O. W. Richards's research while affiliated with Imperial College London and other places

Publications (52)

Article
The insects are tracheate arthropods in which the body is divided into head, thorax and abdomen. A single pair of antennae (homologous with the antennules of the Crustacea) is present and the head also bears a pair of mandibles and two pairs of maxillae, the second pair fused medially to form the labium. The thorax carries three pairs of legs and u...
Chapter
Where two kinds of animals differ from each other in some definite but relatively minor structural character or characters, they are said to be of distinct species. These structural differences are presumed or, in some cases, known to be, so to speak, indicators of a barrier to interbreeding between the two kinds. Species are grouped into genera, a...
Chapter
The arthropods form the largest group in the animal kingdom and can be recognized by the following characters. The body is segmented and covered by a chitinous exoskeleton. A variable number of the segments carry paired, jointed appendages that exhibit functional modifications in different regions of the body. The heart is dorsal and is provided wi...
Article
1 Introduction.- 2 Anatomy and Physiology.- 3 Development and Metamorphosis.- 4 Some Important Modes Life in Insects.- 5 Nomenclature, Classification and Biology.- 6 Relationships of Insects.- 7 Appendix on Literature.
Chapter
This consists of a cellular layer, the epidermis, with an outer non-cellular cuticle. The epidermis secretes the greater part of the cuticle and is responsible for dissolving and absorbing most of the old cuticle when the insect moults (p. 119) as well as repairing wounds and differentiating so as to determine the form and surface appearance of the...
Chapter
The integument consists of the following layers: (i) the cuticle, (ii) the epidermis, and (iii) the basement membrane (Fig. 2).
Chapter
Predacious insects with biting mouthparts and two equal or subequal pairs of elongate, membranous wings; each wing with a complex reticulation of small cross-veins and usually a conspicuous stigma. Eyes very large and prominent; antennae very short and filiform. Abdomen elongate, often extremely slender; male accessory genital armature developed on...
Chapter
The process of eclosion or hatching from the egg varies greatly in the different groups but usually begins with the swallowing of amniotic liquid so that air enters the egg (Sikes and Wigglesworth, 1931). The chorion and other embryonic membranes are then ruptured, the former either along a preformed line of weakness, such as surrounds the cap of s...
Chapter
The cuticle of an insect forms a more or less hardened exoskeleton and, although perfectly continuous over the whole body, it remains flexible along certain definite, usually transverse, lines. Here the cuticle becomes infolded and is membranous in character. The body of an insect therefore presents a jointed structure which is an example of segmen...
Chapter
Minute to large insects whose fore wings, not used in flight, are modified into horny or leathery elytra which almost always meet to form a straight mid-dorsal suture: hind wings membranous, folded beneath the elytra, or often reduced or wanting. Mouthparts adapted for biting: ligula variably lobed. Prothorax large and mobile, mesothorax much reduc...
Chapter
Small to rather large soft-bodied insects with usually elongate antennae. Mouth-parts adapted for biting: ligula undivided or bilobed or often atrophied. Two pairs of very similar membranous wings, generally disposed in a roof-like manner over the abdomen when at rest. Venation primitive but with many accessory veins: costal veinlets numerous: Rs o...
Chapter
The insect head presents many morphological problems but it is convenient here to give a descriptive account of the head-capsule and cephalic appendages before discussing the more important theories of the segmental composition of this region.
Chapter
Two pairs of wings usually present; the anterior pair most often of harder consistency than the posterior pair, either uniformly so (Homoptera) or with the apical portion more membranous than the remainder (Heteroptera). Mouthparts piercing and suctorial, palps atrophied; the labium forming a dorsally grooved sheath in which lie two pairs of bristl...
Chapter
Hemipteroid insects with long, filiform antennae of 12–50 segments, sometimes secondarily annulate. Head with Y-shaped ‘epicranial suture’ usually present; post-clypeus inflated. Maxilla with 4-segmented palp and a rod-like lacinia which is partially sunk into head-capsule; labial palps much reduced, 1- or 2-segmented. Prothorax generally small; wi...
