Nikol Rummel's research while affiliated with Ruhr-Universität Bochum and other places

Publications (227)

Article
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The present conceptual literature review analyzes 50 studies that systematically examined the effects of authentic learning settings on cognitive or motivational learning outcomes. The analysis focuses on describing the context of the studies, the design elements of authentic learning settings, and the pursued intentions of authenticity. The review...
Article
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National educational standards stress the importance of science and mathematics learning for today’s students. However, across disciplines, students frequently struggle to meet learning goals about core concepts like energy. Digital learning environments enhanced with artificial intelligence hold the promise to address this issue by providing indiv...
Article
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Teacher dashboards are visual displays that provide information to teachers about their learners. In this article, we address teacher dashboards in the context of computer-supported student collaboration in primary education. We examine the role of different types of dashboards for the specific purpose of aiding teachers in identifying which group...
Article
This paper presents a fine-grained process analysis of 22 students in a classroom-based learning setting. The students engaged (and failed) in problem-solving attempts prior to instruction (i.e., the Productive-Failure approach). We used the HeuristicsMiner algorithm to analyze the data of a quasi-experimental study. The applied algorithm allowed u...
Article
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Learning settings in and out of school are increasingly relying on the use of virtual reality applications, such as 360° videos, to make learning an exciting and vivid experience for students. This applies especially to history-learning contexts. Learning with immersive representations of history-related contents requires a critical examination and...
Conference Paper
360° videos can be characterized as immersive representations that may cause an illusion of reality. This illusion can be overwhelming or lead to a lack of distancing while processing the contents presented, which is exacerbated when learning with history-related 360° videos containing emotionally charged content. One way to counter these dangers c...
Preprint
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Deep neural networks (DNN) have made impressive progress in the interpretation of image data, so that it is conceivable and to some degree realistic to use them in safety critical applications like automated driving. From an ethical standpoint, the AI algorithm should take into account the vulnerability of objects or subjects on the street that ran...
Conference Paper
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Collaborating effectively with people with diverse professional/cultural backgrounds is a core skill in a globalized world. To prepare students, we need to understand how skills for interprofessional, and multicultural collaboration can best be (1) defined, (2) measured, (3) developed (4), and fostered. Thus, this symposium seeks to identify shared...
Conference Paper
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Collaborating effectively with people with diverse professional/cultural backgrounds is a core skill in a globalized world. To prepare students, we need to understand how skills for interprofessional, and multicultural collaboration can best be (1) defined, (2) measured, (3) developed (4), and fostered. Thus, this symposium seeks to identify shared...
Conference Paper
The present study investigates the expectations of 88 students towards their visit of an out-of-school lab (OSL) for social sciences and humanities and how these expectations relate to both their actual experiences of the visit and their situational interest in the project contents. OSLs are non-formal learning settings which are usually visited by...
Conference Paper
The aim of this paper is to investigate students’ and teachers’ conceptions about the work of mathematical scientists, and to explore possible relations to mathematics teaching. Therefore, we conducted an exploratory interview study with 14 9th graders and 5 mathematics teachers. The results show that students have inadequate and limited conception...
Article
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Educational technologies in mathematics typically focus on fostering either procedural knowledge by means of structured tasks or, less often, conceptual knowledge by means of exploratory tasks. However, both types of knowledge are needed for complete domain knowledge that persists over time and supports subsequent learning. We investigated in two q...
Article
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Out-of-school labs (OSLs) aim to foster students’ interest in and knowledge about scientific ways of thinking and working by engaging them in authentic activities that emulate processes of scientific inquiry. However, research has not yet focused on investigating whether students perceive those activities as authentic and whether students’ perceive...
Chapter
Orchestration tools may support K-12 teachers in facilitating student learning, especially when designed to address classroom stakeholders’ needs. Our previous work revealed a need for human-AI shared control when dynamically pairing students for collaborative learning in the classroom, but offered limited guidance on the role each agent should tak...
Article
Teacher dashboards are a specific form of analytics in which visual displays provide teachers with information about their students; for example, concerning student progress and performance on tasks during lessons or lectures. In the present paper, we focus on the role of teacher dashboards in the context of teacher decision-making in K–12 educatio...
