Nicholas O. Rule's research while affiliated with University of Toronto and other places

Publications (146)

Article
Recent studies suggest that one's personality relates to their music preferences. Separately, research from an attachment theory perspective has demonstrated that attachment security and insecurity are important relationship‐related individual differences. We combined these two lines of inquiry here by investigating whether the lyrics of individual...
Article
The mere-exposure effect, in which repeated stimuli are liked more than novel stimuli, is a well-known effect. However, little research has studied adult age differences in mere-exposure effects, despite possible applications in helping older adults transition to new living environments. Here, we report four experiments assessing mere-exposure to n...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has demonstrated that women can correctly distinguish between gay and heterosexual men’s faces significantly better than chance. This ability appears to be heightened during the most fertile portion of their ovulatory cycle. Here, we sought to replicate and extend these findings in a large sample of undergraduate women (N = 1960)....
Article
Here, we examine face memory among individuals who are self‐focused and care little about others’ needs: grandiose narcissists. Given narcissistic individuals’ excessive self‐focus and tendency to disregard the needs of others, they may struggle to recognize faces and their surrounding environment. Indeed, narcissistic individuals demonstrated wors...
Article
Previous research has demonstrated that social stereotypes associated with women's gender can preclude them from leadership positions. It remains unclear whether these stereotypes affect how people perceive male and female leaders, however. To examine people's stereotypes, we extracted their mental representations of male and female leaders and typ...
Article
Full-text available
Disclosing idiosyncratic preferences can help to broker new social interactions. For instance, strangers exchange music preferences to signal their identities, values, and preferences. Recognizing that people’s physical appearances guide their decisions about social engagement, we examined whether cues to people’s music preferences in their physica...
Article
Full-text available
Facial expressions of emotion convey more than just emotional experience. Indeed, they can signal a person's social group memberships. For instance, extant research shows that nonverbal accents in emotion expression can reveal one's cultural affiliation (Marsh, Elfenbein, & Ambady, 2003). That work tested distinctions only between people belonging...
Article
Full-text available
Although people can categorize others’ sexual orientation (e.g., gay/lesbian vs. straight) from their facial appearance, not everyone defines their sexual orientation categorically. Indeed, many individuals within the same sexual orientation category experience different degrees of own‐ and other‐gender attraction. Moving beyond sexual orientation...
Article
Full-text available
People prefer to form relationships with people like themselves—a tendency that extends even to facial appearance, resulting in groups whose members look alike. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying homophilic resemblance using facial photos of fraternity/sorority members from two time points: before joining the group and after belonging...
Article
Recognizing others' humanity is fundamental to how people think about and treat each other. People often ascribe greater humanness to groups that they socially value, but do they also systematically ascribe social value to different individuals? Here, we tested whether people (de)humanize individuals based on social traits inferred from their facia...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the many important considerations relevant to selecting a leader, facial appearance carries surprising sway. Following numerous studies documenting the role of facial appearance in government elections, we investigated differences in perceptions of dictators versus democratically elected leaders. Participants in Study 1 successfully classif...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past 10 years, Oosterhof and Todorov’s valence–dominance model has emerged as the most prominent account of how people evaluate faces on social dimensions. In this model, two dimensions (valence and dominance) underpin social judgements of faces. Because this model has primarily been developed and tested in Western regions, it is unclear w...
Article
Bicultural individuals who blend their two cultures and identities (i.e., subscribe to a mixed culture) may assume that other bicultural individuals blend their cultures and identities too. Here, we introduce the concept and assessment of implicit biculturalism theories: beliefs about how two cultures reside within one individual. We hypothesized t...
Article
Full-text available
Heterosexual individuals tend to look and act more typical for their gender compared to gay and lesbian individuals, and people use this information to infer sexual orientation. Consistent with stereotypes associating happy expressions with femininity, previous work found that gay men displayed more happiness than straight men—a difference that per...
