Neil S. Jacobson's research while affiliated with University of Mary Washington and other places

Publications (142)

Article
Full-text available
This study followed treatment responders from a randomized controlled trial of adults with major depression. Patients treated with medication but withdrawn onto pill-placebo had more relapse through 1 year of follow-up compared to patients who received prior behavioral activation, prior cognitive therapy, or continued medication. Prior psychotherap...
Article
The present study provides 2-year follow-up data for a comparison between a complete behavioral marital therapy treatment package (CO) and two of its major components, behavior exchange (BE) andcommunication/problem-solving training (CPT). Data are reported for 34 couples who were randomly assigned to one of these three treatments, completed the tr...
Article
This paper raises and attempts to resolve some significant and controversial issues in the design of family therapy outcome studies. First, the issue of clinical relevance is addressed. Much of psychotherapy research has little relevance for practicing clinicians; this paper discusses some partial explanations and proposes some changes in the way d...
Article
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Antidepressant medication is considered the current standard for severe depression, and cognitive therapy is the most widely investigated psychosocial treatment for depression. However, not all patients want to take medication, and cognitive therapy has not demonstrated consistent efficacy across trials. Moreover, dismantling designs have suggested...
Article
The allegiance effect is by now a well-established phenomenon in psychotherapy research. It is of interest both because of its potential for contaminating between-group comparisons and because no definitive explanation for it has been generally accepted by the field. This commentary underscores the need to control for allegiance effects but also sp...
Article
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Clinical significance refers to changes that are clinically meaningful for individuals as they progress through a course of treatment. Since the first method of assessing clinical significance was proposed, a number of alternatives have been suggested, each purporting to increase sensitivity for detecting meaningful change. However, few comparisons...
Article
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Infidelity is a common phenomenon in marriages but is poorly understood. The current study examined variables related to extramarital sex using data from the 1991-1996 General Social Surveys. Predictor variables were entered into a logistic regression with presence of extramarital sex as the dependent variable. Results demonstrated that divorce, ed...
Article
Infidelity is a common phenomenon in marriages but is poorly understood. The current study examined variables related to extramarital sex using data from the 1991-1996 General Social Surveys. Predictor variables were entered into a logistic regression with presence of extramarital sex as the dependent variable. Results demonstrated that divorce, ed...
Article
Behavioral activation (BA), as a stand-alone treatment for depression, began as a behavior therapy treatment condition in a component analysis study of the Beck, Rush, Shaw, and Emery version of cognitive therapy. BA attempts to help depressed people reengage in their lives through focused activation strategies. These strategies counter patterns of...
Article
Behavioral activation is a positive approach to treating depression. Working within this framework the therapist helps clients to see depression not as something inside of them but as a natural consequence of the way they cope with the shifting contexts of daily life. There is no search for mental illness, skill deficits, or distortions in thinking...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to investigate behavioral differences among nonviolent, unhappily married husbands and violent husbands with different attachment classifications on the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main and Goldwyn, 1994). Twenty-three Domestically Violent (DV) husbands and 13 maritally distressed but non-violent (DNV) husbands we...
Article
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A. Holtzworth-Munroe and G. L. Stuart (1994) proposed a tripartite typology of men who batter their female partners based on the severity of violence, extent of violence, and personality disorder characteristics. The current study attempts to empirically validate this typology using data from 75 domestically violent (DV) men and their partners, and...
Article
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Posted 06/02/2000. This reprinted article originally appeared in (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1994, Vol 62[5], 982–988). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 1995-09810-001.) Studied the affect, psychophysiology, and verbal content of arguments in couples with a violent husband. On the basis of self-...
Article
Posted 06/02/2000. This reprinted article originally appeared in (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1984, Vol 52[4], 497–594). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 1984-32021-001.) Reanalyzed the data from the following studies evaluating the effectiveness of behavioral marital therapy to see what proporti...
Article
Posted 06/02/2000. This reprinted article originally appeared in (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1996, Vol 64[2], 295–304). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 1996-00433-008.) The purpose of this study was to provide an experimental test of the theory of change put forth by A. T. Beck, A. J. Rush, B....