Chapter
Apterygota with entognathous mouthparts. Antennae many-segmented, flagellar segments provided with muscles. Compound eyes and ocelli absent. Tarsi 1-segmented. Abdomen with lateral styliform appendages on most or all of the pregenital segments and ending in paired cerci of variable form. Terminal median filament absent. Tracheal system present; Mal...
Chapter
Apterous insects living as ectoparasites mainly of birds, less frequently of mammals. Eyes reduced. No ocelli. Antennae 3- to 5-segmented. Mouthparts of a modified biting type; maxillary palpi 4-segmented or wanting; ligula undivided or 2-lobed, labial palps rudimentary. Prothorax evident, free; meso- and meta-thorax often imperfectly separated; ta...
Chapter
Insects with 2 pairs of membranous wings, often with the venation greatly reduced; the hind wings smaller than the fore pair and interlocked with the latter by means of hooklets. Mouthparts primarily adapted for biting and often for lapping or sucking also. The abdomen usually basally constricted and its first segment fused with the metathorax; an...
Chapter
Social and polymorphic species living in large communities composed of reproductive forms together with numerous apterous, sterile soldiers and workers. Mouthparts of the typical biting type: ligula 4-lobed. Wings very similar, elongate and membranous, superposed flat over the back when at rest and capable of being shed by means of basal fractures:...
Chapter
Large, apterous or winged insects, frequently of elongate, cylindrical form, more rarely depressed and leaf-like. Mouthparts mandibulate. Prothorax short; meso- and metathorax usually elongate, the latter closely associated with 1st abdominal segment. Legs similar to each other; coxae small and rather widely separated; tarsi almost always 5-segment...
Chapter
Apterous insects living as ectoparasites of mammals. Eyes reduced or absent. Ocelli absent. Antennae 3- to 5-segmented. Mouthparts highly modified for piercing and sucking, retracted within the head when not in use. Thoracic segments fused; tarsi i-segmented, claws single. Thoracic spiracles dorsal. Cerci absent. Metamorphosis slight.
Chapter
The classification of insects has passed through many changes and with the growth of detailed knowledge an increasing number of orders has come to be recognized. Handlirsch (1908) and Wilson and Doner (1937) have reviewed the earlier attempts at classification, among which the schemes of Brauer (1885), Sharp (1899) and Börner (1904) did much to def...
Chapter
Small to moderate-sized moth-like insects with setaceous antennae. Mandibles vestigial or absent: maxillae single-lobed with elongate palpi: labium with a small median glossa or large hypopharyngeal haustellum and well-developed paips. Wings membranous, more or less densely hairy, and held roof-like over the back in repose. Fore wings elongate, hin...
Chapter
Insects with 2 pairs of membranous wings, often with the venation greatly reduced; the hind wings smaller than the fore pair and interlocked with the latter by means of hooklets. Mouthparts primarily adapted for biting and often for lapping or sucking also. The abdomen usually basally constricted and its first segment fused with the metathorax; an...
Chapter
Winged or apterous insects with 9-segmented moniliform antennae. Y-shaped ecdysial cleavage line present. Normal maxillae, 3-segmented labial palps. Wings, when present, capable of being sized by means of basal fractures; venation specialized by reduction. Prothorax well developed. Tarsi 2-segmented. Cerci very short, 1-segmented. Ovipositor absent...
Chapter
Mouthparts entognathous, principally adapted for biting; antennae usually 4-segmented, the first 3 segments with intrinsic muscles; compound eyes absent. Abdomen 6-segmented, usually with three pairs of appendages, i.e. a ventral tube on segment I, a minute retinaculum on III, and a forked springing organ on IV. A tracheal system is usually absent...