Article
Full-text available
People use stereotypes about the benefits of wealth and success to infer that rich people look happier than poor people. For instance, perceivers categorize smiling faces as rich more often than they categorize neutral faces as rich. Moreover, richer people’s neutral faces in fact display more positive affect than poorer people’s neutral faces. App...
Article
People use facial information to infer others’ leadership potential across numerous domains; but what forms the basis of these judgements and how much do they matter? Here, we quantitatively reviewed the literature on perceptions of leaders from facial cues to better understand the association between physical appearance and leader outcomes. We use...
Article
Academic life is full of learning, excitement, and discovery. However, academics also experience professional challenges at various points in their career, including repeated rejection, impostor syndrome, and burnout. These negative experiences are rarely talked about publicly, creating a sense of loneliness and isolation for people who presume the...
Article
Many older adults try to avoid age discrimination by hiding visible signs of aging. But using cosmetic procedures to conceal one’s age also incurs negative evaluations. This paradox prompted us to ask whether people can detect age concealment and, if so, whether they would either negatively evaluate concealers due to age-concealment stigmas or posi...
Article
Objective: People gather important social information from subtle nonverbal cues. Given that one's attachment style can meaningfully affect the quality of one's relationships, we investigated whether people could perceive men's and women's attachment styles from photos of their neutral faces. Method: In two studies, we measured targets' attachme...
Article
Psychology has long focused on social identities and their critical role in defining the self. However, the majority of identity-related findings stems from research on traditional identities (monoracial, cisgender, heterosexual). Considering the relative dearth of research from the full range of identities encompassed in society (e.g., multiracial...
Preprint
Full-text available
Over the last ten years, Oosterhof and Todorov’s valence-dominance model has emerged as the most prominent account of how people evaluate faces on social dimensions. In this model, two dimensions (valence and dominance) underpin social judgments of faces. Because this model has primarily been developed and tested in Western regions, it is unclear w...
Article
Introduction: People whose faces look untrustworthy tend to receive harsher social evaluations, including more severe criminal sentences. Yet little is known about how much facial trustworthiness reflects individuals' behavioral histories. We examined whether adolescent histories of delinquency and substance use predict strangers' perceptions of yo...
Article
Full-text available
The ecological theory of social perception suggests that people’s first impressions should be especially accurate for judgments relevant to their goals. Here, we tested whether people could accurately judge others’ levels of antigay prejudice and whether gay men’s accuracy would exceed straight men’s accuracy in making these judgments. We found tha...
Article
Full-text available
Concerns about the veracity of psychological research have been growing. Many findings in psychological science are based on studies with insufficient statistical power and nonrepresentative samples, or may otherwise be limited to specific, ungeneralizable settings or populations. Crowdsourced research, a type of large-scale collaboration in which...
Article
Full-text available
Language is critical to social identity, including nationality. Some nations encompass multiple languages, however, raising questions about how their citizens perceive members of their national versus linguistic groups. We explored perceptions of Canadian nationality, which consists of two linguistic groups: Anglo-Canadians and Franco-Canadians. In...
Article
Full-text available
Voices convey important social information about an individual’s identity, including gender. This is especially relevant to transgender individuals, who cite voice alteration as a primary goal of the gender alignment process. Although the voice is a primary target of testosterone therapy among female-to-male (FTM) trans people, little research has...
Preprint
Concerns have been growing about the veracity of psychological findings. Many findings in psychological science are based on studies with insufficient statistical power and non-representative samples, or may otherwise be limited to specific, ungeneralizable settings or populations. Large-scale collaboration, in which one or more research projects a...
Article
Grandiose narcissists (individuals with a tendency to be self-focused, egotistical, and vain) overwhelmingly desire celebrity status. Here, we examined the conditions underlying narcissists' fame motivation. In Study 1, we assessed participants' desire to become a social media user who attained high status, tried to attain status but failed, or had...
Article
Full-text available
Although the link between facial appearance and success is well established, the mechanisms responsible for this association have remained elusive. Evolutionary theory suggests that perceived leadership characteristics should be important for men’s self-concept. Drawing on implicit leadership theory and evolutionary perspectives, we therefore exami...