Article
Posted 06/02/2000. This reprinted article originally appeared in (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1994, Vol 62[5], 982–988). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 1995-09810-001.) Studied the affect, psychophysiology, and verbal content of arguments in couples with a violent husband. On the basis of self-...
Article
Posted 06/02/2000. This reprinted article originally appeared in (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1984, Vol 52[4], 497–594). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 1984-32021-001.) Reanalyzed the data from the following studies evaluating the effectiveness of behavioral marital therapy to see what proporti...
Article
This study examined the relationships between acceptance of the treatment rationale (ATR), homework compliance, and change during cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. By evaluating the associations between these variables over time it was possible to compare competing theories of change in CBT. Clients meeting criteria for major depre...
Article
Full-text available
Although traditional behavioral couple therapy (TBCT) has garnered the most empirical support of any marital treatment, concerns have been raised about both its durability and clinical significance. Integrative behavioral couple therapy (IBCT) was designed to address some of these limitations by combining strategies for fostering emotional acceptan...
Article
This article is about our scientific investigations of the change mechanisms in cognitive therapy (CT) for depression. In a previous clinical trial, we found that so-called 'cognitive' interventions were not necessary for the success of CT: the behavioral activation (BA) component, a treatment precluding attempts to change thinking, worked as well...
Article
Unlabelled: Hageman, and Arrindell [Hageman, W.J., & Arrindell, W.A. (in press). Establishing clinically significant change: increment of precision and the distinction between individual and group level of analysis. Behavior Research and Therapy.] suggest adaptations to the traditional clinical significance model originally developed by Jacobson,...
Article
This study examined the relationship between demand-withdraw interaction and battering in couples with a violent husband. The authors compared the interaction patterns of 47 couples with a violent husband with the interaction patterns of 28 distressed but nonviolent couples and 16 happily married nonviolent couples. All couples engaged in videotape...
Conference Paper
This study examined the relationship between demand-withdraw interaction and battering in couples with a violent husband. The authors compared the interaction patterns of 47 couples with a violent husband with the interaction patterns of 28 distressed but nonviolent couples and 16 happily married nonviolent couples. All couples engaged in videotape...
Article
My rejoinder is a response to two commentaries on my SEPI keynote in 1997: commentaries written by Goldfried and Cullari. Instead of grappling with the ideas I presented, both respondents were distracted by my satirical beginning. In my talk I proposed a method for studying psychotherapy integration. I am not pessimistic about the potential for int...
Article
This article offers those who are identified with progress in psychotherapy integration an outsider's perspective on progress in the field. The author argues for a contextual study of psychotherapy and psychotherapy integration, noting that the social psychology of psychotherapy may be an overlooked dimension in the study of psychotherapy integrati...
Article
The investigation of subtypes of violent men could provide invaluable information to researchers and clinicians. In earlier studies, investigators examined whether subtypes of male batterers could be identified based on physiological markers in combination with observational and self-report perspectives. In a sample of batterers and their wives, th...
Article
This article summarizes and scrutinizes the growth of the development of clinically relevant and psychometrically sound approaches for determining the clinical significance of treatment effects in mental health research by tracing its evolution, by examining modifications in the method, and by discussing representative applications. Future directio...
Article
This article summarizes and scrutinizes the growth of the development of clinically relevant and psychometrically sound approaches for determining the clinical significance of treatment effects in mental health research by tracing its evolution, by examining modifications in the method, and by discussing representative applications. Future directio...
Article
Because of the limited effectiveness of behavioral couple therapy, many professionals have tried to modify it and test new protocols against existing strategies. A. Christensen and N. Jacobson have also attempted to enhance behavioral couple therapy. They have added strategies to help couples emotionally accept each other before trying to implement...
Article
Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT) attempts to improve Traditional Behavioral Couple Therapy (TBCT) by incorporating an emphasis on promoting acceptance into TBCTs emphasis on behavioral change. This study examined changes in couples' communication over the course of IBCT and TBCT. Early, middle, and late sessions were coded to measure co...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents 2-year follow-up data of a comparison between complete cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression (CT) and its 2 major components: behavioral activation and behavioral activation with automatic thought modification. Data are reported on 137 participants who were randomly assigned to 1 of these 3 treatments for up to 20 sessions...