Conference Paper
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Implementing collaborative learning into online courses can help mitigate central challenges for this learning setting which often stem from a lack of interaction in the course. During online-collaboration, however, learners can experience a number of interaction patterns that not only reduce the effectiveness of the collaboration but also lead to...
Conference Paper
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Problem solving prior to instruction (PS-I) approaches have been found to facilitate students' conceptual learning. It has been argued that the problem-solving processes prepare students for subsequent instruction. During problem solving, students are asked to generate multiple solutions to a novel problem. Yet, it is still unclear whether students...
Article
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In this study, we used a self-developed photo-sorting task in order to investigate the role of stereotypical characteristics of scientists for students’ perceived typicality of scientists. In addition, we explored the relation between these beliefs and students’ mathematics and science-related activities as well as their enjoyment and interest in m...
Preprint
Understanding the internals of Integrated Circuits (ICs), referred to as Hardware Reverse Engineering (HRE), is of interest to both legitimate and malicious parties. HRE is a complex process in which semi-automated steps are interwoven with human sense-making processes. Currently, little is known about the technical and cognitive processes which de...
Preprint
This full research paper focuses on skill acquisition in Hardware Reverse Engineering (HRE) - an important field of cyber security. HRE is a prevalent technique routinely employed by security engineers (i) to detect malicious hardware manipulations, (ii) to conduct VLSI failure analysis, (iii) to identify IP infringements, and (iv) to perform compe...
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Unequal participation poses a challenge to collaborative learning because it reduces opportunities for fruitful collaboration among learners and affects learners’ satisfaction. Social group awareness tools can display information on the distribution of participation and thus encourage groups to regulate the distribution of participation. However, s...
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The Productive Failure (PF) approach prompts students to attempt to solve a problem prior to instruction – at which point they typically fail. Yet, research on PF shows that students who are involved in problem solving prior to instruction gain more conceptual knowledge from the subsequent instruction compared to students who receive the instructio...
Article
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When students are working collaboratively and communicating verbally in a technology‐enhanced environment, the system cannot track what collaboration is happening outside of the technology, making it difficult to fully assess the collaboration of the students and adapt accordingly. In this article, we propose using gaze measures as a proxy for cogn...
Article
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The current work builds on research demonstrating the effectiveness of Productive Failure (PF) for learning. While the effectiveness of PF has been demonstrated for STEM learning, it has not yet been investigated whether PF is also beneficial for learning in non-STEM domains. Given this need to test PF for learning in domains other than mathematics...
Article
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Educational technologies are often developed such that students work on specific social levels (e.g., individual, small group, whole class) at specific times. However, in the reality of the classroom, learning activities are not so cleanly divided, with transitions occurring between social levels for students at different times. To support these so...
Chapter
Dynamically transitioning between individual and collaborative learning activities during a class session (i.e., in an un-planned way, as-the-need-arises) has advantages for students, but existing orchestration tools are not designed to support such transitions. This work reports findings from a technology probe study that explored alternative desi...
Article
The analysis of multiple data streams is a long‐standing practice within educational research. Both multimodal data analysis and temporal analysis have been applied successfully, but in the area of collaborative learning, very few studies have investigated specific advantages of multiple modalities versus a single modality, especially combined with...
Chapter
Motivation explains the direction, intensity and persistence of human behavior and thus plays a crucial role in the mobilization and allocation of available energy. An experience that occurs during motivated action is flow. Flow is perceived as highly rewarding for its own sake and, thus, in flow all attention is directed towards the task at hand,...
Chapter
Die Konzeption und Erprobung des Online-Forschungslogbuchs wurde im Rahmen des Universitätsprogramms „Forschendes Lernen“ an der Ruhr-Universität Bochum im Zeitraum von April 2016 bis Juli 2017 gefördert. Die Erprobung und Evaluation wurde im Anschluss an den Förderzeitraum am Lehrstuhl für Pädagogische Psychologie fortgesetzt. Ausgangspunkt des Pr...
