Neil A. Rector's research while affiliated with University of Toronto and other places

Publications (162)

Article
Video feedback following social anxiety exposures improves self-perceptions. Clinical studies have not examined whether feedback from group members has incremental benefit beyond that of viewing the tape itself. Sixty-seven individuals with social anxiety disorder completed videotaped exposure during group based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Af...
Article
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a key construct in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but little is known about the concurrent and temporal patterns of associations between IU and GAD symptom severity during treatment. In addition, most of the extant literature focuses on IU as a unidimensional construct, whereas some researchers conceptualize...
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Background Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) report interpreting social events negatively regardless of valence. Fear of causing discomfort to others and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) are associated with negative interpretations of positive social situations. However, no studies have examined whether these negative interpretations ch...
Article
Objective: Although previous studies have demonstrated the association between social anxiety symptom severity and the tendency to appraise positive social events negatively among individuals with social anxiety disorder, no study has examined mediators of this relationship. The current study sought to examine whether intolerance of uncertainty an...
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Background During cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), individuals learn to utilize cognitive and behavioral skills to manage their symptoms. However, it is unclear whether these CBT skills have similar effects on symptom alleviation throughout treatment.Method This study examined the impact of CBT skill compr...
Article
Anxiety disorders are among the most frequently diagnosed mental disorders in late life. As older adults comprise a growing segment of the population, evidence-based treatments for anxiety disorders in late life have come into sharper focus. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in late life has received less empirical attention...
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Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have emerged as clinically effective interventions for anxiety and depression although there are significant barriers to their access in the general population. The present study examined the effectiveness of a 5-week abbreviated mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) intervention for a physician-referred,...
Article
The current study examined the association of OCD symptoms and OCD belief domains, for individuals engaged in Technology Supported Mindfulness training (TSM) using an EEG-based biofeedback device (called “Muse”) that permits individuals to engage in home based mindfulness meditation practices. In this randomized controlled study, treatment-seeking...
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Background Although obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is effectively treated by cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), less is known about mechanisms underlying treatment response. Anxiety sensitivity (AS) may impact symptom change (velocity) and the rate of change in velocity (acceleration) during CBT for OCD. Latent Difference Score (LDS) analysis w...
Article
Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) incorporating Exposure with Response Prevention (ERP) is the most efficacious treatment intervention for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD); however, there is a growing literature indicating the mindfulness based approaches can also be beneficial in terms of managing OCD symptoms.The current study examined the pote...
Article
Excessive reassurance seeking (ERS) has been hypothesized as an important maintenance factor in depression and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study examined the types of ERS in depression and OCD, the effects of CBT on ERS, predictors of ERS reduction, and the relation between ERS reduction and symptom change. Method: Treatment-...
Article
We evaluated dysfunctional belief heterogeneity in a large sample (N = 547) of adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) because of the central role of dysfunctional beliefs in cognitive theories of OCD and the prior identification of large OCD patient subgroups who failed to endorse these beliefs. We used a methodological approach not previo...
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Background Reductions in motivation figure prominently in the clinical presentation of schizophrenia (SZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD). One critical nexus in the motivation system that drives real-world behaviour is effort-based decision-making (EBDM), which refers to the cost-benefit calculations involved in computing the amount of effort o...
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Objectives: A number of school-based interventions for preventing and attenuating symptoms of anxiety and depression in youth have been developed worldwide but evidence of their effectiveness is mixed. None of these curricula stem from existing children's literature, however, the Harry Potter (HP) series has been identified as potentially impartin...
Article
Introduction: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous disorder, with multiple symptom presentations. Delineating the neuropsychological characteristics associated with previously identified symptom clusters may therefore be useful in assisting to better define symptom subtypes of OCD. Areas Covered: This review summarizes the existin...
Article
Objective Understanding the effects of benzodiazepines (BZDs) on maternal/fetal health remains incomplete despite their frequent use. This article quantifies the effects of antenatal BZD exposure on delivery outcomes. Methods Data Sources Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched till June 30, 2018. Study Selectio...
Article
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a significant psychiatric illness that can impact an individual in terms of their quality of life, functional abilities, and interpersonal relationships. Until recently, services for individuals with severe symptoms of OCD were limited within Canada. The Frederick W. Thompson Anxiety Disorders Centre at Sunnyb...