Article
Full-text available
The propensity of men to reject influence from women and individuai differences in tliis tendency were examined in the present report as potentially related to two types of domestically violent men. We operationalized rejection of influence in sequential analy-ses of emotional behavior during a 15 min marital interaction. In our previous research,...
Article
This article revisits and reexamines previously reported findings addressing the longitudinal course of violent couples (N. S. Jacobson et al, 1996). The authors engaged in unprecedented efforts to obtain follow-up data from couples that were formerly missing during the 2-yr follow-up. Efforts were remarkably successful, with 11 of the 15 couples s...
Article
Forsyth (1997), a third-generation self-described member of the behavior therapy movement, suggests that behavior therapy has had a checkered history over the past 30 years: at times progressing, at times stagnating, and at other times regressing. He laments the decline of theory, and the lack of influence by basic research, as two primary elements...
Article
Domestic violence is a serious public health concern in the United States. Despite the serious and often tragically fatal consequences of spousal abuse, we have very little understanding about the root causes of domestic violence. We know even less about providing effective treatments and prevention. In this article, we have discussed some of the m...
Article
The journal Behavior Therapy reflects the evolution of the field over the past 30 years, from an emphasis on analogue studies with college students and operant approaches with institutionalized subjects to increased use of clinical populations and the incorporation of cognitive therapy. Behavior therapy, as of 1997, has little to do with its philos...
Article
This study examined the relationships between clients' reasons for depression and the process and outcome of a cognitive therapy (CT) and a behavioral activation (BA) treatment for major depression. Reason giving was conceptualized as the tendency to offer multiple explanations for a problem. Different reasons for depression were also thought to ma...
Article
In this chapter we discuss the evolution of our thinking about couple therapy from a tradition focused exclusively on change toward one that strives for a balance between change and acceptance. We also discuss what we mean by "acceptance" and how the principles of acceptance can be used both in and outside of therapy. In particular, we discuss depr...
Article
Forsyth (1997), a third-generation self-described member of the behavior therapy movement, suggests that behavior therapy has had a checkered history over the past 30 years: at times progressing, at times stagnating, and at other times regressing. He laments the decline of theory, and the lack of influence by basic research, as two primary elements...
Article
The propensity of men to reject influence from women and individual differences in this tendency were examined in the present report as potentially related to two types of domestically violent men. We operationalized rejection of influence in sequential analyses of emotional behavior during a 15 min marital interaction. In our previous research, we...
Chapter
Domestic violence occupies an unusual position in psychological research. While being one of the most widespread and devastating of societal problems, domestic violence is also one of the areas with the least amount of quality empirical work. We need to look no further than the historical and cultural context of wife assault to recognize that viole...
Article
Although there has been much discussion of the recent Consumer Reports (CR) study (1995) on the effectiveness of psychotherapy, there is little new information reported either in the CR article or in M. E. P. Seligman's (1995) discussion of the findings. The findings that are new are hard to interpret because of serious methodological problems. In...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to provide an experimental test of the theory of change put forth by A. T. Beck, A. J. Rush, B. F. Shaw, and G. Emery (1979) to explain the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CT) for depression. The comparison involved randomly assigning 150 outpatients with major depression to a treatment focused exclusively on...
Article
In these concluding comments to the exchange among N. S. Jacobson and S. D. Hollon (1996), D. F. Klein (1996), I. Elkin, R. D. Gibbons, M. T. Shea, and B. F. Shaw (1996), and R. J. McNally (1996) issues of continuing controversy are highlighted: the best ways to control for the allegiance effect, the complexities of assessing competence, and the ro...
Article
Recent reanalyses suggest that pharmacotherapy was superior to cognitive-behavior therapy in the acute treatment of more severely depressed outpatients in the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program (TDCRP). At the same time, this finding was neither robust across sites within the TDCRP nor consist...
Article
Full-text available
The longitudinal course of battering was investigated over a 2-year time span. Forty-five batterers and their spouses were assessed with self-report, psychophysiological, and marital interaction measures. Both the stability of the relationship and of the battering were assessed. At the two-year follow-up, 62% of the couples were still married and l...
