Ned L Kirsch's research while affiliated with University of Michigan and other places

Publications (7)

Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to develop validity cutoffs by utilizing demographically adjusted T-scores on the trail making test (TMT), with the goal of eliminating potential age and education-related biases associated with the use of raw score cutoffs. Failure to correct for the effect of age and education on TMT performance may lead to increased false...
Article
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This study was designed to develop validity cutoffs within the Finger Tapping Test (FTT) using demographically adjusted T-scores, and to compare their classification accuracy to existing cutoffs based on raw scores. Given that FTT performance is known to vary with age, sex, and level of education, failure to correct for these demographic variables...
Article
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This study was designed to replicate an earlier report on the link between low scores on the Grooved Pegboard test (GPB), invalid responding, and elevated self-reported psychiatric symptoms. A fixed battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to 100 consecutively referred outpatients (MAge = 38.3, MEducation = 13.6 years) following traumat...
Article
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Objective The Forced Choice Recognition (FCR) trial of the California Verbal Learning Test—Second Edition (CVLT-II) was designed to serve as a performance validity test (PVT). The present study was designed to compare the classification accuracy of a more liberal alternative (≤15) to the de facto FCR cutoff (≤14). Method The classification accurac...
Article
This study examined the clinical utility of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) in individuals with complicated mild, moderate or severe TBI. One hundred individuals with TBI (n = 35 complicated mild or moderate TBI; n = 65 severe TBI) and 100 control participants matched on key demographic variables from the WAIS-IV nor...
Article
Full-text available
The Recognition Memory Test (RMT) was compared to the Word Choice Test (WCT) within the same fixed neuropsychological battery administered to a mixed clinical sample of 237 adults to empirically evaluate the psychometric equivalence of these two instruments. On average, there was a 3-point difference in raw scores between the two instruments (M RMT...
Article
Continuous performance tests (CPT) provide a useful paradigm to assess vigilance and sustained attention. However, few established methods exist to assess the validity of a given response set. The present study examined embedded validity indicators (EVIs) previously found effective at dissociating valid from invalid performance in relation to well-...

Citations

... Second, it demonstrated that validity cutoff based on demographically adjusted T-scores control for the confounding effect of gender and education. Similar corrections have been successfully implemented for other embedded PVTs (Arnold et al., 2005;Erdodi et al., 2019;Kim et al., 2010;Nitch, Boone, Wen, Arnold, & Alfano, 2006). Naturally, the BNT should never be used in isolation to reach definitive conclusions about the credibility of the overall neurocognitive profile. ...
... A.Deloria et al., 2021;Nussbaum et al., 2022;Whiteside et al., 2015); CIM BDAE : Complex Ideational Material subtest of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia ExaminationErdodi, 2019;Erdodi & Lichtenstein, 2017;Erdodi, Tyson, et al., 2016); DS WAIS-IV : Digit Span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale -Fourth Edition(Babikian et al., 2006;Erdodi & Abeare, 2020;Greve et al., 2007;Heinly et al., 2005;Iverson & Tulsky, 2003;Shura et al., 2020;Young et al., 2012;Whitney et al., 2009); GPB-DH: Grooved Pegboard Test dominant handErdődi et al., 2017;Link et al., 2021); LM Recog : Logical Memory recognition trial(Bortnik et al., 2010;Dunn et al., 2021;Langeluddecke & Lucas, 2003;Pearson, 2009;J. S. Ord et al., 2008); TMT-B: Part B of the Trail Making Test (C.Abeare et al., 2019;Ashendorf et al., 2017;Erdodi, Hurtubise, et al., 2021;. ...
... Additionally, we described another patient with severe depression and anxiety who was functionally independent and continued to hold a vice president position in her own company (Case 2) and demonstrated noncredible performance on PVTs. This Case appears to expand the psychogenic interference phenomenon of psychiatric symptoms related to performance validity (see Erdodi et al., 2018) to patients with MS. It may be that, despite functional independence and generally intact abilities in everyday life, the negative influence of persistent psychiatric dysfunction impeded this patient from "consistently demonstrating [her] maximal performance during psychometric testing" (Erdodi et al., 2018), p. 308). ...
... This is not standard practice, as typically studies will utilize another robust PVT as a means of calculating sensitivity and specificity values for another PVT such as the TOMM. While an embedded PVT is not as robust as a stand-alone measure, the CVLT-II is still a reasonable embedded test to use when calculating sensitivity and specificity, as its features are consistent with stand-alone PVTs (Erdodi et al., 2018). ...
... To provide a multivariate criterion measure, these three PVTs were combined into a single indicator (PVT-3 a ), and invalid performance was operationalized as failing at least two of the three PVTs. Failure on the TOMM-1 was defined as ≤43 (Denning, 2012;Erdodi, 2022;Jones, 2013;Kulas et al., 2014;Rai & Erdodi, 2021;Schroeder et al., 2013), whereas failure on the WCT was defined as ≤45 Davis, 2014;Erdodi, 2021;Erdodi et al., 2014;M. J. Holcomb et al., 2022;Tyson et al., 2022). ...
... The WAIS-IV (Wechsler, 2008) Information and Matrix Reasoning sub-tests were used to assess current intellectual functioning. The matrix reasoning subtest and information subtests are relatively resistant to neurological insult such as severe TBI (Carlozzi et al., 2015) and can also give a guide to premorbid intellect. ...
... The second diagnostic tools are computer-based tests (Ballard, 1996;Forbes, 1998;Nichols and Waschbusch, 2004), the most common of which is Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT;Conners, 1994). The CPT has a second edition (CPT-2; Conners, 2000) and a third edition (CPT-3; Conners, 2014), and previous studies have demonstrated the validity of both editions (Erdodi et al., 2014;Ord et al., 2020). Some cases also required the evaluation of inconsistent assessment results because the observations of teachers and parents tend to contradict each other, with an atypical cross-informant reliability of 0.32-0.59 ...