Article
Background: Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a psychiatric illness that can result in debilitating symptoms and functional impairment. Until recently, individuals with severe OCD symptoms have not received appropriate services within the Canadian healthcare system. The Frederick W. Thompson Anxiety Disorders Centre launched an Intensive Servi...
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Cognitive vulnerability research has focused on cognitive variables that are hypothesized to confer risk to specific disorders within the mood and anxiety spectrum, while transdiagnostic research has emphasized common risk factors across disorders. The purpose of the present study was to test specific versus common cognitive predictors of treatment...
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To systematically review and meta-analyze research investigating the association between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and outcomes for mother and baby following the immediate delivery period. MEDLINE, Medline In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane library were searched. English-language, prospectiv...
Article
Objective: To summarize the effects of antenatal benzodiazepine exposure as monotherapy and in combination with antidepressants on the risk of congenital malformations. Data sources: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to June 30, 2018, using controlled vocabulary and keywords (eg, prenatal, b...
Article
Background: Reassurance seeking has been hypothesized to be a key factor in the maintenance of anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders according to contemporary cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) approaches. The present study sought to examine the structure, clinical correlates, and malleability of reassurance seeking in the context of CBT tre...
Article
Purpose: Post-event processing (PEP) is posited to be an important factor in the maintenance of social anxiety symptoms. Previous research has demonstrated that general PEP tendencies are sensitive to treatment. However, it remains unclear how momentary PEP following social interactions changes over the course of treatment for social anxiety disor...
Article
Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder with significant morbidity whose pathophysiology is not fully understood. Neuroimaging studies have characterized OCD in terms of elevated striatal and prefrontal reactivity to emotion provocation. This neural model may be informed by investigation of functional connectivity in O...
Article
Background The division of symptom themes into those related to incompleteness (INC) and those related to harm avoidance (HA) has been identified as an alternative to conventional subtyping. The aim of this study was to elucidate any potential differences between these two symptom themes based on neuropsychological task performance. Method: Partici...
Article
Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the association between maternal antenatal anxiety (AA) and a range of perinatal outcomes. Data sources: Ovid MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched to May 31, 2016, using controlled vocabulary and k...
Article
Objectives Exposure and response prevention (ERP) remains the most empirically supported psychological treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Clinical guidelines recommend the addition of cognitive approaches to ERP although the presumed additive benefits have not been directly tested. The aim of this was to compare a treatment that int...
Article
Mindfulness, defined as the awareness that emerges through paying attention on purpose, in the present moment and nonjudgmentally, promotes engagement with internal experience and has been shown to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression in meta-analyses, but few have tested its potential benefits in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The follo...
Article
Repeatedly questioning others about perceived threats, or excessive reassurance seeking (ERS), occurs across various psychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; Parrish 2009). Three ERS domains have been consistently identified: ERS in response to general, decision-related, and social threats. We sought to examine whether (...
Article
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). However, less is known about how obsessions and compulsions change during treatment, either in tandem, sequentially, or independently. The current study used latent difference score analysis to show path-analytic dynamic modelling of OCD symptom chan...
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Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) although a significant proportion of clients remain symptomatic following treatment. Knowledge regarding individual differences that influence treatment response could help guide future augmentations to CBT. The current study examined two potential...
Chapter
Full-text available
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by the presence of recurrent obsessions and/or compulsions that are time consuming (i.e., occupy more than 1 h per day) and cause marked distress and/or functional impairment (i.e., interfere with daily routine or academic, occupational, or social functioning). Obsessions are persistent thoughts,...
Book
This stimulating resource presents the Looming Vulnerability Model, a nuanced take on the cognitive-behavioral conceptualization of anxiety, worry, and other responses to real or imagined threat. The core feature of the model—the perception of growing, rapidly approaching threat—is traced to humans’ evolutionary past, and this dysfunctional percept...
Chapter
The looming vulnerability model (LVM) is concerned with theoretical features of cognitive vulnerability and threat that have been overlooked by other contemporary cognitive vulnerability models. Cognitive vulnerability is not viewed in the LVM as simply due to beliefs and appraisals that overestimate the probability or costs of potential threat sti...