Article
In these concluding comments to the exchange among N. S. Jacobson and S. D. Hollon (1996), D. F. Klein (1996), I. Elkin, R. D. Gibbons,M. T. Shea, and B. F. Shaw(1996), and R. J. McNally (1996) issues of continuing controversy are highlighted: the best ways to control for the allegiance effect, the complexities of assessing competence, and the role...
Article
Full-text available
integrative behavioral couple therapy (IBCT) represents both a continuation and a marked departure from previous attempts to apply behavioral theory to intervention with married couples / describe our theoretical model of relationship distress, emphasizing the development of that distress / focus on our theory of therapeutic change / focus on asses...
Article
Although the efficacy of individual treatments of affective disorders has been well-documented, there are also significant limitations to existing treatments. In the last decade attention has focused increasingley on the interpersonal context of affective illness, and on marital and family relationships in particular. As a result, a number of appro...
Article
Describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the Reasons for Depression Questionnaire (RFD), constructed to measure the explanations people give for being depressed. Questionnaire items were generated and administered to 602 college students to evaluate internal consistency and derive a preliminary factor structure. Principal components...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the relationships among physiological responses during marital conflict, aggressive behavior, and violence in battering couples. As an index of physiological response, the authors used the male batterer's heart rate reactivity, assessed as the change from an eyes-closed baseline to the first 5 min of their marital conflict inter...
Article
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The authors address three comments on J. M. Gottman et al. (1995). The authors' Type 1 batterers engage in more severe violence than Type 2 batterers. Type 2 batterers are more likely to have witnessed unilateral husband-to-wife violence in their families of origin. The greater emotional abuse in Type 1 batterers is a robust finding. At certain cri...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the relationships among physiological responses during marital conflict, aggressive behavior, and violence in battering couples. As an index of physiological response, the authors used the male batterer's heart rate reactivity, assessed as the change from an eyes-closed baseline to the first 5 min of their marital conflict inter...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this investigation was to study the affect, psychophysiology, and violent content of arguments in couples with a violent husband. On the basis of self-reports of violent arguments, there were no wife behaviors that successfully suppressed husband violence once it began; moreover, husband violence escalated in response to nonviolent a...
Article
In this article we discuss the implications of recent theoretical work from the Stone Center (Jordan, Kaplan, Miller, Stiver, & Surrey 1991) and Jack (1991) for understanding the link between women's depression and marital distress. From this heuristic framework, we describe how recent improvements to traditional behavioral couple therapy represent...
Article
The purpose of this article is to present a framework that reconciles the goals of advocates for victims of domestic violence with the goals of clinical researchers who study this phenomenon. I will be discussing the tension between those goals, and the way a research model can complement advocacy goals.
Article
Research suggests that paraprofessional therapists usually produce effects that are greater than effects for control conditions and comparable to those for professional therapist treatment Other nonprofessional psychological treatments, such as self-administered materials and self-help groups, have also demonstrated positive effects Because of the...
Article
To better understand the relationship dynamics of couples experiencing husband-to-wife violence, the interaction patterns of 29 domestically violent (DV), 15 distressed but nonviolent (DNV), and 13 happily married (HM) couples were examined using the Marital Interaction Coding System and lag sequential analyses. DV spouses were generally more often...
Article
Manipulation checks should be used in psychotherapy trials to confirm that therapists followed the treatment manuals and performed the therapy competently. This article is a review of some strategies that have been used to document treatment integrity; also, their limitations are discussed here. Recommendations for improving these checks are presen...
Article
Manipulation checks should be used in psychotherapy trials to confirm that therapists followed the treatment manuals and performed the therapy competently. This article is a review of some strategies that have been used to document treatment integrity; also, their limitations are discussed here. Recommendations for improving these checks are presen...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of behavioral couple therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and their combination on female depression 6 and 12 months after therapy ended. We predicted that couples receiving a behavioral couple treatment would be less likely to relapse than those receiving a cognitive-behavioral treatment for the depressed spou...