Article
Full-text available
Perceivers tend to strongly agree about the basic trait information that they encode from faces. Although some research has found significant consistency for social inferences from faces viewed at multiple angles, disrupting configural processing can substantially alter the traits attributed to faces. Here, we reconciled these findings by examining...
Chapter
Full-text available
Recently, the fields of cultural psychology and cognitive neuroscience have converged to form the research domain of cultural neuroscience. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the research in this burgeoning field and outline the history of the field and its origins. This specific field encompasses a wide variety of research and provides a u...
Article
Objective: Though initially charming and inviting, narcissists often engage in negative interpersonal behaviors. Identifying and avoiding narcissists therefore carries adaptive value. Whereas past research has found that people can judge others' grandiose narcissism from their appearance (including their faces), the cues supporting these judgments...
Article
Full-text available
A large literature suggests that men and women differ in their self-reported mate preferences such that men place greater weight on physical attractiveness than women do, whereas women value financial prospects more than men. Yet, little research has addressed how these differences generalize to other contexts, such as modern online dating in which...
Article
Full-text available
East Asians tend towards holistic styles of thinking whereas Westerners generally think more analytically. Recent work has shown that Western participants perceive emotional expressions in a somewhat holistic manner, however. Specifically, Westerners interpret emotional facial expressions differently when presented with a body displaying a congruen...
Article
Although previous research has considered the role of emotional valence in the perception and communication of group membership, the influence of perceived emotional arousal remains relatively unexplored. Here, we examined how valence and arousal simultaneously contribute to perceptions of sexual orientation and political affiliation at 3 distinct...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies showed that East Asians are more sensitive than North Americans to contextual information, and that the cultural differences in context sensitivity emerge in preschool children. Yet, little is known about whether this generalizes to children’s emotional judgments. The present study tested Canadian and Japanese preschool children an...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers have recently shown increasing interest in assessments of trustworthiness, devoting much attention to whether trustworthiness can be detected from a person’s facial appearance. This question has been investigated along diverse behavioral dimensions, using a wide variety of targets, and with great inconsistency in results. Here, we call...
Article
A meta-analysis by Jost, Glaser, Kruglanski, and Sulloway (2003) suggested that existential needs to reduce threat were associated with political conservatism. Nevertheless, some maintain that fear plays as prevalent a role on the left as the right. In an attempt to resolve this issue, we reviewed evidence from 134 different samples (N = 369,525) a...
Article
Although both scholars and lay people are fascinated with charismatic individuals, relatively few theorists have attempted to define charisma. Much of the empirical research examining charisma has focused on leadership. Even within that literature, however, theorists have focused on charisma's outcomes, leaving unarticulated what charisma actually...
Article
Full-text available
Black men tend to be stereotyped as threatening and, as a result, may be disproportionately targeted by police even when unarmed. Here, we found evidence that biased perceptions of young Black men's physical size may play a role in this process. The results of 7 studies showed that people have a bias to perceive young Black men as bigger (taller, h...
Article
Facial appearance correlates with leadership, both in terms of who is chosen (leader selection) and how they do (leader success). Leadership theories suggest that exceptional individuals acquire positions as leaders. Exceptional traits can differ between domains, however, and so the qualities valued in leaders in one occupation may not match those...
Article
Researchers have recently begun to examine how categorization processes impact social evaluations. In two studies, we examined how sex categorization influences attitudes toward transgender individuals. We found that people evaluated transgender individuals more negatively if they possessed physically androgynous (vs. sex-typical) characteristics b...
Article
Full-text available
Interpersonal accuracy correlates modestly across different domains. Although some research has explored factors that predict accuracy within specific domains of interpersonal judgment (e.g., social attributes), whether any variables might predict interpersonal accuracy generally across different domains remains in question. Subjective socioeconomi...
