# Nicolas Markey's research while affiliated with French National Centre for Scientific Research and other places

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## Publications (159)

We consider the problem of repairing inconsistent real-time requirements with respect to two consistency notions: non-vacuity, which means that each requirement can be realized without violating other ones, and rt-consistency, which means that inevitable violations are detected immediately. We provide an iterative algorithm, based on solving SMT qu...

Network congestion games are a convenient model for reasoning about routing problems in a network: agents have to move from a source to a target vertex while avoiding congestion, measured as a cost depending on the number of players using the same link. Network congestion games have been extensively studied over the last 40 years, while their exten...

Network congestion games are a convenient model for reasoning about routing problems in a network: agents have to move from a source to a target vertex while avoiding congestion, measured as a cost depending on the number of players using the same link. Network congestion games have been extensively studied over the last 40 years, while their exten...

We consider the parameterized verification problem for distributed algorithms where the goal is to develop techniques to prove the correctness of a given algorithm regardless of the number of participating processes. Motivated by an asynchronous binary consensus algorithm [J. Aspnes, Fast deterministic consensus in a noisy environment. Journal of A...

We study games with reachability objectives under energy constraints. We first prove that under strict energy constraints (either only lower-bound constraint or interval constraint), those games are LOGSPACE-equivalent to energy games with the same energy constraints but without reachability objective (i.e., for infinite runs). We then consider two...

We consider the problems of efficiently diagnosing (and predicting) what did (and will) happen after a given sequence of observations of the execution of a partially observable one-clock timed automaton. This is made difficult by the facts that timed automata are infinite-state systems, and that they can in general not be determinized. We introduce...

In this paper, we propose a novel framework for the synthesis of robust and optimal energy-aware controllers.
The framework is based on energy timed automata, allowing for easy expression of timing constraints and variable energy
rates. We prove decidability of the energy-constrained infinite-run problem in settings with both certainty and uncertai...

Congestion games are a classical type of games studied in game theory, in which n players choose a resource, and their individual cost increases with the number of other players choosing the same resource. In network congestion games (NCGs), the resources correspond to simple paths in a graph, e.g. representing routing options from a source to a ta...

Requirements engineering is a key phase in the development process. Ensuring that requirements are consistent is essential so that they do not conflict and admit implementations. We consider the formal verification of rt-consistency, which imposes that the inevitability of definitive errors of a requirement should be anticipated, and that of partia...

Timed automata are a convenient mathematical model for modelling and reasoning about real-time systems. While they provide a powerful way of representing timing aspects of such systems, timed automata assume arbitrary precision and zero-delay actions; in particular, a state might be declared reachable in a timed automaton, but impossible to reach i...

Active learning of timed languages is concerned with the inference of timed automata by observing some of the timed words in their languages. The learner can query for the membership of words in the language, or propose a candidate model and ask if it is equivalent to the target. The major difficulty of this framework is the inference of clock rese...

Active learning of timed languages is concerned with the inference of timed automata by observing some of the timed words in their languages. The learner can query for the membership of words in the language, or propose a candidate model and ask if it is equivalent to the target. The major difficulty of this framework is the inference of clock rese...

Timed automata are a convenient mathematical model for modelling and reasoning about real-time systems. While they provide a powerful way of representing timing aspects of such systems, timed automata assume arbitrary precision and zero-delay actions; in particular, a state might be declared reachable in a timed automaton, but impossible to reach i...

Active learning of timed languages is concerned with the inference of timed automata from observed timed words. The agent can query for the membership of words in the target language, or propose a candidate model and verify its equivalence to the target. The major difficulty of this framework is the inference of clock resets, central to the dynamic...

Requirements engineering is a key phase in the development process. Ensuring that requirements are consistent is essential so that they do not conflict and admit implementations. We consider the formal verification of rt-consistency, which imposes that the inevitability of definitive errors of a requirement should be anticipated, and that of partia...

Strategy Logic (SL) is a very expressive logic for specifying and verifying properties of multi-agent systems: in SL, one can quantify over strategies, assign them to agents, and express properties of the resulting plays. Such a powerful framework has two drawbacks: first, model checking SL has non-elementary complexity; second, the exact semantics...

Extended version of the paper of the name published in the proceedings of FORMATS 2015

We study games with reachability objectives under energy constraints. We first prove that under strict energy constraints (either only lower-bound constraint or interval constraint), those games are LOGSPACE-equivalent to energy games with the same energy constraints but without reachability objective (i.e., for infinite runs). We then consider two...

