Nikos C Kyrpides's research while affiliated with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and other places

Publications (938)

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Noncoding RNAs with secondary structures play important roles in CRISPR-Cas systems. Many of these structures likely remain undiscovered. We used a large-scale comparative genomics approach to predict 156 novel candidate structured RNAs from 36,111 CRISPR-Cas systems. A number of these were found to overlap with coding genes, including palindromic...
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Metagenomics is unearthing the previously hidden world of soil viruses. Many soil viral sequences in metagenomes contain putative auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs) that are not associated with viral replication. Here, we establish that AMGs on soil viruses actually produce functional, active proteins. We focus on AMGs that potentially encode chitosa...
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We present 49 metagenome assemblies of the microbiome associated with Sphagnum (peat moss) collected from ambient, artificially warmed, and geothermally warmed conditions across Europe. These data will enable further research regarding the impact of climate change on plant-microbe symbiosis, ecology, and ecosystem functioning of northern peatland e...
Preprint
Viroids and viroid-like agents are unique, minimal RNA replicators that typically encode no proteins and hijack cellular enzymes for their genome replication. As the extent and diversity of viroid-like agents are poorly understood, we developed a computational pipeline to identify viroid-like covalently closed circular (ccc) RNAs and applied it to...
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Zinc is an essential trace metal for oceanic primary producers with the highest concentrations in polar oceans. However, its role in the biological functioning and adaptive evolution of polar phytoplankton remains enigmatic. Here, we have applied a combination of evolutionary genomics, quantitative proteomics, co-expression analyses and cellular ph...
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Small genes (<150 nucleotides) have been systematically overlooked in phage genomes. We employ a large-scale comparative genomics approach to predict >40,000 small-gene families in ∼2.3 million phage genome contigs. We find that small genes in phage genomes are approximately 3-fold more prevalent than in host prokaryotic genomes. Our approach enric...
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Currently, in the paper industry, paper mill pulping relies on unsustainable and costly processes to remove lignin from lignocellulosic material. A greener approach is biopulping, which uses microbes and their enzymes to break down lignin.
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Although Medicago sativa forms highly effective symbioses with the comparatively acid-sensitive genus Ensifer, its introduction into acid soils appears to have selected for symbiotic interactions with acid-tolerant R. favelukesii strains. Rhizobium favelukesii has the unusual ability of being able to nodulate and fix nitrogen, albeit sub-optimally,...
Preprint
Metagenomics is unearthing the previously hidden world of soil viruses 1,2 . Many soil viral sequences in metagenomes contain putative auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs) that are not associated with viral replication. To date only one soil viral AMG has been expressed ³ and none has a solved structure. Here, we aimed to establish that AMGs on soil vi...
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High-throughput RNA sequencing offers unprecedented opportunities to explore the Earth RNA virome. Mining 5,150 diverse metatranscriptomes uncovered >2.5 million RNA viral contigs. Via analysis of the 330k novel RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRP), this expansion corresponds to a five-fold increase of RNA virus diversity. Extended RdRP phylogeny s...
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PurposeStudying the legume nodule microbiome is important for understanding the development and nutrition of the plants inhabited by the various microbes within and upon them. We analyzed the microbiomes of these underground organs from both an important crop plant (Medicago sativa) and a related legume (M. polymorpha) using metagenomic and culture...
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With advances in DNA sequencing and miniaturized molecular biology workflows, rapid and affordable sequencing of single-cell genomes has become a reality. Compared to 16S rRNA gene surveys and shotgun metagenomics, large-scale application of single-cell genomics to whole microbial communities provides an integrated snapshot of community composition...
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The rod-shaped and Gram-stain-negative bacterial strain 16F T , isolated from an air sample collected at King George Island, maritime Antarctica, was investigated to determine its taxonomic status. Strain 16F T is strictly aerobic, catalase positive, oxidase positive and non-motile. Strain 16F T hydrol-yses casein, lecithin, Tween 20, 60 and 80, bu...
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Eukaryotic phytoplankton are responsible for at least 20% of annual global carbon fixation. Their diversity and activity are shaped by interactions with prokaryotes as part of complex microbiomes. Although differences in their local species diversity have been estimated, we still have a limited understanding of environmental conditions responsible...