Chapter
Insects with a single pair of membranous wings, the hind pair modified into halteres. Mouthparts suctorial, usually forming a proboscis and sometimes adapted for piercing: mandibles rarely present: labium usually distally expanded into a pair of fleshy lobes. Prothorax and metathorax small and fused with the large mesothorax: tarsi commonly 5-segme...
Chapter
Among insects the circulatory system is usually open, with only a single closed dorsal vessel. The greater part of the circulation takes place in the cavities of the body and its appendages, the blood occupying the spaces not appropriated by the internal organs. The larger spaces may be enclosed by special membranes and form definite sinuses but ex...
Chapter
Soft-bodied insects with short setaceous antennae and vestigial mouthparts derived from a biting type. Wings membranous, held vertically upwards when at rest, the hind pair considerably reduced; ‘intercalary’ veins and numerous cross-veins usually present. Abdomen terminated by very long cerci with or without a similar median caudal prolongation. M...
Chapter
Insects with 2 pairs of membranous wings; cross-veins few in number. The body, wings and appendages clothed with broad scales. Mandibles almost always vestigial or absent, and the principal mouthparts generally represented by a suctorial proboscis formed by the maxillae. Larvae eruciform, peripneustic, frequently with 8 pairs of limbs. Pupae usuall...
Chapter
Detailed accounts of embryonic development in the Insecta are given by Johannsen and Butt (1941), Jura (1972) and Anderson (1972). The evolutionary significance of insect development in relation to that of other arthropods is discussed in detail by Anderson (1973); physiological aspects of embryology are reviewed by Pflugfelder (1958), Krause (1957...
Chapter
Small or minute slender-bodied insects with short 6- to 10-segmented antennae and asymmetrical piercing mouthparts with maxillary and labial palps. Prothorax well developed, free; tarsi 1- or 2-segmented, each with a terminal protrusible vesicle. Wings when present very narrow with greatly reduced venation and long marginal setae. Cerci absent. Met...
Chapter
Gregarious insects living in silken tunnels. Mouthparts mandibulate, ligula 4-lobed. Tarsi 3-segmented; ist segment of anterior pair greatly inflated. Females apterous, males usually with 2 pairs of similar wings; radius greatly thickened, remaining veins often reduced or vestigial. Cerci 2-segmented, generally asymmetrical in the male. Metamorphos...
Chapter
In the vast majority of insects respiration takes place by means of internal air-tubes known as tracheae These ramify through the organs of the body and its appendages, the finest branches being termed tracheoles. The air generally enters the tracheae through paired, usually lateral, openings termed spiracles, which are segmentally arranged along t...
Chapter
Elongate insects with typical biting mouthparts; superlinguae distinct; ligula 2-lobed. Fore wings modified into very short leathery tegmina devoid of veins; hind wings semicircular, membranous, with the veins highly modified and disposed radially. Apterous forms common. Tarsi 3-segmented. Cerci unjointed and almost always modified into heavily scl...
Chapter
Usually medium- or large-sized insects; winged, brachypterous or apterous. Mouthparts mandibulate. Prothorax large. Hind legs usually enlarged and modified for jumping; coxae small and somewhat widely separated; tarsi 3- or 4- segmented, rarely with 5 or fewer than 3 segments. Fore wings forming more or less thickened tegmina with submarginal costa...
Chapter
The thorax is composed of three segments, the pro-, meso- and metathorax. In almost all insects each segment bears a pair of legs and in most adults both the meso- and metathorax carry a pair of wings. Where the legs are wanting, their absence is secondary. This apodous condition is extremely rare among the imagines but it is the rule among the lar...
Chapter
Small, endoparasitic insects: males free-living, mouthparts of a degenerate biting type, antennae conspicuous and flabellate, fore wings reduced to small club-like structures, metathorax greatly developed, hind wings large and fan-shaped, trochanters absent. Pupae exarate, adecticous. Female normally remaining in host, enclosed in a puparium, sexua...