We study games with reachability objectives under energy constraints. We first prove that under strict energy constraints (either only lower-bound constraint or interval constraint), those games are LOGSPACE-equivalent to energy games with the same energy constraints but without reachability objective (i.e., for infinite runs). We then consider two...

We introduce and study SL[F], a quantitative extension of SL (Strategy Logic), one of the most natural and expressive logics describing strategic behaviours. The satisfaction value of an SL[F] formula is a real value in [0,1], reflecting ``how much'' or ``how well'' the strategic on-going objectives of the underlying agents are satisfied. We demons...

We present abstraction-refinement algorithms for model checking safety properties of timed automata. The abstraction domain we consider abstracts away zones by restricting the set of clock constraints that can be used to define them, while the refinement procedure computes the set of constraints that must be taken into consideration in the abstract...

Temporal logics are extensively used for the specification of on-going behaviours of reactive systems. Two significant developments in this area are the extension of traditional temporal logics with modalities that enable the specification of on-going strategic behaviours in multi-agent systems, and the transition of temporal logics to a quantitati...

We present abstraction-refinement algorithms for model checking safety properties of timed automata. The abstraction domain we consider abstracts away zones by restricting the set of clock constraints that can be used to define them, while the refinement procedure computes the set of constraints that must be taken into consideration in the abstract...

We consider the problems of efficiently diagnosing and predicting what did (or will) happen in a partially-observable one-clock timed automaton. We introduce timed sets as a formalism to keep track of the evolution of the reachable configurations over time, and use our previous work on automata over timed domains to build a candidate diagnoser for...

In this paper, we are interested in the synthesis of schedulers in double-weighted Markov decision processes, which satisfy both a percentile constraint over a weighted reachability condition, and a quantitative constraint on the expected value of a random variable defined using a weighted reachability condition. This problem is inspired by the mod...

Parametric timed automata (PTA) are a powerful formalism to model and reason about concurrent systems with some unknown timing delays. In this paper, we address the (untimed) language- and trace-preservation problems: given a reference parameter valuation, does there exist another parameter valuation with the same untimed language (or trace)? We sh...

In this paper, we propose a novel framework for the synthesis of robust and optimal energy-aware controllers. The framework is based on energy timed automata, allowing for easy expression of timing constraints and variable energy rates. We prove decidability of the energy-constrained infinite-run problem in settings with both certainty and uncertai...

Partial observability and controllability are two well-known issues in test-case synthesis for interactive systems. We address the problem of partial control in the synthesis of test cases from timed-automata specifications. Building on the tioco timed testing framework, we extend a previous game interpretation of the test-synthesis problem from th...

This chapter surveys timed automata as a formalism for model checking real-time systems. We begin with introducing the model, as an extension of finite-state automata with real-valued variables for measuring time. We then present the main model-checking results in this framework, and give a hint about some recent extensions (namely weighted timed a...

In this paper, we propose a novel framework for the synthesis of robust and optimal energy-aware controllers. The framework is based on energy timed automata, allowing for easy expression of timing constraints and variable energy rates. We prove decidability of the energy-constrained infinite-run problem in settings with both certainty and uncertai...

Partial observability and controllability are two well-known issues in test-case synthesis for interactive systems. We~address the problem of partial control in the synthesis of test cases from timed-automata specifications. Building on the tioco timed testing framework, we~extend a previous game interpretation of the test-synthesis problem from th...

Reconfigurable broadcast networks provide a convenient formalism for modelling and reasoning about networks of mobile agents broadcasting messages to other agents following some (evolving) communication topology. The parameterized verification of such models aims at checking whether a given property holds irrespective of the initial configuration (...

Two-player quantitative zero-sum games provide a natural framework to synthesize controllers with performance guarantees for reactive systems within an uncontrollable environment. Classical settings include mean-payoff games, where the objective is to optimize the long-run average gain per action, and energy games, where the system has to avoid run...

Reconfigurable broadcast networks provide a convenient formalism for modelling and reasoning about networks of mobile agents broadcasting messages to other agents following some (evolving) communication topology. The parameterized verification of such models aims at checking whether a given property holds irrespective of the initial configuration (...

We present a correct-by-design method of state-dependent control synthesis for sampled switching systems. Given a target region R of the state space, our method builds a capture set S and a control that steers any element of S into R. The method works by iterated backward reachability from R. The method is also used to synthesize a recurrence contr...

Since the early 1990’s, classical temporal logics have been extended with timing constraints. While temporal logics only express contraints on the order of events, their timed extensions can add quantitative constraints on delays between those events. We survey expressiveness and algorithmic results on those logics, and discuss semantic choices tha...

