Odd Mørkve's research while affiliated with University of Bergen and other places

Publications (57)

Article
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Background: Tuberculosis is a serious global public health, social and economical problem that affects millions of people particularly in low income countries. The aim of this study was to see the loss to follow up pattern in Tuberculosis patients in district Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Materials and method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in distr...
Article
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Information on the different spoligotype families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Tanzania is limited, and where available, restricted to small geographical areas. This article describes the genetic profile of M. tuberculosis across Tanzania and suggests how spoligotype families might affect drug resistance and treatment outcomes for smear positiv...
Article
SETTING: Despite a steep increase in the number of individuals treated for latent tuberculous infection (LTBI), few data are available on how treatment is implemented.OBJECTIVE: To obtain baseline information on initiation and completion of treatment for LTBI in Norway in 2009.DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional study.RESULTS: All 721 patients tr...
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Low- and middle-income countries have a higher burden of fatal and non-fatal injuries. The lack of evidence-based information hampers efforts for injury prevention. The aim of this study was to calculate non-fatal injury incidence rates and to investigate causes and risk factors for non-fatal injuries in Khartoum state. Information was gathered in...
Article
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Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious, airborne disease and remains a major global public health hazard. TB is a major cause of mortality and is affecting millions of people in low-income and middle-income countries. Worldwide, one person out of three is infected with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Timely diagnosis and treatment are the two...
Article
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Background In the absence of reliable data, antenatal HIV surveillance has been used to monitor the HIV epidemic since the late 1980s. Currently, routine data from Prevention of Mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes are increasingly available. Evaluating whether the PMTCT programme reports provide comparable HIV prevalence estimates w...
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Background Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of mortality affecting millions of people in third world countries. In DOTS monitoring of patients is facility-based and treatment supporter-based; by these two ways patients’ compliance to treatment is monitored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of treatment supporters and their impact on...
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Prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes have great potential to achieve virtual elimination of perinatal HIV transmission provided that PMTCT recommendations are properly followed. This study assessed mothers and infants adherence to medication regimen for PMTCT and the proportions of exposed infants who were followed up i...
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Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has been a neglected area in national TB control programme (NTCP) in high burden countries. The NTP Pakistan adapted the global approaches by developing and piloting its policy guideline on childhood TB in ten districts of the country. We developed an intervention package including a deskguide and a monitoring tool and t...
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The control of childhood tuberculosis (TB) has been of low priority in TB programmes in high-burden settings. The objective of this paper was to describe the development and testing of tools for the management of childhood TB. The Pakistan National TB Control Programme embarked on a number of activities, including the establishment of policy guidel...
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Despite the importance of safe obstetric practice in reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission and adverse perinatal outcomes, little is known about access to intrapartum obstetric care for HIV positive women. A cohort of HIV positive women were followed to assess the rate of intrapartum transfers and associated adverse outcomes in Addis Ababa. Ove...
Article
The burden of tuberculosis in Nigeria is the highest in Africa. Therefore, improved knowledge of health workers on the current issues concerning the disease, including the National guideline, is important for effective disease control. An in-depth search of relevant literature on the subject area. This includes texts and operational documents of th...
Article
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The adherence to policies of National TB Control Programme (NTP) to manage a case of tuberculosis (TB) is a fundamental step to have a successful programme in any country. Childhood TB services faces an unmet challenge of case management due to difficulty with diagnosis and relatively new policies. For control of childhood TB in Pakistan, NTP devel...
Article
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Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission (PMTCT) is still the most effective intervention in combating new HIV infections. In 2008, revised national PMTCT guidelines that incorporated new policies on HIV counselling and testing, antiretroviral prophylaxis regimen and infant HIV diagnosis came into effect in Ethiopia. In the present study we h...
Data
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Compiled monthly PMTCT reports from February, 2004 to August, 2009 for the 10 Sub-cities in Addis Ababa. The table containes monthly PMTCT reports from February, 2004 to August 2009 collected from the 10 sub-cities. Addis Ketema, Bole and Lideta sub-cities started reporting from 2004 while the rest of the sub-cities reported from 2005.
Article
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Tanzania ranks 15th among the world's 22 countries with the largest tuberculosis burden and tuberculosis has continued to be among the major public health problems in the country. Limited data, especially in patients co infected with HIV, are available to predict the duration of time required for a smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patient to a...
Article
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All nine public sector hospitals in three districts of Pakistan. To estimate case notifications of children with tuberculosis (TB) and their outcomes. A retrospective cohort following all children aged <15 years placed on TB treatment under the National TB Control Programme (NTP) in public hospitals. The study period was 2 years before and 2 years...
