Nick Salafsky's research while affiliated with The Nature Conservancy and other places

Publications (53)

Article
Full-text available
There is currently a great deal of work being undertaken to collect, analyze, and synthesize available evidence about the effectiveness of conservation strategies. But substantial challenges still remain in enabling practitioners to assess and apply this evidence to their conservation work in an efficient manner. To solve these challenges, there is...
Article
Full-text available
Expansion of agricultural commodity production is driving rapid deforestation in tropical countries. Several strategies including jurisdictional planning and producer or sectoral‐level sourcing/certification have been used to counter this threat, each with its own limitations. There is growing interest in using jurisdictional sourcing (JS) as a hyb...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing interest in evidence-based conservation, yet there are no widely accepted standard definitions of evidence, let alone guidance on how to use it in the context of conservation and natural resource management practice. In this paper, we first draw on insights of evidence-based practice from different disciplines to define evidence as...
Article
To improve the likelihood of conservation success, donors, policy makers, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and researchers are increasingly interested in making conservation decisions based on scientific evidence. A major challenge in doing so has been the wide variability in the methodological rigor of existing studies. We present a simple fr...
Article
Full-text available
The practice of conservation occurs within complex socioecological systems fraught with challenges that require transparent, defensible, and often socially engaged project planning and management. Planning and decision support frameworks are designed to help conservation practitioners increase planning rigor, project accountability, stakeholder par...
Article
Full-text available
Conservationists often must take action in the face of uncertainty about the costs and benefits of different options. Although this uncertainty can be paralyzing when the stakes are high, there is obviously a cost to inaction as well as action, and decision makers need to be encouraged to act when appropriate. Many other fields of human endeavor su...
Article
Full-text available
Every day, the challenges to achieving conservation grow. Threats to species, habitats, and ecosystems multiply and intensify. The conservation community has invested decades of resources and hard work to reduce or eliminate these threats. However, it struggles to demonstrate that its efforts are having an impact. In recent years, conservation proj...
Article
If a project team is integrating human socio-economic development into its conservation work, there are three options for structuring the project: (1) have an integrated mix of conservation and development ends, (2) use development means in service of strict conservation ends, and (3) explicitly link the project’s conservation ends to broader devel...
Article
A book promoting the use of informatics to help us live greener lives could have been enhanced by following interactive design principles, suggests Nick Salafsky.
Article
Conservation projects are dynamic interventions that occur in complex contexts involving intricate interactions of social, political, economic, cultural, and environmental factors. These factors are constantly changing over time and space as managers learn more about the context within which they work. This complex context poses challenges for plan...
Article
Historically, examples of project evaluation in conservation were rare. In recent years, however, conservation professionals have begun to recognize the importance of evaluation both for accountability and for improving project interventions. Even with this growing interest in evaluation, the conservation community has paid little attention to eval...
Article
Full-text available
Funding for conservation is limited, and its investment for maximum conservation gain can likely be enhanced through the application of relevant science. Many donor institutions support and use science to pursue conservation goals, but their activities remain relatively unfamiliar to the conservation-science community. We examined the priorities an...
Article
An essential foundation of any science is a standard lexicon. Any given conservation project can be described in terms of the biodiversity targets, direct threats, contributing factors at the project site, and the conservation actions that the project team is employing to change the situation. These common elements can be linked in a causal chain,...
Article
There is growing recognition among conservation practitioners and scholars that good project management is integrally linked to well-designed monitoring and evaluation systems. Most conservation organizations have attempted to develop and implement monitoring and evaluation systems, often with mixed results. One problem seems to be that organizatio...
Article
When we started Foundations of Success a few years ago, we planned to use learning portfolios – our word for formal research networks – as our primary means of making the field of conservation more effective and efficient. To avoid overextending ourselves, in our first business plan we said: We predict having an average of five to eight portfolios...
Article
Full-text available
Effective conservation requires addressing three fundamental questions whose answers can only be sought in conservation practice: (1) What should our goals be and how do we measure progress in reaching them? (2) How can we most effectively take action to achieve conservation? and (3) How can we learn to do conservation better? This essay provides a...
Article
Beginning with the efforts of the National Council of Rubber Tappers in Brazil, considerable excitement has been generated over the past few years among the conservation and development community about the prospects of establishing extractive reserves that can maintain biodiversity while simultaneously providing a sustainable economic return to loc...
Article
Full-text available
A commonly held belief is that if people can benefit financially from enterprises that depend on nearby forests, reefs, and other natural habitats, then they will take action to conserve and sustainably use them. The Biodiversity Conservation Network brought together conservation and development organizations and local communities to systematically...
Article
Although there has been increasing interest in trying to link the livelihoods of people living near natural resources to the conservation of those resources, there has been little attempt to systematically assess or measure this linkage. We develop a conceptual framework for defining the linkage between livelihood activities and conservation. We th...
Article
There is a growing debate over the extent to which integrated conservation and development projects are contributing to conservation. One of the chief reasons for this debate is that there are few if any standardized and cost-effective methods for defining and measuring conservation success so that different projects can be assessed over time or co...
Article
Whereas a natural ecosystem is stochastically created by mechanism of natural selection, an agroecosystem is systematically fashioned by farmers in response to specificperceived ecological and economic constraints. In this paper, I employ a geographical information systems (GIS) based analysis to examine the beliefs of forest garden owners in West...
Article
A critical need exists throughout the humid tropics for interdisciplinary research that collects, evaluates, and makes available to decision makers the information contained in locally developed land-use systems. One such system is the forest garden developed by residents of several villages in the Gunung Palung region of West Kalimantan, Indonesia...
Article
In this paper, I first conduct a preliminary analysis of monthly rainfall data from West Kalimantan, Indonesia that indicates that (1) dry periods periodically occur in this otherwise humid environment; (2) these dry periods are often linked to El Nio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events; and (3) the intensity of these ENSO linked dry periods has bee...