Chapter
As we saw, across the entirety of the animal kingdom, dynamic approaching objects evoke defensive behavioral reactions. Birds flutter, crouch, or try to fly away. Monkeys crouch or put their arms up protectively, even barnacles close their shells when they sense objects approaching them. Human adults, too, react defensively to rapidly approaching o...
Chapter
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by chronic, excessive, and uncontrollable anxiety and worry about a variety of topics (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (APA, 2013), the worry occurs more days than not for a period of at least 6 months and causes signi...
Chapter
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Cognitive models of emotion assume that individuals continually scan their environments for stimuli that might influence their goals (Lazarus, 1991; Russell, 2003; Scherer, 2005). Similarly, Clark and Beck (2010) refer to an “Orienting Mode” of threat processing that precedes the activation of other cognitive processes. In short, an individual’s ap...
Chapter
An anxious person surely views threats as possible or even as likely to occur and to cause harm or damage. Cognitive models (Carr, 1974; Clark & Beck, 2010; Foa & Kozak, 1986; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997) have long set forth the key variables in anxiety as the person’s judgments of probability, cost, proximity, or similar static forms of relevant dimens...
Chapter
Cognitive models suggest that faulty threat appraisal leads to threat overestimation that elicits and maintains anxiety. The prevailing paradigm thus emphasizes threat overestimation in the etiology, maintenance, and treat of anxiety, and particularly credits the overestimation of probability and cost in a given slice of time. In contrast, the loom...
Chapter
The looming cognitive style (or LCS; Riskind, Williams, Gessner, Chrosniak, & Cortina, 2000) has been introduced to understand individual differences in the extent to which people are cognitive vulnerableility to anxiety. Some individuals more than others tend to interpret, simulate, and imagine ambiguous threats as rapidly and dynamically growing....
Chapter
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) includes all of the anxiety syndromes within a section on anxiety disorders. However, the observation that some anxiety disorders share common features and are highly comorbid with one another has led to the development of a hierarchical model...
Chapter
The looming vulnerability model (LVM) proposes that negative events and early developmental experiences in childhood can be critical to the formation of the LCS as a common cognitive liability to future anxiety disorders. From their learning histories and genetic predispositions, some individuals develop a characteristic cognitive style, the LCS, w...
Chapter
A useful analogy may help to understand the evolutionary selection pressures that have shaped how humans detect and respond to threats. A rare genetic anomaly on the V chromosome has been found that results in a “movement blindness” in the form of an inability to perceive visual movement (Zeki, 1991; Zihl & von Cramon, 1983). If an individual were...
Chapter
In this chapter, we extend looming vulnerability theory and research in new directions beyond the usual perimeters of cognitive-behavioral research on anxiety. The topics we will cover include: (1) fear of disease and changes in appearance (such as due to fatness or aging); (2) the determinants of suicidality, smoking cessation, and new disorders i...
Chapter
Full-text available
In an attempt to improve the efficacy of current protocols, this chapter describes clinical approaches and concepts derived from the looming vulnerability model (Riskind, 1997; Riskind, Rector, & Taylor, 2012; Riskind & Williams, 1999). We have piloted these approaches with the hope that they can augment existing, empirically supported treatments f...
Chapter
The human brain and its sensory systems are evolutionarily designed to be sensitive to movement and change and dynamic stimuli (Cacioppo & Freberg, 2016). Moreover, our higher-order perceptions of the world and thinking abilities appear to have their roots in perceptual systems that are sensitive to dynamic information (Fodor, 1972; Freyd, 1987; Sh...
Chapter
The looming vulnerability model (LVM) expects that a person’s perceptions and simulations of rapid gains by dynamic growing threats have powerful effects on affective responses. It isn’t only the potential threat stimulus that influences affect but the dynamics of the motion of the threat and its rapid gains that also profoundly affects how the per...
Article
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The looming vulnerability model proposes that individual differences in anxiety are related to variations in the tendencies to generate anticipatory mental simulations in which threats are intensifying or fast approaching. Research has demonstrated that a looming cognitive style is found across anxiety disorders. The purpose of this study was to de...