Data
Predictors for positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT-TB). Multivariate analysis performed by logistic regression. * P-value < 0.05, **P-value < 0.001. CI: confidence intervals, OR: odd ratios. Age was categorised as 9-19 years, 20-29 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years and ≥ 60 years. Recent stay in a TB endemic country, recent exposure o...
Article
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Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) Release Assays (IGRA) are more specific than the tuberculosis skin test (TST) in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI). We present the performance of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube (QFT-TB) assay as diagnostic test and during follow-up of preventive TB therapy in outpatients from a TB low-endemic c...
Article
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Delay in Tuberculosis (TB) case detection may worsen the disease and increase TB transmission. It is also a challenge to the National TB and Leprosy control Program (NTLP). We conducted a cross sectional study in four out of six districts in Pwani region to estimate the extent and factors responsible for delay in TB case detection in Pwani region....
Article
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Tuberculosis (TB) case detection in women has remained low in developing world. This study was conducted to determine the proportion of smear positive TB among women with cough regardless of the duration attending family Planning (FP) and Maternal and child health (MCH) clinics in Dar es Salaam. We conducted a cross sectional study in all three mun...
Article
Tuberculous lymphadenitis can be difficult to diagnose clinically, and as it is thought to be more common in females, we describe here the clinical characteristics of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis in men and women and compare this with cytology to assess their diagnostic value. Two hundred and nineteen patients with tuberculous lymphadenitis,...
Article
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According to WHO estimates, tuberculosis case detection rate in Tanzania is less than 50% and this poses a major challenge to control tuberculosis in the country. Currently, one of the defining criteria for suspecting tuberculosis is cough for two weeks or more. We wanted to find out whether the prevalence of tuberculosis was different in patients...
Article
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Identifying reasons for delay in diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis is important for the health system to find ways to treat patients as early as possible, and hence reduce the suffering of patients and transmission of the disease. The objectives of this study was to assess the duration of delay in the diagnosis of tuberculosis and to investig...
Article
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Background The amount of CD4 T cells is used for monitoring HIV progression and improvement, and to make decisions to start antiretroviral therapy and prophylactic drugs for opportunistic infections. The aim of this study was to determine normal reference values for CD4 T cells, lymphocytes, leucocytes and haemoglobin level in healthy, HIV negative...
Article
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Background: Tuberculosis has been recognized as a risk to health care workers for several decades. Nevertheless, little information is available about the situation of tuberculosis infection in health care workers in Iran. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection and pulmonary tuberculosis, and to asses...
Article
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Background Tuberculosis is the commonest opportunistic infection and the number one cause of death in HIV/AIDS patients in developing countries. To address the extent of the tuberculosis HIV coinfection in rural Tanzania we conducted a cross sectional study including HIV/AIDS patients attending care and treatment clinic from September 2006 to March...
Article
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To determine the time taken for diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary TB and the factors responsible for delay, by studying the level of awareness regarding TB in the patients, and the extent of social stigmatization associated with TB in Punjab (Multan and Sialkot), Pakistan. It was a hospital based cross-sectional study using a pre-structured ques...
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The development of granulomas is a major histopathological feature of tuberculosis. Very little information is available concerning the physiology and functions of different cell types in the tuberculous granulomas. The aim of this study was to compare the epithelioid cells (ECs) and multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) in the granulomas caused by Myc...
Article
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To describe and compare histopathological findings with clinical criteria in diagnosis of TB adenitis. Lymph node biopsies were obtained from 213 patients. Specimens were processed for culture and histopathologic examination, using standard methods. One hundred blocks with good preservation of tissue morphology were selected for detailed histologic...
Article
Inhibition of apoptosis of infected macrophages by pathogenic mycobacteria is suggested to be an important virulence mechanism, but little is known about the mycobacterial proteins involved in the inhibition of apoptosis. In this study we investigated differences in apoptosis and immune response and their correlation with the expression of Mycobact...
Article
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of immunohistochemistry using an antibody to the secreted mycobacterial antigen MPT64, in abdominal and lymph node tuberculosis. We used formalin-fixed histologically diagnosed abdominal tuberculosis (n = 33) and cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis (n = 120) biopsies. These were investig...
Article
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The clinical and histological criteria used to diagnose lymphadenitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms have poor specificity. Acid-fast staining and culture has low sensitivity and specificity. We report a novel method for diagnosis of tuberculosis that uses immunohistochemistry to detect the secreted mycobacterial antigen MPT...
Article
An urban district in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. To assess the acceptability of community and health facility-based direct observation of treatment (DOT) of tuberculosis (TB) patients in Temeke district. Both quantitative and qualitative study methodologies were used. Eight focus group discussions were carried out with TB patients, treatment supporter...