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Here, we announce the genomes of eight Roseibium album (synonym Labrenzia alba) strains that were obtained from the octocoral Eunicella labiata. Genome annotation revealed multiple symbiosis factors common to all genomes, such as eukaryotic-like repeat protein- and multidrug resistance-encoding genes, which likely underpin symbiotic relationships w...
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The substrates of the Brazilian campos rupestres have extremely low concentrations of key nutrients, mainly phosphorus, imposing severe restrictions to plant growth. Regardless, this ecosystem harbors enormous biodiversity which raises the question of how nutrients are cycled and acquired by the biosphere. To uncover the nutrient turnover potential...
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Viruses are the most abundant biological entity on Earth, infect cellular organisms from all domains of life, and are central players in the global biosphere. Over the last century, the discovery and characterization of viruses have progressed steadily alongside much of modern biology. In terms of outright numbers of novel viruses discovered, howev...
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Bacteriophages have important roles in the ecology of the human gut microbiome but are under-represented in reference databases. To address this problem, we assembled the Metagenomic Gut Virus catalogue that comprises 189,680 viral genomes from 11,810 publicly available human stool metagenomes. Over 75% of genomes represent double-stranded DNA phag...
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A rod-shaped and Gram-stain-negative bacterial strain 9AT, was isolated from an air sample collected at King George Island, maritime Antarctica. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence reveals that strain 9AT belongs to the genus Hymenobacter and shows the highest similarity to Hymenobacter coccineus CCM 8649T (96.8%). The DNA G+C con...
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Cyanobacteria are ubiquitous microorganisms with crucial ecosystem functions, yet most knowledge of their biology relates to aquatic taxa. We have constructed metagenomes for 50 taxonomically well-characterized terrestrial cyanobacterial cultures. These data will support phylogenomic studies of evolutionary relationships and gene content among thes...
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We present a global atlas of 4,728 metagenomic samples from mass-transit systems in 60 cities over 3 years, representing the first systematic, worldwide catalog of the urban microbial ecosystem. This atlas provides an annotated, geospatial profile of microbial strains, functional characteristics, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) markers, and genetic...
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We present a global atlas of 4,728 metagenomic samples from mass-transit systems in 60 cities over 3 years, representing the first systematic, worldwide catalog of the urban microbial ecosystem. This atlas provides an annotated, geospatial profile of microbial strains, functional characteristics, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) markers, and genetic...
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The DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI) Metagenome Workflow performs metagenome data processing, including assembly; structural, functional, and taxonomic annotation; and binning of metagenomic data sets that are subsequently included into the Integrated Microbial Genomes and Microbiomes (IMG/M) (I.-M. A. Chen, K. Chu, K. Palaniappan, A. Ratner, et al...
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Thermoflexus hugenholtzii JAD2 T , the only cultured representative of the Chloroflexota order Thermoflexales , is abundant in Great Boiling Spring (GBS), NV, United States, and close relatives inhabit geothermal systems globally. However, no defined medium exists for T. hugenholtzii JAD2 T and no single carbon source is known to support its growth...
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Millions of new viral sequences have been identified from metagenomes, but the quality and completeness of these sequences vary considerably. Here we present CheckV, an automated pipeline for identifying closed viral genomes, estimating the completeness of genome fragments and removing flanking host regions from integrated proviruses. CheckV estima...
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A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41587-021-00898-4.
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The reconstruction of bacterial and archaeal genomes from shotgun metagenomes has enabled insights into the ecology and evolution of environmental and host-associated microbiomes. Here we applied this approach to >10,000 metagenomes collected from diverse habitats covering all of Earth’s continents and oceans, including metagenomes from human and a...
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Background In octocorals (Cnidaria Octocorallia), the functional relationship between host health and its symbiotic consortium has yet to be determined. Here, we employed comparative metagenomics to uncover the distinct functional and phylogenetic features of the microbiomes of healthy Eunicella gazella, Eunicella verrucosa, and Leptogorgia sarment...
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Marine microbial communities are an untapped reservoir of genetic and metabolic diversity and a valuable source for the discovery of new natural products of biotechnological interest. The newly discovered hydrothermal vent field of Santorini volcanic complex located in the Aegean Sea is gaining increasing interest for potential biotechnological exp...