Article
Distress tolerance (DT) and intolerance of uncertainty (IU) have been identified as transdiagnostic processes that predict symptom severity across a range of distinct anxiety disorders. However, the joint effect of these two variables on therapeutic outcome has not yet been examined. It is possible that DT and IU may both impact on treatment respon...
Chapter
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) afflicts about 2% of the population, making it twice as frequent as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and the fourth most common psychiatric disorder. This chapter reviews recent epidemiological and clinical studies examining rates of psychiatric comorbidity in OCD. It discusses selective empirical developments...
Article
Background: Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) report fear content relating to the perceived aversive consequences of their anxiety for others in their social environment. However, no studies to date have examined the diagnostic specificity of these fears to SAD as well as predictors to treatment response of these fears. Aims: To examin...
Article
Research with non-clinical and clinical samples has examined how mindfulness concepts relate to psychological symptom presentations. However, there is less clarity when examining treatment-seeking patients who experience DSM-diagnosed anxiety and obsessional disorders - both cross-sectionally, and following empirically-supported treatments. The Fiv...
Article
Clark and Wells (1995) posit that anticipatory processing before a social situation serves to maintain social anxiety. More specifically, ruminative processes similar to post-event processing (PEP) may occur in anticipation of anxiety provoking social events, and in this article, we have labelled this type of anticipatory rumination anticipatory ev...
Article
Meta-analyses indicate that Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) leads to substantial symptom alleviation. Although there is an emphasis on engaging in exposure and cognitive restructuring during treatment, the longitudinal relationship between skill use and symptom alleviation is not well understood. Furthermore, t...
Article
This study represents the first replication of the BDNF Val66Met ⁎ 5-HTTLPR ⁎ childhood maltreatment effect on self-reported depression symptoms using a rigorous maltreatment interview. Participants included a community sample of 339 adolescents/young adults (age 12-33; 265 female). In the context of childhood neglect, among BDNF Met-carriers, s-al...
Article
There is a growing interest in the role of distress tolerance (i.e., the capacity to withstand negative emotions) in the onset and maintenance of anxiety. However, both empirical and theoretical knowledge regarding the role of distress tolerance in the anxiety disorders is relatively under examined. Accumulating evidence supports the relationship b...
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The majority of "responders" to first-line cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are left with residual symptoms that are clinically relevant and disabling. Therefore, there is pressing need for widely accessible efficacious alternative and/or adjunctive treatments for OCD. Accumu...
Article
Emerging evidence suggests that the tendency to generate stressful life events may be, at least in part, genetically determined. However, the role of the early environment in shaping responses to later stressors is crucial to fully specifying biogenetic models of stress generation. The current study examined the moderating role of childhood emotion...
Article
Research on videotaped feedback demonstrates its potential in reducing negative and exaggerated self perceptions in performance situations, particularly for individuals with social anxiety. The current study investigated the effects of videotaped exposures in the context of cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD)...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is an empirically supported treatment for anxiety disorders. CBT treatments are based on disorder-specific protocols that have been developed to target individual anxiety disorders, despite that anxiety disorders frequently co-occur and are comorbid with depression. Given the high rates of diagnostic comorbidity,...
Article
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an empirically supported psychological treatment for anxiety disorders. These treatments have primarily been developed to target primary anxiety disorders, despite the fact that these disorders frequently co-occur with a diagnosis of depression. Empirical evidence provides guidance regarding how to treat an ind...
Article
Research on post-event processing (PEP), where individuals conduct a post-mortem evaluation of a social situation, has focused primarily on its relationship with social anxiety. The current study examined: 1) levels of PEP for a standardized event in different anxiety disorders; 2) the relationship between peak anxiety levels during this event and...
Article
The present review focuses on exercise as a treatment for depression in multiple sclerosis. While exercise has emerged as a potentially useful treatment in the general psychiatry-depression literature, the findings from a small number of multiple sclerosis-related treatment trials are equivocal. Methodological limitations, including the absence of...
Article
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), including behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, and their integration, has evolved over the past four decades to become the most empirically supported psychological treatment for a range of psychiatric conditions, spanning the preponderance of Axis I disorders, selected Axis II disorders, and a range of associated...