Article
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Relatively little is known about the effector mechanisms whereby the human immune system controls Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. In this study we elaborate on the immune response and mechanisms of persistence of mycobacteria in lesions by analysing, using immunohistochemistry, the expression of cytokines [tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-al...
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To ascertain whether case-finding through community outreach in a rural setting has an effect on case-notification rate, symptom duration, and treatment outcome of smear-positive tuberculosis (TB). We randomly allocated 32 rural communities to intervention or control groups. In intervention communities, health workers from seven health centres held...
Article
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Identifying new approaches to tuberculosis treatment that are effective and put less demand to meagre health resources is important. One such approach is community based direct observed treatment (DOT). The purpose of the study was to determine the cost and cost effectiveness of health facility and community based directly observed treatment of tub...
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To assess diagnostic delay, knowledge and practices related to tuberculosis among patients with mycobacterial adenitis. A cross sectional study involving comparison analysis of high-risk groups. Seven hospitals in rural and semi-rural districts of Arusha. Four hundred and twenty six clinically diagnosed adenitis patients. Biopsy specimens were proc...
Article
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The Fas/Fas-ligand (FasL) system plays an important role in regulation of apoptosis and the immune response, and is exploited by mycobacteria to evade the immune response. This study was performed to investigate the distribution and levels of FasL and Fas in lymph node granulomas and sera of tuberculous lymphadenitis patients by immunohistochemistr...
Article
What is the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and obstructive pulmonary disease by age, sex, and smoking history in a population aged 70 years and older? What is the association between selected comorbidities and obstructive pulmonary disease? A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and disease, selected comorbidities, and smoking history was mail...
Article
The Sudan National Tuberculosis Programme serves internally displaced and settled populations in Khartoum, Sudan. To investigate whether treatment in the camps is satisfactory compared to the settled population and to World Health Organization (WHO) standards, and to map certain characteristics of the clinics that may explain differences in treatme...
Article
An urban district in Dar es Salaam city with a high tuberculosis (TB) caseload. To evaluate the effectiveness of community-based direct observation of treatment (DOT) using guardians and former TB patients compared to hospital-based DOT in an urban setting in Tanzania. Unblinded randomised control trial conducted in five sites under operational con...
Article
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The increase in tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS patients in many countries in Africa including Tanzania, is outstripping the ability of public health services to cope. This calls for a closer collaboration between tuberculosis programmes and other stakeholders involved in HIV/AIDS care. To determine the feasibility of establishing collaboration between t...
Article
We present reference values for arterial blood gas measurements for persons > 70 years old. At the same time, we wish to examine how different criteria for exclusion from the reference sample with regard to previous smoking and various comorbidities might influence reference values. After first screening a random sample of the general elderly popul...
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To assess risk factors and mycobacterial agents in mycobacterial adenitis. Cross sectional involving comparison analysis of high-risk groups. Seven hospitals in rural and semi-rural districts of Arusha. The study comprised of 457 patients of clinically diagnosed mycobacterial adenitis. Biopsy materials were cultured and identification of mycobacter...
Article
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Arusha, Tanzania. To determine tribal differences in knowledge and practices that might influence tuberculosis control. Twenty-seven villages were selected randomly out of 242 villages in four districts. In each village, a general and a livestock keeping group were selected at random. The households were home-visited and 426 family members were int...
Article
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Arusha, Tanzania. To assess risk factors that might influence TB control in the general population and in livestock-keepers. Of 242 villages in four districts, 27 were selected randomly. In each village, a general and a livestock-keeping group were selected at random. The households were home-visited and 426 family members were interviewed. On aver...
Article
The authors wished to describe non-responders and reasons for non-response and determine the magnitude and direction of non-response bias in connection with a postal questionnaire study of respiratory symptoms and disease among the elderly. An eight-page respiratory health questionnaire was mailed to subjects in a sex-age stratified random sample o...
Article
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The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) has defined stage I chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC)% <70% and a FEV1% predicted of >80%. Stage 2 has been defined as FEV1/FVC <70% and a FEV1% pred of <80%. The authors examined the extent of COPD...
Article
It is well known that body position can have an effect on gas exchange though the magnitude of this effect has not been studied thoroughly in the elderly. This study analyzes the effect body position change has on arterial oxygen tension (PaO(2)) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)) in healthy elderly. We tested 46 "lung-healthy" elderly,...