Article
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This study hypothesized that power discrepancies in the marital relationship, where the husband is subordinate, serve as risk factors for husband-to-wife violence. The construct of marital power was assessed from 3 power domains operationalized by discrepancies in economic status, decision-making power, communication patterns, and communication ski...
Article
This article discusses the outcome and process research on couple therapy and integrates the articles special section "Couples and Couple Therapy" into the discussion. All tested couple treatments show statistically significant effects relative to control groups, but there are no reliable differences between different theoretical models. Moreover,...
Article
This research program overview elaborates the conceptual and empirical development of our program of behavioral marital therapy (BMT). The article outlines the refinement of our procedures, our search for the `active ingredients' of BMrs successes, our brush with cognitive therapy (leading to our doubts that the two therapies could be integrated) a...
Article
Introduces the special section on couples and couple therapy, which brings together representative, state-of-the-art contributions from both basic and applied research on couples. Two contributions from the basic research domain attempt to better understand the interactional dynamics of normal marriages; both also have implications for marital and...
Article
Discusses the outcome and process research on couple therapy and integrates the articles special section "Couples and Couple Therapy" into the discussion. All tested couple treatments show statistically significant effects relative to control groups, but there are no reliable differences between different theoretical models. Moreover, all tested ap...
Article
In this article, I describe an integrative approach to couple therapy developed with Andrew Christensen. After summarizing the empirical findings which justify the need for clinical innovation, the basic principles underlying the new integration are delineated. The new dimension of Behavioral Couple Therapy is the addition of strategies to promote...
Article
Comparability of treatment outcome as measured by the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and the Global Distress Scale (GDS) was examined for 49 couples who completed a behavioral marital therapy program. The GDS provided a more conservative estimate of treatment efficacy, as assessed by (1) computed effect sizes based on couple, husband, and wife scores and...
Article
Compared the attributions offered by spouses in violent relationships for self- and partner-initiated violent behaviors to those offered for negative, but nonviolent, behaviors. 24 husbands and 18 wives in violent marriages were recruited; they provided attributional ratings for behaviors that had occurred in their marriage. Relative to their ratin...
Article
Data regarding the prevalence of violence among subjects recruited for nonviolent control groups in five studies are presented. These studies examined subjects recruited using a variety of methods, including couples seeking marital therapy and couples recruited from newspaper advertisements. Across the studies, it appears that up to one-third of ma...
Chapter
The field of couple assessment, like so many other areas of clinical assessment, is in the midst of substantial theoretical and practical self-analysis and revision. Different theoretical orientations in this field have co-existed mostly in isolation from one another, and advocates of each orientation have maintained their own more-or-less standard...
Article
Discusses requirements for the successful integration of cognitive therapy and behavioral marital therapy in the treatment of depression. Observations linking depression and marital relationships suggest that integration of the 2 therapeutic modes may be a viable approach to treatment. The success of an integrated treatment is enhanced by considera...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to compare cognitive-behavioral therapy (CT; n = 20), behavioral marital therapy (BMT; n = 19), and a treatment combining BMT and CT (CO; n = 21) in the alleviation of wives' depression and the enhancement of marital satisfaction. BMT was less effective than CT for depression in maritally nondistressed couples, whereas...
Article
In response to comments by D. H. Baucom and N. Epstein, A. S. Gurman, S. M. Johnson and L. S. Greenberg, H. J. Markman, and D. K. Snyder and R. M. Wills (see PA, Vols 2512, 2519, 2523, 2531, and 2537) on N. S. Jacobson's (see record 1992-02521-001) paper on marital therapy, Jacobson clarifies what it means to approach marriage and marital therapy...
Article
Suggests directions for future research based on work completed by N. S. Jacobson (see PA, Vols 78:16162 and 71:21130), D. K. Snyder and R. M. Wills (see record 1989-26872-001) comparing insight-oriented and behavioral marital therapy, and a 4-yr follow-up study by Snyder et al (see PA Vol 78:16169). The issues covered include defining and assessi...
