for some patients with cryptogenic strokes. ...
... 19,57-59 However, repeated cross-sectional imaging may be advised before catheter removal to confirm correct catheter positioning and resolution of the collection in patients with persistent fever/symptoms or high drain output. 49,57,58,[60][61][62] For example, a recent study conducted by Sari et al showed a low rate (0.8%) of abscess recurrence if the catheter is removed without routine imaging when drainage is less than 10 mL/day for at least 2 days, and the patient is clinically stable. 58 If the collection persists on follow-up imaging despite a patent and appropriately positioned catheter, alternative causes for suboptimal drainage should be considered, such as inadequate catheter caliber for the viscosity of the collection, as well as the possibility of internal septations or clots. ...
... More recent works examining larger patient cohorts have found much lower incident rates of malignancy. 41,42 A retrospective, high-powered cohort study of 2034 patients with PCLs and 6018 patients without PCLs imaged using mostly MDCT across 10 years found a three-fold increased risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) without increased all-cause mortality in patients over 65 years of age; for patients younger than 65 years, there was an association with increased all-cause mortality. 41 Incidence rate of pancreatic malignancy was 0.7 cases per 1000 patient-years of follow-up. ...
... Assessment of lymph nodes at MRI relies on size criteria and morphologic appearance (20,47,48). Micrometastases may be present in normal-sized nodes, which is a known limitation of imaging (49). Suspicious lymph nodes should be noted in the radiology report when pelvic lymph nodes are greater than 8 mm in short-axis diameter, abdominal lymph nodes are greater than 10 mm, or regardless of size when lymph nodes have irregular contours, heterogeneous signal intensity similar to that of the primary tumor, are rounded in shape, or appear necrotic. ...
... Although 80-85% of cases resolve spontaneously, GIB causes frequent hospitalisation and high morbidity and mortality, especially in the elderly and in patients with other comorbidities, with a higher incidence rate in men than in women (2:1) [1,2]. About 50% of hospital admissions for GIB relate to upper gastrointestinal bleeding (oesophagus, stomach and duodenum-upper gastrointestinal bleeding-UGIB), 40% relate to the lower gastrointestinal tract (colon and rectum-lower gastrointestinal bleeding-LGIB) and 10% is represented by haemorrhages of the middle tract (small intestine-small bowel bleeding-SBB or middle gastrointestinal bleeding-MGIB) ( Table 1) [3]. Table 1. ...
... Since the rise in the COVID-19 pandemic, it has been seen that SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with UBC has led to increase in fatalities. One of the reasons being immunological impairment seen in patients and targeting complement system has emerged as one of the effective ways to curb such conditions [28]- [30]. The cases of UBC are steadily rising due to changing lifestyle (smoking) and environmental (and occupational) conditions. ...
... Although differences in CT values of the stones were visible within one kernel, the CT value only influenced the immediate treatment if the stone passed without medical intervention. Unfortunately, single-source CT cannot provide information on the stone composition that is as detailed as that of a dual-energy CT [24][25][26]. It is possible to obtain a rough differentiation between different compositions by means of the CT value; however, there is no strict cut-off value for each composition (e.g., uric acid, cysteine, calcium) [27]. ...
... Such discomfort is natural and does not necessitate medical intervention (Basta Nikolic et al. 2021). These results differ slightly from those reported by (Henrichsen et al. 2021) 1729 postmenopausal women and can be a source of discomfort; similar trends have been reported by (Basta Nikolic et al. 2021) in their work on imaging of acute pelvic pain review finding that an ovarian cyst more common in premenopausal women. (Basta Nikolic et al. 2021). ...
... Furin is involved in spike cleavage, and thus, it may facilitate spike endocytosis in the endothelia of the microvessels where both S1 and S2 were detected. With regards to ACE-2, it was not surprising that it was much more highly expressed in the microvessels of the brains of people who had pre-existing obesity versus people without obesity given that other investigators have documented this result [58,59]. What was surprising however, was that the ACE-2 levels did not correlate with the amount of endocytosed spike protein in the brain of the fatal COVID-19 cases. ...
... Investigations into the mechanisms by which complement activation occurs in COVID-19 revealed (1) the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 binds to specific IgG/IgM antibodies, (2) heparan sulfate binds to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, and (3) recognition of the spike and nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-CoV-2 by lectin pathway components subsequently triggers complement activation by the classical, alternative, and lectin pathways [32,35,[242][243][244]. Mouse IgGs (IgG1, IgG2a/c, IgG2b, and IgG3) and their matching receptors (e.g., FcγRI, FcγRIIb, FcγRIII and FcγRIV) differ from the human IgGs (e.g., IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG 4) and their receptors (e.g., FcγRI, FcγRIIa, FcγRIIc, FcγRIIIa, FcγRIIb, and FcγRIIIb) [245]. ...