Article
The present study examined the impact of baseline depression symptom severity and the anxiety sensitivity dimensions (i.e., fears of physical sensations, cognitive dyscontrol, and publicly observable anxiety reactions) on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) response in individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Participants consisted of a treat...
Article
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is an established efficacious, first-line treatment for the spectrum of anxiety disorders. While treatments have been developed to target primary disorders in isolation of comorbid conditions, comorbidity between anxiety and mood disorders has been found to be substantial, making it the rule rather than the exception in...
Article
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Reduced coping resources have long been implicated in the onset and persistence of depression and the anxiety disorders, and may help account for vulnerability to experiencing mood and anxiety comorbidity. The current study aimed to examine whether patients with primary DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) anxiety disorders with secon...
Article
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This article describes clinical strategies derived from the looming vulnera-bility model (Riskind, 1997a; Riskind & Williams, 2005). "Looming vulner-ability" is a phenomenon involving anxiety and behavioral urgency marked by dynamic perceptions of a threatening stimulus as moving swiftly toward oneself in time or space. The looming vulnerability mo...
Article
Structural models of the mood and anxiety disorders postulate that each disorder has a shared component that can account for comorbidity and its own unique component that distinguishes it from others. The principal aim of the current study was to determine the extent to which the 30 facets of the Five-Factor Model (FFM), as measured by the Revised...
Article
Previous research has demonstrated that among the lower-order dimensions of anxiety sensitivity (AS), the fear of cognitive dyscontrol is uniquely associated with depression comorbidity in patients with primary anxiety disorders. The AS-fear of cognitive dyscontrol dimension has been conceptualized as both a pre-existing vulnerability to and a psyc...
Article
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To examine whether disgust recognition deficits are present and specific to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and the extent to which this deficit, if present, can be reduced in cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Responses to the Pictures of Facial Affect (POFA) were examined in patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorde...
Article
Comorbid mood and anxiety disorders are commonly seen in clinical practice. The goal of this article is to review the available literature on the epidemiologic, etiologic, clinical, and management aspects of this comorbidity and formulate a set of evidence- and consensus-based recommendations. This article is part of a set of Canadian Network for M...
Article
Intrusions are often considered the hallmark of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite this, relatively little is known about factors that give rise to intrusions. Cognitive models of PTSD highlight the importance of pre-existing cognitive vulnerabilities, cognitive processing and anxiety during a traumatic event, as well as negative respons...
Article
The current chapter provides an overview of psychoanalytic and behavioral theories of obsessive compulsive disorder and related conditions (i.e., hoarding, hypochondriasis, body dysmorphic disorder, trichotillomania, and tic disorders), and reviews the empirical support for these psychological theories. While Freud correctly ascribed compulsive rit...
Article
The present experimental study examined the ability of metacognitive strategies to reduce the distress associated with post-event processing (PEP). Individuals with DSM-IV generalized social phobia (N = 57) were randomly allocated to receive brief training in mindfulness, distraction, or no training (control group). Next, they underwent an experime...
Article
The looming vulnerability model proposes that individuals with anxiety generate dynamic mental scenarios of threats as intensifying and approaching faster than they can cope or respond. In addition to the looming cognitive style posing a general cognitive vulnerability for anxiety, the looming vulnerability model posits that different anxiety disor...
Article
Experimental social psychologists interested in the examination of racial prejudice and discrimination in simulated legal studies have focused exclusively on the perceptions and subsequent legal judgments of White majority members. This experiment examined the prevalence of discriminatory bias in Black Canadian mock jurors' (N = 82) legal decision...
Article
Following social events, individuals with social phobia engage in post-event processing (PEP), namely a post-mortem detailed analysis of a social situation. This study aimed to examine cognitive and symptom correlates of PEP, as well as stability of PEP, in the context of videotaped exposures that occurred during treatment at sessions four and eigh...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate social anxiety and the effect of rumination and distraction periods immediately following a speech task on subsequent postevent processing. A secondary aim was to examine the content of postevent rumination. Participants (N = 114 students) completed measures of social anxiety and depression, delivered a...
Article
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Neuropsychological batteries are long and require expertise to administer. For this reason, the Multiple Sclerosis Neuropsychological Questionnaire (MSNQ) was developed as it is quick and easy to complete. The informant version of the scale has proven to be a useful screen for cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective was to va...