Article
A health care facility based study in a rural and urban setting in Mwanza region, Tanzania. To determine patients' general knowledge of tuberculosis (TB) and the management of the disease. From 7 May to 7 July 1998, 296 pulmonary tuberculosis patients were consecutively interviewed. The majority of the respondents (89%) were outpatients. Questions...
Article
Health facilities in Mwanza region, Tanzania. To determine factors responsible for delay from onset of symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis to initiation of treatment. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 296 smear-positive tuberculosis patients. Emphasis was given to periods between 1) onset of symptoms and first consultation to a health facility,...

Citations

... In a study conducted by Soomoro, et al found that 71.8% of patients with tuberculosis who discontinued treatment were patients with productive age (15-54 years) and patients aged> 55 years more dropped out during intensive treatment phase (2 months first) compared to the advanced treatment phase [16]. ...
... 4 The rate of treatment adherence was estimated to be 90% (80%-100%), based on previous studies, including Norwegian data. [14][15][16][17] The number of incident TB cases was adjusted accordingly and defined as preventable TB (table 2). We excluded TB cases that were on TB treatment on arrival to Norway. ...
... Studying genotype-phenotype relationships requires understanding the genetic diversity of MTBC clinical strains in a given clinical setting. In Tanzania, few studies have described the genetic diversity of the MTBC [16][17][18][19]. These previous works used conventional genotyping tools such as the spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) technique and revealed the presence of mainly the East African Indian (EAI), Central Asian (CAS) and Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) spoligo families, and the Beijing family reported only at the lowest frequencies. ...
... A cross-sectional survey in Rawalpindi revealed different success rates and transferred out cases with different types of treatment supporters. Treatment success rates with female health workers, community health workers, and family members recorded were 93.10%, 89.00%, and 73.50% respectively, while transferred out cases noted were 2.0%, 00.00%, and 3.20% respectively [13][14][15][16]. ...
... 2,15 Research evidence found in Ethiopia and other countries so far has focused on the TB control program challenges from patients' perspectives. [16][17][18][19] Moreover, a few available works of literature mainly focus on the prevalence and associated factors, and in terms of the study designs, most of them are done using a quantitative research approach. However, the number of studies that explored the challenges of healthcare providers, the key actors, and perspectives is extremely scarce. ...
... The evidence showed that traumatic experiences related to accident accounted for 32% in sub-Saharan Africa in the year 2015 [4]. The evidence from East Africa, specifically in Sudan in 2014, and Tanzania in 2005 showed that there is a significant developing burden of traumatic events [5,6]. Being one of the developing nations, an accident is a typical general health problem in Ethiopia [7]. ...
... The Gombe state PMTCT program has achieved over 70% [11] coverage; therefore comparing trends in PMTCT programme data and ANC HSS becomes The scaling up of HIV testing by non-laboratory staff is a major factor in uptake and demonstrated increased coverage of over 70%; this was supported by effective quality assurance and quality control processes supervised by laboratory scientists. Mirkuzie et al. [52] compared PMTCT and ANC HSS data in Ethiopia over 2 years and concluded that PMTCT data can be used to monitor HIV trends. HIV prevalence rate in the 2 groups studied by the Ethiopian researchers were 6.2% and 4.5% and 6.1% and 5.5% in 2008 and 2009 respectively [52]. ...
... Such denials of care at the referral hospitals defies the fundamental notions of having a referral network and delays mothers from accessing appropriate and timely obstetric care and could increase the risk of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. In 2011, Addis Ababa recorded highest rate of stillbirth in the country i.e. 30/1000 births where most of these deaths occurred during the intrapartum period [25] and the risks were high among referred cases [26]. ...
... In a resourcelimited country, one-third of infected children die before 1 year, and more than half die before 2 years (18). Other studies revealed that the rate of mortality on HIV-positive infants before 6 months Abbreviations: AIDS, acquired immune deficiency syndrome; ANC, antenatal care; ART, antiretroviral therapy; ARV, antiretroviral; DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid; HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy; HIV, human immune virus; LTFU, loss to follow-up; MTCT, mother-to-child transmission; NVP, nevirapine; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; PMTCT, prevention of mother-to-child transmission; PNC, postnatal care; TB, tuberculosis; UNICEF, United Nations Children's Fund; WHO, World Health Organization; DBS, dried blood spot; sdNVP, single-dose nevirapine; cART, combined ART. was 20%, and 35 to 40% die before 12 months of their life (19,20). The rate of mortality among children in Thailand was 16 (16%) from a data reviewed between August 2014 and December 2015 (1,21). ...
... where N is the normal/sample size for the study, P = 64% (compliance rate in Nepal by Shiyalap 2013) [8]. Z = 1.96 at 95% confidence limit. ...