Article
Purpose Against the background of empirical research on computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), the purpose of this paper is to advocate implementing collaborative learning activities into online distance education courses to engage learners in interactive knowledge construction. This study uses empirical evidence to illustrate how educat...
Chapter
Educational AI (AIEd) systems are increasingly designed and evaluated with an awareness of the hybrid nature of adaptivity in real-world educational settings. In practice, beyond being a property of AIEd systems alone, adaptivity is often jointly enacted by AI systems and human facilitators (e.g., teachers or peers). Despite much recent research ac...
Conference Paper
The goal of this paper is to explore students’ beliefs related to the social sciences and humanities and to investigate whether these beliefs differ between students who are highly interested in studying socials sciences after graduating from secondary school and students who are rather less interested. For this purpose, we conducted a study with 1...
Chapter
Computer-unterstütztes kooperatives Lernen (CSCL) bedeutet, dass mehrere Lernende gemeinsam Lernaufgaben bearbeiten und dabei von Computern unterstützt werden. Basierend auf Merkmalen von Lernaufgaben sowie verschiedenen technischen Unterstützungsmöglichkeiten wird hier ein Modell von CSCL-Szenarien vorgestellt. Das Modell ermöglicht es Wirkzusamme...
Article
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Research on productive failure suggests that attempting to solve a problem prior to instruction facilitates conceptual understanding compared to receiving instruction prior to problem solving. The assumptions are that during the problem-solving phase, students activate their prior knowledge, become aware of their knowledge gaps, and discover deep f...
Article
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Studies on the productive failure (PF) approach have demonstrated that attempting to solve a problem prepares students more effectively for later instruction compared to observing failed problem‐solving attempts prior to instruction. However, the examples of failure used in these studies did not display the problem‐solving‐and‐failing process, whic...
Article
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Productive Failure: young students don’t learn productively with Productive Failure The beneficial effect of Productive Failure does not usually transfer to students who are younger than the typical age group. Productive Failure proposes that students gain more understanding if they are allowed to collaboratively struggle to solve problems before t...
Article
Successful knowledge integration, that is, systematic synthesis of unshared information, is key to suc-cess, but at the same time a challenging venture for teams with distributed knowledge collaborating online. For example, teams with heterogeneous knowledge often have only vague or even wrong ideas about who knows what. This situation is further c...
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Zusammenfassung Im Forschungsprojekt ,,Lernprozesse in der IT-Sicherheit‘‘ beschäftigen sich die Autoren mit der Frage, wie Hacking-Angriffe auf Hardware ablaufen. Gemeinsam erforschen sie die technischen und menschlichen Prozesse, die maßgeblich den Erfolg eines Hardware-Angriffs beeinflussen. Mit den Erkenntnissen zu den mentalen Vorgängen sollen...
Preprint
Since underlying hardware components form the basis of trust in virtually any computing system, security failures in hardware pose a devastating threat to our daily lives. Hardware reverse engineering is commonly employed by security engineers in order to identify security vulnerabilities, to detect IP violations, or to conduct very-large-scale int...
Preprint
In contrast to software reverse engineering, there are hardly any tools available that support hardware reversing. Therefore, the reversing process is conducted by human analysts combining several complex semi-automated steps. However, countermeasures against reversing are evaluated solely against mathematical models. Our research goal is the estab...
Article
Research on Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) has provided significant insights into why collaborative learning is effective and how we can effectively provide support for it. Building on this knowledge, we can investigate when collaboration is beneficial to support learning. Specifically, collaborative and individual learning are of...
Preprint
Hardware reverse engineering is a universal tool for both legitimate and illegitimate purposes. On the one hand, it supports confirmation of IP infringement and detection of circuit malicious manipulations, on the other hand it provides adversaries with crucial information to plagiarize designs, infringe on IP, or implant hardware Trojans into a ta...
Chapter
During inquiry learning with virtual labs students are invited to construct mathematical models that capture key features of the underlying structures. However, students typically fail to construct complete models. In order to identify ways to support learners without restricting them, we look at the literature of Productive Failure and Invention a...
Article
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Teachers play a major role during CSCL by monitoring and stimulating the types of interactions between students that are conducive to learning. Teacher dashboards are increasingly being developed to aid teachers in monitoring students’ collaborative activities, thereby constituting a form of indirect support for CSCL in the classroom. However, the...