Article
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Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) heterogeneity research identified a patient subgroup that endorsed few of the dysfunctional beliefs posited to be important to development of obsessional disorders. Because of the clinical and theoretical importance of such heterogeneity, we attempted to elucidate the concerns of a low-beliefs OCD subgroup. We ev...
Article
The purpose of this study was to move beyond the traditional specificity model of autobiographical memory (ABM) and to examine the content of memories with a focus on disorder and schema-relevant content. The sample (N = 82) included 25 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), 24 with social phobia (SP), and 33 with panic disorder with agorap...
Article
A substantial proportion of individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not endorse the dysfunctional beliefs proposed by cognitive models of OCD to be important in the onset and maintenance of symptoms. Previous research has attempted to characterize Low and High obsessive beliefs groups in terms of cognitive and symptom correlates to...
Article
Evidence-Based Practice is premised on current research evidence, patient factors, and clinical expertise. The definition of clinical expertise has been the most contentious, primarily owing to the ambiguity of the construct. However, attempts have been made by the American Psychological Association to outline standards of clinical competence requi...
Article
To examine the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in patients with comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants (n = 29) diagnosed with comorbid OCD and MDD were randomized to receive standard CBT for OCD or integrated CBT that included an exclusive focus on treating MDD in the first ph...
Article
Research suggests that individuals with social phobia fear positive social events and interpret them in a negative fashion that serves to maintain anxiety. To better elucidate the nature and role of interpretation of positive events in social phobia, two studies were conducted. Study 1 examined symptom and cognitive correlates of negative interpret...
Article
The current study examined the extent to which patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) demonstrate cognitive biases to OCD symptom or inflated responsibility threat cues. Participants with either primary contamination-washing or doubting/harming-checking OCD, non-OCD anxiety disorders, and student controls completed a primed lexical decis...
Article
To compare the quality of life of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with and without depression comorbidity. Treatment-seeking outpatients (n = 56) with OCD (n = 28) or comorbid OCD and major depressive disorder (MDD) (n = 28), matched by age, sex, and antidepressant medication use, completed a multidimensional measure of quality of...
Article
Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Group Therapy (MAGT) for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is based largely on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes et al., 1999), with enhanced mindfulness mostly from Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT; Segal et al., 2002). The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and initial effectivene...

Citations

... Our results make it possible to refine future strategies without being subject to timing pressures, as was the case with COVID-19. We know of various approaches that help reduce IU in individuals, such as mindfulness, self-compassion, or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) [34][35][36][37]. These highly individualized, mental health-focused methods will be difficult to mobilize collectively. ...
... In contrast, prospective-IU refers to the cognitiveoriented dimension of IU characterized by the maladaptive desire for predictability of future events (e.g., being upset from minor unpredictability) (Hong & Lee, 2015;McEvoy & Mahoney, 2011). Further, the subfactors of IU have unique empirical correlates (McEvoy & Mahoney, 2011;Nishikawa et al., 2022). Thus, in addition to investigating IU total scores, it is vital to examine IU subfactors independently (McEvoy & Mahoney, 2011). ...
... Moreover, the results of a meta-analysis suggested that structured and more intensive interventions (16) with active participation show a greater effect than less structured interventions (17). On the other hand, two recently published studies showed that shorter interventions of 4 or 5 sessions showed the same effect as longer (8 sessions) interventions (18,19). Taken together, the conflicting evidence regarding duration and components such as structure remains an issue in the literature. ...
... In addition, there is a paucity of empirical research on the potential role of new technologies to enhance mindfulness in OCD. In one of the few such RCTs, Hawley and colleagues [41] found that technology supported (EEG-based biofeedback device) mindfulness, in comparison to a control condition, led to increased nonreactivity and decreased mind wandering, both of which were associated with OCD symptom improvement. Future research is required to determine how technological advances may bolster the effects of MBCT for OCD. ...
... If one has fears of being infected with COVID-19, he or she may pursue reassuranceseeking behavior, such as checking bodily sensations, hand washing, or repeated media search. Since people who have severe concerns about their health may try to seek reassurance, reassurance-seeking behavior can be a sign of preoccupation with the illness (20,21). ...