O M Rutherford's research while affiliated with King's College London and other places

Publications (68)

Article
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Objectives: Falls Management Exercise (FaME) has been shown to reduce falls in frequent fallers and in lower risk sedentary older people. The effects of FaME on the strength, power, physical function and bone health of frequently falling older women are yet to be established. Methods: This paper reports secondary analysis of data from the origin...
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Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-injury rate is greater among female athletes than among male athletes. To investigate the rate and risk of ACL injury among Slovenian sportswomen playing professional basketball, team handball, or volleyball. Prospective cohort study. The Slovenian National Organizations of basketball, team handball, and volleyball....
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether any of the following factors are related to knee anterior laxity in healthy sportswomen: anthropometric characteristics, lower limb alignment characteristics, hormone-related factors and sport history. Six hundred and sixteen sportswomen were tested in the pre-season. The data have been analysed usi...
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Thirty pre-menopausal women aged 35–40 years were assessed with respect to dietary calcium intake, physical activity and other factors related to bone loss (by questionnaire); bone mass in the mid and distal femur measured by computerized tomography; and leg strength and muscle size. Cortical thickness at mid-femur was negatively associated with br...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate if knee anterior laxity, measured with an arthrometer, is a risk factor for traumatic knee injury in sportswomen. To allow a more complete analysis, other, easily measured variables such as anthropometry, lower leg characteristics, sport exposure and menstrual cycle characteristics were also evaluated as...
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A fly-wheel ergometer (FWE) offering resistance training of the knee extensors has been designed for space travel and found to be effective during bed rest. The possibility exists that this device is also effective in training the knee extensors after knee injury. The purpose of this study was to compare the FWE to standard knee extensor training e...
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Decreased steadiness of muscle force may be associated with ageing and could be a cause of falls in older people. We studied this in isometric and anisometric quadriceps contractions in healthy young and older people. The older group contained people with and without a history of medically unexplained falls. Forty-four young (aged 18-40 years) and...
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Risk factors for medically unexplained falls may include reduced muscle power, strength and asymmetry in the lower limbs. Conflicting reports exist about strength and there is little information about power and symmetry. Forty-four healthy young people (29.3 +/- 0.6 years), 44 older non-fallers (75.9 +/- 0.6 years), and 34 older fallers (76.4 +/- 0...
Article
There are conflicting reports of the effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on strength preservation in postmenopausal women, while any effect on power output has received little attention. Decreased steadiness of force generation has been reported in older muscles and may be related to the hormonal changes associated with the menopause, but...
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Frequent or recurrent fallers are more likely to have chronic medical conditions and physiological impairments, exhibit functional decline and have poor outcomes, than single fallers [1]. Fractures are also more common in recurrent fallers than single fallers [2]. Modern surgery for hip fracture can no longer improve on its outcomes [3] and therefo...
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although low strength is a risk factor for falls, lower limb explosive power is more predictive of functional difficulties than strength. Power may be more predictive of a future fall than strength per se. to compare leg muscle strength and explosive power and asymmetry of leg strength and power of women aged 65 or over living at home, with and wit...
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Musculoskeletal injuries of the lower limb are commonplace and can lead to long-standing deficits in bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle strength. This may predispose subjects to re-injury and lower their threshold for functional ability. This study aims to investigate the relationship between BMD and peak isometric quadriceps strength and consid...
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The aim of this study was to establish whether asymmetry of the strength of the leg and trunk musculature is more prominent in rowers than in controls. Nineteen oarsmen and 20 male controls matched for age, height and body mass performed a series of isokinetic and isometric strength tests on an isokinetic dynamometer. These strength tests focused o...
Article
To ascertain whether decrements in knee extensor muscle strength persist years after a traumatic ligamentous or meniscal knee injury, with reference to (1) the type of muscle activity, (2) the dominance of injury, and (3) the time since injury, 36 subjects with previous unilateral knee injuries were assessed. Peak voluntary quadriceps muscle streng...
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The human voluntary force:velocity relationship frequently fails to demonstrate the expected high eccentric forces. Possible explanations include unique activation strategies which might be affected by neural learning mechanisms. We investigated the effect of practicing eccentric contractions on (1) the force:velocity relationship of the human knee...
Article
Few studies have investigated peripheral muscle strength and quality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The present study tested the isometric and isokinetic strength of the quadriceps and hamstrings using an isokinetic dynamometer and a strength-testing chair in 25 CF adults and 25 controls. Total body and leg muscle mass were determined by du...
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Short-term studies of GH replacement in adult hypopituitarism have usually demonstrated beneficial effects on body composition and circulating lipids, with neutral or occasionally adverse effects on glucose tolerance. Fasting hyperinsulinemia has been reported. GH effects on cardiac function have been variable. The effects of long-term GH therapy,...