Article
Snyder, Wills, and Grady-Fletcher (1991) reported a 4-year follow-up comparing insight-oriented (IOMT) with behavioral marital therapy (BMT). The effects of IOMT were more durable than those of BMT. These comments question the adequacy with which the two treatments were represented. The BMT treatment manual adequately represents behavioral technolo...
Article
In 1984, Jacobson, Follette, and Revenstorf defined clinically significant change as the extent to which therapy moves someone outside the range of the dysfunctional population or within the range of the functional population. In the present article, ways of operationalizing this definition are described, and examples are used to show how clients c...
Article
Examined a measure of marital power based on the clinical description of the "dominance through talking" and the "dominance through listening" patterns (N. S. Jacobson and A. Holtzworth-Munroe, 1986) and defined in terms of asymmetry in the relative frequencies of verbal communication content patterns. Ss included 23 happily married couples and 31...
Article
Examined a measure of marital power based on the clinical description of the "dominance through talking" and the "dominance through listening" patterns (N. S. Jacobson and A. Holtzworth-Munroe, 1986) and defined in terms of asymmetry in the relative frequencies of verbal communication content patterns. Ss included 23 happily married couples and 31...
Article
Reports an error in "Marital interaction and depression" by Karen B. Schmaling and Neil S. Jacobson (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1990[Aug], Vol 99[3], 229-236). In this article, the measures in Table 1 were incorrectly listed. The third and fourth measures ought to read "Wife DAS" and "Husband DAS," respectively. (The following abstract of the...
Article
In this article, patterns of marital interaction as a function of depression and marital satisfaction are examined. The purpose of the study was to separate dysfunctional marital interaction patterns that were unique to depression from those that were associated with marital distress. The presence or absence of a depressed wife was crossed with lev...
Article
describe the social-learning-based model of marital distress and then outline the stages of therapy based upon these principles / discuss strategies to overcome treatment noncompliance and outline therapist characteristics necessary for the practice of marital therapy behavior exchange techniques / communication training / problem-solving trainin...
Article
This paper examines the major strengths of current marital therapy research methodology, as well as some of the problems and challenges facing researchers. Strengths discussed include the widespread use of assessment instruments with demonstrated reliability and validity, concurrent use of both self-report and observational measures, use of clinica...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to identify therapist and client behaviors associated with a positive response to social learning-based behavioral marital therapy. A sample of 32 couples receiving treatment was examined. Immediately after each therapy session, the therapist, husband, and wife independently completed process rating forms that measured ther...
Article
Full-text available
Reliability and validity data are provided for pre- and posttreatment administrations of a structured interview version of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) integrated with the National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS). Ss were 70 adult patients requesting therapy for depression. Results indicate excellen...
Article
Cognitive models of marital distress have received increasing attention. There are four major goals of this paper: (1) to review the prominent cognitive theories of marital distress and corresponding empirical data; (2) to provide theoretical integration; (3) to discuss the adjunctive use of cognitive interventions with behavioural marital therapy...
Chapter
Chapter 10 explores a view of cognitive–behavioural marital therapy as it might be applied to the short-term treatment of marital problems in any out-patient service. It discusses the causes of marital distress, assessment of problems and assessment of suitability, treatment structure and techniques.
Article
In this paper I describe research conducted in our laboratory which has informed us about the long-term efficacy of our social learning-based marital therapy treatment program. About half of the couples treated in our clinical research setting benefit to a clinically significant degree and retain those benefits at a two-year follow-up. On the other...
Article
The present study examined the relationship between depression, marital satisfaction, and marital and personality measures of sex roles. Subjects included 50 couples in which the woman was clinically depressed (and of which 26 were maritally distressed), and 24 nondepressed, nondistressed control couples. Results indicated that compared to nondepre...
Article
This article examines the literature on marital therapy and spouse involvement as treatments for major psychopathology. The focus is on three disorders that have attracted a sufficient number of empirical findings: depression, agoraphobia, and alcoholism. For each of these disorders, we first examine the relation between marital dynamics and the di...

Citations

... The inclusion of individual measures is surely a step forward. However, further steps are needed to clarify the potential of couple therapy in improving the emotional health of both partners and their children's well-being when the partners are also parents (Gollan & Jacobson, 2002). ...