We introduce a new formalism called automata over a timed domain which provides an adequate framework for the determinization of timed systems. In this formalism, determinization w.r.t. timed language is always possible at the cost of changing the timed domain. We give a condition for determinizability of automata over a timed domain without changi...

The development of formal methods for control design is an important challenge with potential applications in a wide range of safety-critical cyber-physical systems. Focusing on switched dynamical systems, we propose a new abstraction, based on time-varying regions of invariance (control funnels), that models behaviors of systems as timed automata....

We consider average-energy games, where the goal is to minimize the long-run average of the accumulated energy. While several results have been obtained on these games recently, decidability of average-energy games with a lower-bound constraint on the energy level (but no upper bound) remained open; in particular, so far there was no known upper bo...

Dynamic complexity is concerned with updating the output of a problem when the input is slightly changed. We study the dynamic complexity of model checking a fixed monadic second-order formula over evolving subgraphs of a fixed maximal graph having bounded tree-width; here the subgraph evolves by losing or gaining edges (from the maximal graph). We...

We investigate a model for representing large multiplayer games, which satisfy strong symmetry properties. This model is made of multiple copies of an arena; each player plays in his own arena, and can partially observe what the other players do. Therefore, this game has partial information and symmetry constraints, which make the computation of Na...

We consider average-energy games, where the goal is to minimize the long-run average of the accumulated energy. Decidability of average-energy games with a lower-bound constraint on the energy level (but no upper bound) is an open problem; in particular, there is no known upper bound on the memory that is required for winning strategies. By reducin...

Dynamic complexity is concerned with updating the output of a problem when the input is slightly changed. We study the dynamic complexity of two-player parity games over graphs of bounded tree-width, where updates may add or delete edges, or change the owner or color of states. We show that this problem is in DynFO (with LOGSPACE precomputation); t...

We present a correct-by-design method of state-dependent control synthesis for linear discrete-time switching systems. Given an objective region R of the state space, the method builds a capture set S and a control which steers any element of S into R. The method works by iterated backward reachability from R. More precisely, S is given as a parame...

We study the existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in concurrent games played on graphs. While existence is guaranteed with safety objectives for each player, Nash equilibria need not exist when players are given arbitrary terminal-reward objectives, and their existence is undecidable with qualitative reachability objectives (and only three player...

This volume contains the joint proceedings of the Workshop on Games for the Synthesis of Complex Systems (CASSTING'16) and of the 3rd International Workshop on Synthesis of Complex Parameters (SynCoP'16). The workshops were held in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, as satellite events of the 19th European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Softw...

Weighted timed automata have been defined in the early 2000 s for modelling resource-consumption or -allocation problems in real-time systems. Optimal reachability is decidable in weighted timed automata, and a symbolic forward algorithm has been developed to solve that problem. This algorithm uses so-called priced zones, an extension of standard z...

We study the almost-sure reachability problem in a distributed system obtained as the asynchronous composition of N copies (called processes) of the same automaton (called protocol), that can communicate via a shared register with finite domain. The automaton has two types of transitions: write-transitions update the value of the register, while re...

We present a correct-by-design method of state-dependent control synthesis for linear discrete-time switching systems. Given an objective region R of the state space, the method builds a capture set S and a control which steers any element of S into R. The method works by iterated backward reachability from R. More precisely, S is given as a parame...

Weighted timed automata have been defined in the early 2000's for modelling resource-consumption or -allocation problems in real-time systems. Optimal reachability is decidable in weighted timed automata, and a symbolic forward algorithm has been developed to solve that problem. This algorithm uses so-called priced zones, an extension of standard z...

Two-player quantitative zero-sum games provide a natural framework to
synthesize controllers with performance guarantees for reactive systems within
an uncontrollable environment. Classical settings include mean-payoff games,
where the objective is to optimize the long-run average gain per action, and
energy games, where the system has to avoid run...

We define and study a slight variation on the semantics of Strategy Logic: while in the classical semantics, all strategies are shifted during the evaluation of temporal modalities, we propose to only shift the strategies that have been assigned to a player, thus matching the intuition that we can assign the very same strategy to the players at dif...

Two-player quantitative zero-sum games provide a natural framework to synthesize controllers with performance guarantees for reactive systems within an uncontrollable environment. Classical settings include mean-payoff games, where the objective is to optimize the long-run average gain per action, and energy games, where the system has to avoid run...

Alternating-time temporal logic with strategy contexts (ATLsc) is a powerful
formalism for expressing properties of multi-agent systems: it extends CTL with
strategy quantifiers, offering a convenient way of expressing both
collaboration and antagonism between several agents. Incomplete observation of
the state space is a desirable feature in such...