Chapter
Slender, moderate or small-sized insects with elongate, filiform antennae, head usually produced into a vertically deflected rostrum, with biting mouthparts: ligula wanting. Legs long and slender. Wings similar and membranous, carried longitudinally and horizontally in repose: venation primitive, Rs dichotomously branched, Cu1 simple. Abdomen elong...
Chapter
The sense organs or receptors (Carthy and Newell, 1968; Dethier, 1963; Horridge, 1965) are those structures whereby the energy of a stimulus arising outside or, less obviously, within the insect, is transformed into a nervous impulse which, after transmission to one of the central ganglia, usually results in a change in the behaviour of the insect...
Chapter
Apterous, with eyes reduced or absent and no ocelli. Antennae moderately long and filiform. Mouthparts mandibulate. Legs approximately similar to each other; tarsi 5-segmented. Female with well-developed ovipositor; neither 7th nor 8th abdominal sternum enlarged to form subgenital plate. Male genitalia asymmetrical. Cerci long, 8-segmented.
Chapter
Apterygota with ectognathous mouthparts, adapted for biting. Antennae many-segmented, but only the basal segment provided with intrinsic muscles. Compound eyes present or absent. Tarsi with 2–5, commonly 3, segments. Abdomen 11-segmented, with a variable number of lateral, styliform, pregenital appendages, a pair of many-segmented cerci, and ending...
Chapter
Antennae almost invariably filiform, with numerous segments. Mouthparts man-dibulate. Legs similar to each other or fore legs raptorial; coxae large and rather closely approximated; tarsi almost always 5-segmented. Fore wings modified into more or less thickened tegmina and with marginal costal vein. Wing-pads of nymph do not undergo reversal durin...
Chapter
Minute insects with entognathous, piercing mouthparts; antennae and eyes absent. Anterior legs sensory, usually held forward and little used in walking; all tarsi one-segmented, with a single claw. Abdomen of II segments and a well-developed telson; first three segments each with a pair of small appendages; cerci absent. External genitalia associat...
Chapter
Minute to large insects whose fore wings, not used in flight, are modified into horny or leathery elytra which almost always meet to form a straight mid-dorsal suture: hind wings membranous, folded beneath the elytra, or often reduced or wanting. Mouthparts adapted for biting: ligula variably lobed. Prothorax large and mobile, mesothorax much reduc...
Chapter
Soft-bodied insects of moderate to rather large size with elongate, setaceous antennae. Mouthparts weak, of the biting type; mandibles normal or vestigial, ligula 4-lobed. Wings membranous, held flat over the back in repose, hind pair usually the larger, with well-developed anal lobes. Venation variable, often considerably specialized; vein M 2-bra...
Chapter
Small, apterous, laterally compressed insects whose adults are ectoparasites of warm-blooded animals. Eyes absent, 2 ocelli usually present: antennae short and stout, reposing in grooves: mouthparts modified for piercing and sucking, maxillary and labial palpi present. Thoracic segments free: coxae very large, tarsi 5-segmented. Larvae elongate, er...
Chapter
Predacious insects with biting mouthparts and two equal or subequal pairs of elongate, membranous wings; each wing with a complex reticulation of small cross-veins and usually a conspicuous stigma. Eyes very large and prominent; antennae very short and filiform. Abdomen elongate, often extremely slender; male accessory genital armature developed on...

Citations

... The prey items that inadvertently fell, or which slipped from the adults' beaks in the removing of insects' wings, and legs, were also included in the list. All prey was identified up to generic level using standard works (Richards & Davies 1977;Tikader 1982;Borror et al. 1989;Majumder & Tikader 1991). Whenever the adults mimicked another avian species, we noted down the name of the species that was being mimicked, as most of such birds are common in the JWS, and later verified our identification of the call by downloading, and listening to, the pre-recorded calls on the open source website, www.xenocanto.com. ...