Citations

... Avoidance measures can be guided based on the best available evidence of the location and status 262 of species, threats and habitats and the likely impact of different business activities (Figure 2) The types of evidence above should be reviewed by businesses to collate data on which biodiversity 286 strategies will be most effective overall. Where evidence is compiled, it should be assessed as to its 287 strength, reliability, and relevance to the business' context (Salafsky et al. 2022). 288 ...
... Second, Irvine et al. (2021) turn their attention to evidence syntheses, an area of study that several members of their author team have published on, cited in Lemieux et al. (2021a) and referred to within their Comment (see specifically Thomas-Walters et al. 2021). Irvine et al. (2021) note that evidence syntheses were not included as one of the 16 forms of evidence in our survey, and that our results are therefore based on an incomplete view. ...
... Thus, they can contribute tangibly to conservation objectives that align with those of PA systems as well as to biodiversity targets. The effectiveness of OECMs must be monitored regularly to ensure that sites continue to deliver conservation outcomes (Woodley et al. 2015). ...
... Diagrammatic tools, such as situation assessments, results chains, direct acyclic graphs, and systems mapping are now being used to map hypothesized causal relationships between actions and goals (Mahajan et al., 2019;Margoluis et al., 2009;Margoluis et al., 2013;Salafsky et al., 2019Salafsky et al., , 2022Saunders et al., 2019). Approaches such as Theories of Change facilitate explicit recognition and examination of technical and social assumptions that link subsequent steps in a results chain (Salafsky et al., 2021(Salafsky et al., , 2022. Such examination can be supported by comparing planed actions to comparable situations documented in resources such as the Conservation Actions and Measures Library (Conservation Measures Partnership, 2007) and Conservation Evidence platform , and improve anticipation of the range of potential outcomes. ...
... This result echoed the findings of Deacon (2012); Galinato and Galinato (2012); Sui et al. (2021), who found that countries that are politically stable are more likely to enforce forest and environmental protection policies. It also supports the literature of jurisdictional approaches, which shows that political turnovers could delay or even backslide green initiatives (Boshoven et al., 2021;Boyd et al., 2018;Colchester, 2020;Fishman et al., 2017). Deacon (2012) also stated that insecure tenure of the government will lead to an absence of government accountability in implementing these policies. ...
... Biodiversity is disappearing at unprecedented and increasing rates (Leakey and Lewin 1996;Payne et al. 2016;Ceballos et al. 2017Ceballos et al. , 2020Wu and Liang 2018;Krehenwinkel et al. 2019), and avoidance needs increased ambition (Martin et al. 2016) and development of new approaches to conceptualize and practice conservation (Knight et al. 2019). Scholars from various biomes of marine (Daru and le Roux 2016;Giakoumi et al. 2018;Pendleton et al. 2018), terrestrial forest (Nagel et al. 2017;Burivalova et al. 2019), and intertidal (Ellison et al. 2017;Jia et al. 2018;Worthington et al. 2020) have highlighted many methodological challenges in achieving effective conservation outcomes. For example, geoconservation outcomes are hindered by highly subjective criteria, varying assessment objectives, disparities in geoconservation strategy steps, and the inadequate capturing and representation of geological data (Crisp et al. 2022). ...
... First, as other studies point out, there is a need to focus on change with regards to sustaining target ecological features and to realign existing conservation goals to address a warming ocean (Gross et al. 2017;Mawdsley 2011;Margoluis and Salafsky 1998;The Nature Conservancy 2006). Combining habitat conservation goals and incorporating alleviation strategies can be achieved by incorporating the concept of ecosystem services. ...
... Whether the funding source is governmental or international, the funders might have their own agendas. Often funders are interested in contributing to conservation decisions based on scientific evidence (Burivalova et al. 2019) to maximise the benefits of conservation, given the limited resources available (Game 2018). It is interesting that international funding dominated in the studies reviewed but the research topics investigated using international funding are more-or-less similar to the investigations conducted with Ethiopian government funding. ...
... Therefore, this systematic review aims to synthesise and evaluate the existing evidence of the ES/EDS associated with vultures, develop a framework combining the approach proposed by Salafsky et al. (2019) to define and quantify evidence in conservation, with the standards for systematic reviews (Moher et al. 2015) to answer the following questions: (1) What role do vultures have as ES/EDS providers? (2) What is the strength of the evidence identified for these roles? ...
... An iterative process of both structured and unstructured expert elicitation [108] involved a formal ranking survey, in which team members sorted the relevance and importance of the enabling and disabling conditions listed, as well as in-depth, facilitated group and break out discussions over the course of 3, 2-hour team meetings. Such discussions incorporated the team's diverse areas of expertise along with their varied geographic perspectives to further hone and finalize the list of conditions and sort them into overarching categories [104]. ...