... The earlier literature also reveals that men have significantly greater sex drive (Lippa, 2009). Men desire sex more than women (Beutel et al., 2008;Eplov et al., 2007;Regan & Atkins, 2006;Santtila et al., 2008), consume more pornography as compared to women (Husain & Qureshi, 2016;Janssen et al., 2003;Lo & Wei, 2002), and are more likely to have extra-marital sexual activities than women (Atkins et al., 2001). Women usually see sexuality in the context of an emotional relationship (Baldwin & Baldwin, 1997) and their sexual preferences are less constant than men (Diamond, 2012) due to cultural, social, and situational pressures (Baumeister, 2000;Husain & Imran, 2021;Peplau & Garnets, 2000;Tolman et al., 2003). ...
... Therapist adherence is a crucial to the effective delivery of interventions, as well as necessary to support successful dissemination across settings (Startup et al., 2002;Lange et al., 2016). It is used to reflect the degree to which therapists employ interventions prescribed by a model or framework and avoid the use of proscribed interventions during their therapeutic exchanges with service-users (Yeaton and Sechrest, 1981;Waltz et al., 1993;Schoenwald et al., 2000). The principal way that adherence is measured is through structured observation scales -measures containing the key components of a model based on its theoretical constructs. ...
... These studies provide strong evidence for the effectiveness of IBCT. There are also case descriptions of IBCT in the literature (Christensen et al. 2008;Eldridge et al. 1999;Mahgerefteh 2015;Schachter 2015). However, it would be helpful to know how IBCT works specifically with intercultural couples to contribute to knowledge and effectiveness with this growing population, and to develop attunement to culture in couple therapy practice and research (Lebow et al. 2012). ...
... Safety procedures developed by Dr. Anne Ganley and used in previous studies (Jacobson et al. 1994) were applied to this study. Initially, the women were informed about the purpose and risks of participating in the study. ...
... However, the cultural discourses surrounding couple relationships continue to be gendered and involve hierarchic power dynamics (Fishbane, 2011;Knudson-Martin, Huenergardt, Lafontant, Bishop, Schaepper, & Wells, 2015;Ward & Knudson-Martin, 2012). Hence, even if equality is an ideal for couples, and it has been connected to relationship satisfaction (Whisman & Jacobson, 1990), greater marital happiness (LeBaron, Miller, & Yorgason, 2014) and well- being (Knudson-Martin, 2013), ways of realizing this ideal in every-day life are not properly supported. Instead, the old, traditional ways and gender roles may continue to govern how people understand themselves and build up their relationships (Knudson-Martin, 2013;Knudson-Martin & Huenergardt, 2010;Sinclair & Monk, 2004). ...
... These pioneers of Behavioral Theory claimed that people were sensitive to receiving support and that depression arose when fixed sources of support were lost (Kanter et al. 2009). In line with this model of behavioral depression, the active components of CBT were tested against each other, and all components were found to be equally effective (Zeiss et al. 1979, Jacobson et al. 1996, Kanter et al. 2009). After it was revealed that BA could be used alone to treat depression (Jacobson et al. 1996, Lejuez et al. 2001) and that BA is better than cognitive intervention in preventing relapse as a result of biennial follow-up reports (Jacobson et al. 1996)interest in BA began to grow. ...
... In addition the correlation analysis in present study shows strong positive correlation between the scores of hostility and anger, anger and verbal aggression and verbal and physical aggression (Fig. 3) in both genders. This points to the transition of hostile thoughts into verbal and in turn execution of physical action of aggression, which is consistent with the earlier studies demonstrating link between physical and verbal aggression 25,26 . ...
... Higher scores reflect better relationship adjustment. In this study, DAS scores were dummy-coded such that individuals with scores 97 (n D 6) were coded as high (Jacobson et al., 1984). Those with scores 97 (n D 9) were coded as low. ...
... Criticism of the RCI has focused on the phenomenon of regression toward the mean [63] and the dependence of the criterion c from the outcome measure considered. However, several studies comparing different methodologies to assess clinical significance have shown high rates of agreement between them [64,65], suggesting that such methods are substantially equivalent and reliable. ...