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Motivation Two key steps in the analysis of uncultured viruses recovered from metagenomes are the taxonomic classification of the viral sequences and the identification of putative host(s). Both steps rely mainly on the assignment of viral proteins to orthologs in cultivated viruses. Viral Protein Families (VPFs) can be used for the robust identifi...
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Orf8, one of the most puzzling genes in the SARS lineage of coronaviruses, marks a unique and striking difference in genome organization between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1. Here, using sequence comparisons, we unequivocally reveal the distant sequence similarities between SARS-CoV-2 Orf8 with its SARS-CoV-1 counterparts and the X4-like genes of coro...
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Comprehensive, high-quality reference genomes are required for functional characterization and taxonomic assignment of the human gut microbiota. We present the Unified Human Gastrointestinal Genome (UHGG) collection, comprising 204,938 nonredundant genomes from 4,644 gut prokaryotes. These genomes encode >170 million protein sequences, which we col...
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Efficient response to the pandemic through the mobilization of the larger scientific community is challenged by the limited reusability of the available primary genomic data. Here, the Genomic Standards Consortium board highlights the essential need for contextual genomic data FAIRness, for empowering key data-driven biological questions.
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The Genomes OnLine Database (GOLD) (https://gold.jgi.doe.gov/) is a manually curated, daily updated collection of genome projects and their metadata accumulated from around the world. The current version of the database includes over 1.17 million entries organized broadly into Studies (45 770), Organisms (387 382) or Biosamples (101 207), Sequencin...
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Viruses are integral components of all ecosystems and microbiomes on Earth. Through pervasive infections of their cellular hosts, viruses can reshape microbial community structure and drive global nutrient cycling. Over the past decade, viral sequences identified from genomes and metagenomes have provided an unprecedented view of viral genome diver...
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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The addition of glucose to soil has long been used to study the metabolic activity of microbes in soil; however, the response of the microbial ecophysiology remains poorly characterized. To address this, we sequenced the metagenomes and metatranscriptomes of glucose-amended soil microbial communities in a laboratory incubation.
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The Integrated Microbial Genomes & Microbiomes system (IMG/M: https://img.jgi.doe.gov/m/) contains annotated isolate genome and metagenome datasets sequenced at the DOE’s Joint Genome Institute (JGI), submitted by external users, or imported from public sources such as NCBI. IMG v 6.0 includes advanced search functions and a new tool for statistica...
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The Aegean Sea, as part of the Mediterranean, is an ecologically and geologically diverse marine system, with a wide range of habitats including coastal and deep-sea oxic sediments, and submarine volcanoes with seafloor hydrothermal vents and CO2-venting active, and inactive, polymetallic (Au, Ag, Sb, Cu, Pb, Zn) hydrothermal chimneys. Generally, o...
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Hydrologic changes modify microbial community structure and ecosystem functions, especially in wetland systems. Here, we present 24 metagenomes from a coastal freshwater wetland experiment in which we manipulated hydrologic conditions and plant presence. These wetland soil metagenomes will deepen our understanding of how hydrology and vegetation in...
Preprint
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The DOE JGI Metagenome Workflow performs metagenome data processing, including assembly, structural, functional, and taxonomic annotation, and binning of metagenomic datasets that are subsequently included into the Integrated Microbial Genomes and Microbiomes (IMG/M) comparative analysis system (I. Chen, K. Chu, K. Palaniappan, M. Pillay, A. Ratner...
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This month’s Genome Watch highlights how the search for the origins of SARS-CoV-2 emphasizes the need for integrated phylogenetic methods. This month’s Genome Watch highlights how the search for the origins of SARS-CoV-2 emphasizes the need for integrated phylogenetic methods.
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Animals and plants interact with microbes by engaging specific surveillance systems, regulatory networks, and response modules that allow for accommodation of mutualists and defense against antagonists. Antimicrobial defense responses are mediated in both animals and plants by innate immunity systems that owe their functional similarities to conver...
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As the world population increases, improvements in crop growth and yield will be needed to meet rising food demands, especially in countries that have not developed agricultural practices optimized for their own soils and crops. In many African countries, farmers improve agricultural productivity by applying synthetic fertilizers and pesticides to...