Article
People use facial features (e.g., face shape, skin color, eye structure) both in isolation and in combination to identify others as members of a variety of social categories. For some categories (e.g., age, race, and sex), the markers are obvious and people categorize their members almost perfectly. For others, however (e.g., political affiliation,...
Article
Full-text available
Social class meaningfully impacts individuals’ life outcomes and daily interactions, and the mere perception of one’s socioeconomic standing can have significant ramifications. To better understand how people infer others’ social class, we therefore tested the legibility of class (operationalized as monetary income) from facial images, finding acro...
Article
Easily perceived identities (e.g., race) may interact with perceptually ambiguous identities (e.g., sexual orientation) in meaningful but elusive ways. Here, we investigated how intersecting identities impact impressions of leadership. People perceived gay Black men as better leaders than members of either single-minority group (i.e., gay or Black)...
Article
Full-text available
Although researchers have explored the perceiver characteristics that make people accurate at identifying others' sexual orientations, characteristics of the targets remain largely unexplored. In the current study, we examined how individual differences in internalized homophobia among gay men can affect perceptions of their sexual orientation by a...
Article
Many Labs 3 (Ebersole et al., 2016) failed to replicate a classic finding from the Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion (Cacioppo, Petty, & Morris, 1983; Study 1). Petty and Cacioppo (2016) noted possible limitations of the Many Labs 3 replication (Ebersole et al., 2016) based on the cumulative literature. Luttrell, Petty, and Xu (2017) subje...
Article
Full-text available
Black men tend to be stereotyped as threatening and, as a result, may be disproportionately targeted by police even when unarmed. Here, we found evidence that biased perceptions of young Black men’s physical size may play a role in this process. The results of 7 studies showed that people have a bias to perceive young Black men as bigger (taller, h...
Article
Signaling theory suggests that people use cues transmitted by leaders to form impressions of charisma but the validity of these impressions remains unexplored. Here, we examined whether perceptions of charisma from thin slices of nonverbal behavior relate to inferences based on more information. We tested whether ratings of charisma from 5-, 15-, a...
Article
Full-text available
People derive considerable amounts of information about each other from minimal nonverbal cues. Apart from characteristics typically regarded as obvious when encountering another person (e.g., age, race, and sex), perceivers can identify many other qualities about a person that are typically rather subtle. One such feature is sexual orientation. He...
Article
Full-text available
Although appearance-based cues can help to diagnose physical illness, visual manifestations of mental disorder may be more elusive. Here, we investigated whether individuals could distinguish women with a serious mental disorder (borderline personality disorder) from demographically- and IQ-matched non-psychiatric controls. Participants rated menta...
Article
Full-text available
People can reliably distinguish the sex of faces across age groups. Rates of accuracy are lower for infants, however, likely because they lack the pronounced sexually dimorphic features that develop during puberty. Given that previous research has shown that perceivers categorize adult sex automatically, we wondered whether this would extend to the...
Article
Though many of people’s impressions about each other stem from qualities that are obvious or apparent, social perceptions also rely on a variety of subtle cues that guide judgment and behavior. For example, emerging work has increasingly elucidated the conditions and means by which individuals’ accuracy in judging others’ sexual orientation is bett...
Preprint
Many Labs 3 (Ebersole et al., 2016) failed to replicate a classic finding from the Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion (Cacioppo, Petty, & Morris, 1983; Study 1). Petty and Cacioppo (2016) noted possible limitations of the Many Labs 3 replication (Ebersole et al., 2016) based on the cumulative literature. Luttrell, Petty, and Xu (2017) subje...
Article
The university participant pool is a key resource for behavioral research, and data quality is believed to vary over the course of the academic semester. This crowdsourced project examined time of semester variation in 10 known effects, 10 individual differences, and 3 data quality indicators over the course of the academic semester in 20 participa...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies have demonstrated that judgments of business leaders’ faces predict their organizations’ financial performance. To date, these predictions have been derived exclusively from the impressions of naïve perceivers. Here, we tested how perceivers’ knowledge and experience in business might relate to their judgments of CEOs’ leadership abi...