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To assess if any long-term decrements in balance occur after unilateral musculoskeletal injury. The relation between the size of decrement and the dominance, the type, and the time since injury were also considered. With eyes open and closed, postural sway in one-legged standing was recorded for 10 seconds in 48 subjects who sustained a unilateral...
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To examine whether there is a role for exercise in improving bone mineral density (BMD), particularly in postmenopausal women. The effects of different types of exercise are examined together with their effects at selected skeletal sites. The role of activity in reducing falls and hip fractures will also be considered as well as the potentially neg...
Article
Using the KinCom 500H isokinetic dynamometer the first part of this study measured the characteristics of the force velocity relationship curve for the human knee extensors between -1.57 (eccentric) and 3.67 (concentric) rads x s(-1) (-90 and 210 degrees s(1)) for both legs in 4 subjects. A significant increase in force generation was seen in eccen...
Article
To ascertain if long-term deficits in quadriceps, hamstring, and plantarflexor muscle strength remain after unilateral lower-limb musculoskeletal injury and to quantify whether improvements in performance continue once a subject concludes rehabilitation and returns to everyday activities. The relation between the size of decrement and limb dominanc...
Article
Few studies have assessed skeletal muscle strength in patients with Cystic Fibrosis(CF). The purpose of this study was to compare muscle strength and bone mineral density(BMD) in adult CF patients and compare to healthy controls.Also, to assess any correlation between lean muscle mass and strength,and lean muscle mass and BMD. 25 stable patients wi...
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Amenorrheic athletes have been likened to postmenopausal women, with low estrogen levels and osteopenia. It has been suggested that estrogen exerts its antiresorptive actions on bone via a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism. This study investigated whether the mechanism of bone loss in amenorrheic athletes is similar to that of postmenopausal wo...
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Amenorrheic athletes have been likened to postmenopausal women, with low estrogen levels and osteopenia. It has been suggested that estrogen exerts its antiresorptive actions on bone via a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism. This study investigated whether the mechanism of bone loss in amenorrheic athletes is similar to that of postmenopausal wo...
Article
The effects of voluntary versus electrically stimulated isometric strength training of the adductor pollicis on muscle strength were compared. The adductor pollicis of one hand was trained using voluntary contractions at 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction force, and the other with 30 Hz tetani (stimulated contractions), which produced a force...
Article
Exercise is known to have long-term benefits on bone mass, but little is known about the short-term effects of exercise on bone turnover. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether acute effects of exercise on bone remodelling could be detected by measuring blood and urinary markers of bone turnover. We measured biochemical markers of bon...
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1. The effect of the different phases of the menstrual cycle on skeletal muscle strength, contractile properties and fatiguability was investigated in ten young, healthy females. Results were compared with a similar group on the combined (non-phasic) oral contraceptive pill (OC). Cycle phases were divided into the early and mid-follicular, mid-cycl...
Article
Fifteen men and women (six men) between the ages of 50 and 73 years were recruited to begin keep-fit classes. They were matched for sex, age, menopausal status and mass to 15 non-exercising controls. The keep-fit classes were two to three times a week and included high-impact exercise, including step and jumping exercises specifically to load the p...
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Changes in strength, speed and size of the quadriceps muscle have been investigated in elderly men and women after 6 months of isometric strength training. We have also indirectly investigated the role of metabolites as a stimulus for muscle hypertrophy by studying two training protocols. One thigh was trained using short, intermittent contractions...
Article
This study examined the role of high forces versus metabolic cost in the adaptations following strength training. Ten young, healthy male and female subjects trained one leg using concentric (CL) and the other using eccentric (EL) contractions of the quadriceps muscle for 20 weeks. EL used weights which were 35% higher than those used for CL. Isome...
Article
We have assessed total-body and regional fat content in hypopituitary adults before and during growth hormone (GH) therapy using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). At baseline, 41 patients (20 men and 21 women) were compared with 82 matched controls (44 men and 38 women). Twenty-six patients subsequently participated in a double-blind placebo...
Article
The role of growth hormone in maintaining normal body composition and bone strength in adults has attracted much interest recently. We have assessed body composition and bone mass in GH deficient hypopituitary adults on conventional replacement therapy and compared them with matched controls. A cross-sectional study of 64 growth hormone deficient h...
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The role of intramuscular metabolite changes in the adaptations following isometric strength training was examined by comparing the effect of short, intermittent contractions (IC) and longer, continuous (CC) contractions. In a parallel study, the changes in phosphate metabolites and pH were examined during the two protocols using whole-body nuclear...
Article
1. Growth hormone-deficient hypopituitary adults often complain of weakness and fatigue. The cause of the fatigue is unknown but could be an increased proportion of fast, fatiguable, type 2 fibres in the muscle. The aim of this study was to examine the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle in a group of these patients compared with health...