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Background: Cold environments dominate the Earth's biosphere and microbial activity drives ecosystem processes thereby contributing greatly to global biogeochemical cycles. Polar environments differ to all other cold environments by experiencing 24-h sunlight in summer and no sunlight in winter. The Vestfold Hills in East Antarctica contains hundr...
Article
A rod-shaped and Gram-stain-negative bacterial strain, 1B T , was isolated from an air sample collected at King George Island, maritime Antarctica. Strain 1B T is strictly aerobic, psychrophilic, catalase-positive, oxidase-positive and non-motile. Growth of strain 1B T is observed at 0–20 °C (optimum, 10 °C), pH 6.0–8.0 (optimum, pH 8.0) and in the...
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Cowpea is one of the major legumes cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Four soil-microbial samples (SS-1 through SS-4) collected from semi-arid soils in Punjab, Pakistan were planted with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.), which were grown under salinity stress to analyze bacterial composition in the rhizosphere and within nodules us...
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Our current knowledge of host–virus interactions in biofilms is limited to computational predictions based on laboratory experiments with a small number of cultured bacteria. However, natural biofilms are diverse and chiefly composed of uncultured bacteria and archaea with no viral infection patterns and lifestyle predictions described to date. Her...
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CRISPR-Cas12c/d proteins share limited homology with Cas12a and Cas9 bacterial CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-guided nucleases used widely for genome editing and DNA detection. However, Cas12c (C2c3)- and Cas12d (CasY)-catalyzed DNA cleavage and genome editing activities have not been directly observed. We show here that a short-complementarity untranslated RN...
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Bacteria and archaea possessing the hgcAB gene pair methylate inorganic mercury (Hg) to form highly toxic methylmercury. HgcA consists of a corrinoid binding domain and a transmembrane domain, and HgcB is a dicluster ferredoxin. However, their detailed structure and function have not been thoroughly characterized. We modeled the HgcAB complex by co...
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A synthesis of phenotypic and quantitative genomic traits is provided for bacteria and archaea, in the form of a scripted, reproducible workflow that standardizes and merges 26 sources. The resulting unified dataset covers 14 phenotypic traits, 5 quantitative genomic traits, and 4 environmental characteristics for approximately 170,000 strain-level...
Preprint
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Over the last several years, metagenomics has enabled the assembly of millions of new viral sequences that have vastly expanded our knowledge of Earth's viral diversity. However, these sequences range from small fragments to complete genomes and no tools currently exist for estimating their quality. To address this problem, we developed CheckV, whi...
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Kiloniella laminariae is a true marine bacterium and the first member of the family and order, the Kiloniellaceae and Kiloniellales. K. laminariae LD81T (= DSM 19542T) was isolated from the marine macroalga Saccharina latissima and is a mesophilic, typical marine chemoheterotrophic aerobic bacterium with antifungal activity. Phylogenetic analysis o...
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Methane production by microbes is a hot topic - Literally. Because of the potential to cause global warming, increased methane production is of great concern, but if properly controlled, it can also boost energy generation. Unfortunately, the basic mechanisms through which microbes generate methane remain unclear. To provide some clarity, researche...
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We report here the draft genome sequence of Yokenella regensburgei strain WCD67, isolated from the boxelder bug ( Boisea trivittata ). The genome is 5,277,883 bp in size, has a GC content of 54.12%, and has 5,416 genes. A total of 17 mobile elements were discovered, 6 of which were predicted to be phages.
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Background Rosenbergiella nectarea strain 8N4 T , the type species of the genus Rosenbergiella , was isolated from Amygdalus communis (almond) floral nectar. Other strains of this species were isolated from the floral nectar of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit), Nicotiana glauca (tobacco tree) and from Asphodelus aestivus. R. nectarea strain 8N4 T is a...
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The class Alphaproteobacteria is comprised of a diverse assemblage of Gram-negative bacteria that includes organisms of varying morphologies, physiologies and habitat preferences many of which are of clinical and ecological importance. Alphaproteobacteria classification has proved to be difficult, not least when taxonomic decisions rested heavily o...
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Background: Cupriavidus strain STM 6070 was isolated from nickel-rich soil collected near Koniambo massif, New Caledonia, using the invasive legume trap host Mimosa pudica. STM 6070 is a heavy metal-tolerant strain that is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with M. pudica. Here we have provided an updated taxonomy for STM 6070 and described salie...