Article
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Teachers play an important role during student collaboration by monitoring and stimulating interactions between students that are effective for learning. In the present paper, we review existing research concerning orchestration tools developed for teachers that take data concerning collaborating students as input and provide analyses or visualizat...
Article
The efficacy of collaborative learning depends on the student interaction taking place. Monitoring student interaction can help teachers ensure their lesson goals are met. Experienced teachers describe, explain, and predict student interactions by drawing on their professional knowledge about types of student interaction that are associated with le...
Article
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Cambridge Core - Cognition - The Cambridge Handbook of Cognition and Education - edited by John Dunlosky
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The Cambridge Handbook of Cognition and Education - edited by John Dunlosky February 2019
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In contrast to software reverse engineering, there are hardly any tools available that support hardware reversing. Therefore, the reversing process is conducted by human analysts combining several complex semi-automated steps. However, countermeasures against reversing are evaluated solely against mathematical models. Our research goal is the estab...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Feelings of isolation and a lack of interactivity are among the reasons cited for student drop-out in online learning settings like MOOCs. A possible solution is to offer MOOC participants the opportunity to engage in collaborative activities. However, small-group collaboration in MOOCS poses several challenges which may reduce the beneficial effec...
Conference Paper
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Productive Failure (PF) is an instructional design which uses a problem-solving phase to support the acquisition of conceptual knowledge from a following instruction phase. By activating prior knowledge and raising awareness of knowledge gaps, the PF problem-solving phase is assumed to help students acquire conceptual knowledge. However, it is stil...
Article
Basierend auf den Annahmen zum Lernen in authentischen Kontexten wurde in dieser Arbeit untersucht, ob die intendierte Authentizität von Lernaktivitäten in einem Schülerlabor von Schülerinnen und Schülern (SuS) als authentisch empfunden wird und ihr situationales Interesse (SI) beeinflusst. Dafür wurden in einer quasiexperimentellen Studie mit 212...
Chapter
This paper investigates the effect of affect-aware support on learning tasks that differ in their cognitive demands. We conducted a study with the iTalk2learn platform where students are undertaking fractions tasks of varying difficulty and assigned in one of two groups; one group used the iTalk2learn platform that included the affect-aware support...
Article
In this brief squib, I take up the first of the provocations put forward by Wise and Schwarz in their recent article and make an attempt to spark further discussion. Specifically, I argue that instead of attempting to agree on an overarching, unified conceptual framework for CSCL from the top down, and rather than synthesizing findings from CSCL re...
Conference Paper
This paper investigates the effect of affect-aware support on learning tasks that differ in their cognitive demands. We conducted a study with the iTalk2learn platform where students are undertaking fractions tasks of varying difficulty and assigned in one of two groups; one group used the iTalk2learn platform that included the affect-aware support...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, there has been a growing interest in learning approaches that combine two phases: an initial problem-solving phase followed by an instruction phase (PS-I). Two often cited examples of instructional approaches following the PS-I scheme include Productive Failure and Invention. Despite the growing interest in PS-I approaches, to the best of...
Article
The act of revising is an important aspect of academic writing. Although revision is crucial for eliminating writing errors and producing high-quality texts, research on writing expertise shows that novices rarely engage in revision activities. Providing information on writing errors by means of peer feedback has become a popular method in writing...
Conference Paper
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We conducted a user study that explored the relationship between students’ usage of multiple external representations and their affective states during fractions learning. We use the affective states of the student as a proxy indicator for the ease of reasoning with the representation. Extending existing literature that highlights the advantages of...
Article
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Prior research shows that representational competencies that enable students to use graphical representations to reason and solve tasks is key to learning in many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics domains. We focus on two types of representational competencies: (1) sense making of connections by verbally explaining how different rep...
Conference Paper
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Social interdependence is a key concept in CSCL research. However, investigations of students' positive and negative interdependence during collaborative activities have often relied on self-report, rather than dialogue analysis. Bringing together politeness and social interdependence theory, we assessed dialogue indicators of positive and negative...