... Most of the insects present a segmented cylindrical structure. The tegument rigidity is caused by the three layers which constitute it: cuticle, epidermis and basal membrane [13]. The cuticle serves as a physical barrier against parasites and diseases; it is a structure formed by crystalline chitin nanofibers inside a proteins, polyphenols and lipids matrix [14]. ...
... Morphologically, the soldiers are bigger in size and have defensive adaptations such as enlarged mandibles or stopper-like heads. Besides having mandibles, and a sclerotized head, soldiers of some genera such as Coptotermes have a frontal gland that discharges a defensive secretion through a frontal pore (Richards and Davies 1978). This secretion can be toxic or repellent to intruders, such as ants and entangle their legs and antennae. ...
... The terminology of the morphological structures and abbreviations follow that of Ronquist and Nordlander (1989), Nieves-Aldrey (2001) and Liljeblad et al. (2008). For wing venation, we follow Ronquist and Nordlander (1989) and for the terminology of the forewing cells, we follow Richards and Davies (1977). For sculpture terminology, we follow Harris (1979). ...
... A tracheal system is usually absent and there are no Malpighian tubules. Springtails have three thoracical segments and with six or fewer abdominal segments, including a telson consisting of a dorsal and two ventral valves surrounding the anus; there are typically four antennal segments, lack malpighian tubules and most have paired labial nephridia that empty into the ventral groove at the base of the labium; with unique feature is the ventral tube or collophore (paired projection from the first abdominal segment), metamorphosis slight (Richards and Davies, 1977;Christiansen et al., 2009). ...
... The terminology used in this study follows that of Richards (1977) and Krombein (1982). The following abbreviations are used in the descriptions: BL = body length; HL= head length; HW = head width; WF = width of frons; POL = length between posterior ocelli; AOL = length between anterior ocellus and posterior ocellus; DAO = diameter of anterior ocellus; EL = eye length; FWL = fore wing length; ML = mesosoma length; MW = mesosoma width; T = metasomal tergum; S = metasomal sternum; AMW = anterior width of T1; MTL = length of T1; PMW = posterior width of T1. ...
... The Sciomyzoidea is considered to be the sister group of the Lauxanioidea, whose members include Chamaemyiidae, Lauxaniidae, Celyphidae and Eurychoromyiidae. Modern papers treating the limits and subdivisions of the Sciomyzidae (Verbèke, 1950Verbèke, , 1961 Hennig, 1965 Hennig, , 1973 Steyskal, 1965; Griffiths, 1972) were summarized by Knutson (1978) and McAlpine (1989) . The monophyly of the Salticellinae and Sciomyzinae in the Sciomyzidae was well demonstrated by Griffiths (1972). ...
... Growth occurs between molts, yet the overall form of the organism remains relatively constant. The apterygote hexapods are reported to show indeterminate growth and some have been reported to undergo as many as 50 molts (Richards and Davies 1977). Their long-term growth properties have, thus far, received relatively little attention. ...
... Terebrantia has two Superfamilies, Aeolothripoidea and Thripoidea. The thrips species described in this chapter belong to Superfamily Thripoidea, family Thripidae, and subfamily Thripinae (Richards and Davies 1977). Approximately, 7,700 species of thrips has been recorded to date, of which only less than 1% are considered as pests of agricultural crops (Mound 2015). ...
... Spines and setae in caterpillars are one kind of morphological-chemical adaptive response to avoid predation. At least 13 families of Lepidoptera, including the Limacodidae, have been recorded in which the caterpillars possess stinging (urticating) properties via spines and setae (Battisti, Holm, Fagrell, & Larsson, 2011;Hossler, 2010;Kano, 1977;Kawamoto & Kumada, 1984;Mullen, 2009). Spines and setae may injure predators or impose a cost in terms of increased handling time (Murphy et al., 2010;Petrucco Toffolo et al., 2014;Sugiura & Yamazaki, 2014). ...