Article
This study examined the role of high forces versus metabolic cost in the adaptations following strength training. Ten young, healthy male and female subjects trained one leg using concentric (CL) and the other using eccentric (EL) contractions of the quadriceps muscle for 20 weeks. EL used weights which were 35% higher than those used for CL. Isome...
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The aim of this study was to compare the effects of intense endurance vs strengthening exercise on bone mass and serum testosterone levels in male athletes. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the total body and spine and serum testosterone levels were measured in male rowers (n = 12), triathletes (n = 8) and sedentary controls (n = 13). The total body s...
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Lumbar spine, total body, and regional bone mineral densities (BMDs) were measured in eumenorrheic and amenorrheic runners and triathletes by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Lunar DPX). Values were also compared with age- and weight-matched reference data from the Lunar British database. The amenorrheic group had significantly lower lumbar...
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Quadriceps strength and cross-sectional area (CSA), spine bone mineral density (BMD), bone mass in the mid- and distal femur and physical activity levels were measured in 216 healthy British women. Muscle strength, CSA and bone in the distal femur decreased linearly from the third decade. Cortical bone at mid-femur was maintained until the sixth de...
Article
Real-time ultrasound scanning was used to measure the angles of fibre pennation of vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus intermedius (VI) of the human quadriceps (n = 12) in vivo. The maximum isometric force and cross-sectional area of the quadriceps were also measured. With the knee at right-angles the mean fibre angles for VL and VI respectively were...
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Quadriceps isometric strength, activation and fatiguability were measured in 11 patients with symptoms of fatigue three months after glandular fever or a glandular fever-like illness. Predicted normal and lower limits of normal muscle strength were calculated from height and age. These measures and the fatigue index were compared with a group of he...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine whether there are any changes in skeletal muscle strength and size and body composition following growth hormone (GH) withdrawal in GH deficient young adults. A longitudinal, 1-year, open, uncontrolled study of the changes in skeletal muscle and body composition following GH withdrawal was performed. Endocrine...
Article
Osteoporosis is currently the major cause of bone fractures in post-menopausal women and older people and is associated with a high personal and medical cost. Peak bone mass is achieved in the fourth decade followed by a gradual loss of bone which is less in men than women. Superimposed on this gradual age-related loss is an accelerated period of b...
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Quadriceps strength and size was measured in a small group of subjects (n = 7) 1 to 5 years after full mobilisation following some form of unilateral lower limb trauma. The mean maximum voluntary isometric force (MVC) was significantly lower for the injured (I) compared to the uninjured (UI) leg (369 N +/- 139 vs. 535 N +/- 131, p less than 0.01)....
Article
The picture of training that emerges is of a process that can be divided into a number of phases. In the first phase there is a rapid improvement in the ability to perform the training exercise such as lifting weights which is the result of a learning process in which the correct sequence of muscle contractions is laid down as a motor pattern in th...
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Rutherford, O.M., Jones, D.A., Round, J.M. and Preece, M. (Department of Medicine, Rayne Institute, University College and Middlesex School of Medicine; and the Department of Growth and Development, Institute of Child Health, Great Ormond Street, London, UK). Changes in skeletal muscle after discontinuation of growth hormone treatment in young adul...
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We have developed a method for simultaneously measuring the isometric force of the adductor pollicis (AP) and first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscles of the hand. Both muscles were found to have very similar force-frequency relationships, relaxation rates and fatigue indices. The effect of 2 patterns of chronic electrical stimulation on the force pr...
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Strength training is commonly used in the rehabilitation of muscles atrophied as a result of injury and/or disuse. Studies on the effects of conventional leg extension training in healthy subjects have shown the changes to be very task-specific to the training manoeuvre itself. After conventional leg extension training for the quadriceps muscle the...
Article
Strength training is commonly used in the rehabilitation of muscles atrophied as a result of injury and/or disuse. Studies on the effects of conventional leg extension training in healthy subjects have shown the changes to be very task-specific to the training manoeuvre itself After conventional leg extension training for the quadriceps muscle the...
Article
Changes in strength and size of the elbow flexor muscles have been compared during six weeks of isometric strength training in six male and six female subjects. Isometric training of one arm resulted in a significant increase in isometric force (14.5 +/- 5.1%, mean +/- SD, n = 12). No differences were seen in the response of male and female subject...
Article
1. Increases in strength and size of the quadriceps muscle have been compared during 12 weeks of either isometric or dynamic strength training. 2. Isometric training of one leg resulted in a significant increase in force (35 +/- 19%, mean +/- S.D., n = 6) with no change in the contralateral untrained control leg. 3. Quadriceps cross-sectional area...
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The use of percutaneous stimulation for twitch superimposition in the human quadriceps has been compared with stimulation via the femoral nerve. It was found that the relationship between the extra force generated by the twitch and the level of voluntary contraction was independent of the percentage of the muscle stimulated. The technique was used...