Article
Full-text available
Theories linking the literatures on stereotyping and human resource management have proposed that individuals may enjoy greater success obtaining jobs congruent with stereotypes about their social categories or traits. Here, we explored such effects for a detectable, but not obvious, social group distinction: male sexual orientation. Bridging previ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many Labs 3 is a crowdsourced project that systematically evaluated time-of-semester effects across many participant pools. See the Wiki for a table of contents of files and to download the manuscript.
Article
An article recently published in this journal (Cox, Devine, Bischmann, & Hyde, 2016) questioned the validity of existing research on the accurate judgment of sexual orientation from photographs of faces. Specifically, those authors reported a confound in their stimuli whereby the photos of sexual minorities (gay men and lesbians) were of higher qua...
Article
Previous theoretical work has suggested that people can accurately perceive disease from others' appearances and behaviors. However, much of that research has examined diseases with relatively obvious symptoms (e.g., scars, obesity, blemishes, sneezing). Here, we examined whether people similarly detect diseases that do not exhibit such visible phy...
Article
Full-text available
Although studies have shown that sexual orientation can be judged from faces, this research has not considered how age-related differences in perceivers or targets affect such judgments. In the current work, we evaluated whether accuracy differed among young adults (YA) and older adults (OA) for young and old men’s faces by recruiting a sample of Y...
Article
Recent research has demonstrated that judgments of Chief Executive Officers' (CEOs') faces predict their firms' financial performance, finding that characteristics associated with higher power (e.g., dominance) predict greater profits. Most of these studies have focused on CEOs of profit-based businesses, where the main criterion for success is fin...
Article
People often perceive themselves as more attractive and likable than others do. Here, we examined how these self-favoring biases manifest in a highly popular novel context that is particularly self-focused—selfies. Specifically, we analyzed selfie-takers’ and non-selfie-takers’ perceptions of their selfies versus photos taken by others and compared...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has repeatedly demonstrated the importance of culture and cultural identification to interpersonal understanding. We aimed to apply the ideas from this domain to mental state reasoning, or theory of mind. We thus investigated the relationship between acculturation and inferring the mental states of other people within and across c...
Article
Previous studies have found that facial appearance can predict both the selection and performance of leaders. Little is known about the specific facial features responsible for this relationship, however. One possible feature is mouth width, which correlates with the propensity for physical combat in primates and could therefore be linked to one's...
Chapter
We are constantly forming impressions about those around us. Social interaction depends on our understanding of interpersonal behavior - assessing one another's personality, emotions, thoughts and feelings, attitudes, deceptiveness, group memberships, and other personal characteristics through facial expressions, body language, voice and spoken lan...
Article
The physician’s general survey is an invaluable method for quickly assessing a patient’s overall health and demeanor. Recent studies in psychology have found that qualities of one’s face—including skin coloration and facial adiposity—are associated with one’s underlying health. Subtle variations in these features can indicate serious health problem...
Article
Recent research has highlighted a relationship between perceptions of trustworthiness from faces and capital sentencing outcomes. Here, we extended those findings by replicating the relationship between trustworthiness and the death penalty among a new sample of targets convicted of capital murder in Arkansas and by demonstrating that facial trustw...
Chapter
Sexual expression; Sexual orientation
Article
Significance People often evaluate others in a negative manner when they do not fit the stereotypes that are generally believed about their group. Here, we not only show that political conservatives are more likely to negatively evaluate people who deviate from stereotypes than are liberals, but also explain why. Previous research has heavily empha...
Article
People can reliably infer various traits, states, and group memberships from minimal cues. Despite impressive demonstrations of the breadth of social perception, however, few studies have critically examined the sensitivity and limits of social perception in specific quantitative terms. Here, we investigated the just noticeable difference for perce...
Article
Full-text available
It is well known that emotions intersect with obvious social categories (e.g., race), influencing both how targets are categorized and the emotions that are read from their faces. Here, we examined the influence of emotional expression on the perception of less obvious group memberships for which, in the absence of obvious and stable physical marke...