Course notes, Master Parisien de Recherche en Informatique, Paris, France

Parametric timed automata (PTA) are a powerful formalism to model and reason about concurrent systems with some unknown timing delays. In this paper, we address the (untimed) language- and trace-preservation problems: given a reference parameter valuation, does there exist another parameter valuation with the same untimed language (or trace)? We sh...

The development of formal methods for control design is an important challenge with potential applications in a wide range of safety critical cyber-physical systems. Focusing on switched dynamical systems, we propose a new abstraction, based on time-varying regions of invariance (the control funnels), that models behaviors of systems as timed autom...

We study the extension of the alternating-time temporal logic (ATL) with strategy contexts: contrary to the original semantics, in this semantics the strategy quantifiers do not reset the previously selected strategies.We show that our extension ATLsc is very expressive, but that its decision problems are quite hard: model checking is k-EXPTIME-com...

We study pure-strategy Nash equilibria in multi-player concurrent
deterministic games, for a variety of preference relations. We provide a novel
construction, called the suspect game, which transforms a multi-player
concurrent game into a two-player turn-based game which turns Nash equilibria
into winning strategies (for some objective that depends...

We study mixed-strategy Nash equilibria in multiplayer deterministic concurrent games played on graphs, with terminal-reward payoffs (that is, absorbing states with a value for each player). We show undecidability of the existence of a constrained Nash equilibrium (the constraint requiring that one player should have maximal payoff), with only thre...

The problem of synchronizing automata is concerned with the existence of a word that sends all states of the automaton to one and the same state. This problem has classically been studied for complete deterministic finite automata, with the existence problem being NLOGSPACE-complete. In this paper we consider synchronizing-word problems for weighte...

While it was defined long ago, the extension of CTL with quantification over
atomic propositions has never been studied extensively. Considering two
different semantics (depending whether propositional quantification refers to
the Kripke structure or to its unwinding tree), we study its expressiveness
(showing in particular that QCTL coincides with...

Symmetry reductions have been applied extensively for the verification of finite-state concurrent systems and hardware designs using model-checking of temporal logics such as LTL, CTL and CTLs, as well as real-time and probabilistic-system model-checking. In this paper we extend the technique to handle infinite-state games on graphs with finite bra...

Extending formal verification techniques to handle quantitative aspects, both for the models and for the properties to be checked, has become a central research topic over the last twenty years. Following several recent works, we study model checking for (one-dimensional) weighted Kripke structures with positive and negative weights, and temporal l...

For the accurate analysis of computerized systems, powerful quantitative formalisms have been designed, together with efficient verification algorithms. However, verification has mostly remained boolean — either a property is true, or it is false. We believe that this is too crude in a context where quantitative information and constraints are cruc...

Formal methods (e.g. Timed Automata or Linear Hybrid Automata) can be used to analyse a real-time system by performing a reachability analysis on the model. The advantage of using formal methods is that they are more expressive than classical analytic models used in schedulability analysis. For example, it is possible to express state-dependent beh...

Reachability checking is one of the most basic problems in verification. By solving this problem in a game, one can synthesize a strategy that dictates the actions to be performed for ensuring that the target location is reached. In this work, we are interested in synthesizing “robust” strategies for ensuring reachability of a location in timed aut...

We investigate a model for representing large multiplayer games, which
satisfy strong symmetry properties. This model is made of multiple copies of an
arena; each player plays in his own arena, and can partially observe what the
other players do. Therefore, this game has partial information and symmetry
constraints, which make the computation of Na...

In this paper we survey several approaches to the robustness of timed automata, that is, the ability of a system to resist to slight perturbations or errors. We will concentrate on robustness against timing errors which can be due to measuring errors, imprecise clocks, and unexpected runtime behaviors such as execution times that are longer or shor...

We consider the fundamental problem of Büchi acceptance in timed automata in a robust setting. The problem is formalised in terms of controller synthesis: timed automata are equipped with a parametrised game-based semantics that models the possible perturbations of the decisions taken by the controller. We characterise timed automata that are robus...

Weighted timed automata extend timed automata with cost variables that can be used to model the evolution of various quantities. Although cost-optimal reachability is decidable (in polynomial space) on this model, it becomes undecidable on weighted timed games. This paper studies cost-optimal reachability problems on weighted timed automata and gam...

Various extensions of the temporal logic ATL have recently been introduced to
express rich properties of multi-agent systems. Among these, ATLsc extends ATL
with strategy contexts, while Strategy Logic has first-order quantification
over strategies. There is a price to pay for the rich expressiveness of these
logics: model-checking is non-elementar...