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The central changes associated with a period of strength training have been investigated in a group of 32 young healthy volunteers. Subjects participated in one of three 12 week training programmes, which required different degrees of skill and coordination. Study 1 consisted of unilateral isometric training of the quadriceps with the contralateral...
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The effects of strength training of the quadriceps on peak power output during isokinetic cycling has been investigated in group of 17 young healthy volunteers. Subjects trained by lifting near-maximal loads on a leg extension machine for 12 weeks. Measurements of maximal voluntary isometric force were made at 2-3 week intervals and a continual rec...

Citations

... Isokinetic muscle strength is reduced or in the lower normal range [29,71]. Replacement with GH increases isometric and isokinetic strength, changes that become apparent first after approximately 1 year and are then maintained for at least 5 years of GH therapy [29,69,70,[72][73][74][75][76]. The increase in muscle strength during GH replacement is seen regardless whether the GH deficiency is of childhood or adulthood onset, however, the magnitude of the increase in muscle strength may be greater if the disease is of childhood onset [32]. ...
... There is a reduction in circulating NO products in postmenopausal women, and this can be corrected with estrogen replacement therapy (Rosselli et al., 1994(Rosselli et al., , 1995Stacy et al., 1998). These findings, taken in conjunction with the in vitro dose-dependent anabolic effect of NO on osteoblasts (Brandi et al., 1995) and the increased serum osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels observed in both animal and human studies following NG therapy, support its roles as a safe, milder bone anabolic agent (Wimalawansa et al., 1996(Wimalawansa et al., , 1997(Wimalawansa et al., , 2000Wimalawansa, 2000a). ...
... Thus, a defect in the CFTR may influence both the permeability of cell membranes and metabolism, leading to lower muscle strength and endurance. Lower peripheral muscle strength is well documented in patients with CF (3,11,14,16,23,34,36,40). However, there are many aspects of the disease that affect normal muscle function. ...
... More often, especially in recent work and with male subjects, eccentric torque or force has been found to equal, or even to fall a little short of isometric and, just as strikingly, to show no signi®cant variation with angular velocity over experimental ranges from 0±360°á s )1 [e.g. Hageman et al. 1988;Colliander and Tesch 1989 (male subjects); Westing et al. 1991;Enoka 1996, and references therein;Newham et al. 1998]. ...
... Both interventions include resistance exercises designed to load bone, and high load resistance exercise can benefit BMD in older people (2,11). Participation in FaME reduced bone loss at Ward's triangle in postmenopausal women (12). Therefore these falls prevention interventions could be effective for improving bone strength as well as reducing fall risk. ...
... Even when using magnetic resonance imaging to measure visceral fat, some groups (van der Kooy et al., 1993) found a poor relationship between changes in visceral fat and WHR; it was concluded that WHR was not really an appropriate measure to evaluate changes in visceral fat. Some studies with GHD patients, and using DXA to measure trunk fat, also failed to establish significant relationships between WHR and trunk fat (Weaver and Monson, 1993;Beshyah et al., 1995;Bell et al., 2000). ...
... Although effective, this type of training is associated with increased risk of fracture and decreased quality of life due to injury (Martyn-St James & Carroll, 2006). Recently, aerobic exercise has been indicated as a lower risk alternative method of loading the skeleton when compared with high intensity impact training (Alghadir, Aly, & Gabr, 2014;Block, Genant, & Black, 1986; N. E. Lane et al., 1986;Nilsson, Andersson, Havdrup, & Westlin, 1978;Rutherford, 1997;Talmage, Stinnett, Landwehr, Vincent, & McCartney, 1986), but is not as effective. However, weighted aerobic exercise, utilizing load carriage systems (LCS), increases the gravitational forces impacting the bone creating a higher osteogenic stimulus than standard aerobic exercise. ...
... Difficulties in transferring maximum isometric values to dynamic conditions are well known in the literature. Jones and Rutherford [201] were able to show that after dynamic strength training, an isometric measurement of maximum strength does not correctly reflect the value determined under dynamic conditions. The isometric measurement of maximum force led to a significant underestimation of the real maximum force change [202]. ...
... It should be noted that muscular hypertrophy seems to proceed in a linear manner during the first 6 months of training; however, there is a disproportionately larger increase in muscular strength than in cross-sectional area during the early weeks of a resistance training intervention (1,33). The neurological adaptations responsible for increases in muscular strength are related to coordination and learning of an exercise, which lead to improved activation of the muscles involved (36,37). ...
... Osteoporosis involves the regional circumstances in which there is an overwhelming destruction of lower limbs. However, the bones of lower limbs are highly exposed to the ground reaction forces, physical as well as mechanical stimulation occurs in the lower limbs due to gravity related weight bearing mechanism and by the contraction of the muscles during locomotion [5]. ...