Nathan A. Dhaliwal's research while affiliated with University of British Columbia - Vancouver and other places

Publications (14)

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How well can social scientists predict societal change, and what processes underlie their predictions? To answer these questions, we ran two forecasting tournaments testing accuracy of predictions of societal change in domains commonly studied in the social sciences: ideological preferences, political polarization, life satisfaction, sentiment on s...
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Objective Why do dominant leaders rise to power via the popular vote? This research tests whether when people feel threatened by intra-group disorder they desire stronger, more dominant leaders. Methods Participants (N = 1,026) read a vignette that depicts a within-group norm violation. We then used a between-subjects design to randomly assign par...
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At the beginning of 2020, COVID-19 became a global problem. Despite all the efforts to emphasize the relevance of preventive measures, not everyone adhered to them. Thus, learning more about the characteristics determining attitudinal and behavioral responses to the pandemic is crucial to improving future interventions. In this study, we applied ma...
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Upholding cooperative norms via punishment is of central importance in organizations. But what effect does punishing have on the reputation of the punisher? Although previous research shows third parties can garner reputational benefits for punishing transgressors who violate social norms, we proposed that such reputational benefits can vary based...
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Changing collective behaviour and supporting non-pharmaceutical interventions is an important component in mitigating virus transmission during a pandemic. In a large international collaboration (Study 1, N = 49,968 across 67 countries), we investigated self-reported factors associated with public health behaviours (e.g., spatial distancing and str...
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Although third-party punishment helps sustain group cooperation, might victim compensation provide third parties with superior reputational benefits? Across 24 studies (N = 21,296), we provide a comprehensive examination of the consequences of the choice between punishment and compensation. What do people infer from, and how do they respond to, the...
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A hallmark of human societies is the scale at which we cooperate with many others, even when they are not closely genetically related to us. One proposed mechanism that helps explain why we cooperate is punishment; cooperation may pay and proliferate if those who free ride on the cooperation of others are punished. Yet this ‘solution’ raises anothe...
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The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is a devastating global health crisis. Without a vaccine or effective medication, the best hope for mitigating virus transmission is collective behavior change and support for public health interventions (e.g., physical distancing, physical hygiene, and endorsement of health policies). In a large-scale international co...
Preprint
Humans sometimes intervene in moral conflicts between others—so called “third party responding”. Sometimes third parties punish perpetrators; other times they provide aid to victims. We provide a comprehensive examination of the different benefits third-parties accrue based on their choice between these two forms of response, as well as third-parti...

Citations

... Recent research which has also used this data and originated from the same international collaboration project (ICSMP) have used advanced machine-learning algorithms, established measurement equivalence of the moral identity internalization and symbolization sub-scales across the 67 countries included in the data set [39]. The original paper of Van Bavel et al. [31] reported a two-factor model (Internalization and Symbolization), with acceptable internal consistency. ...
... Each team collected the data in their own country. The resulting datasets were then collated and analyzed altogether, and are available online (Azevedo et al., 2022). The study received an umbrella ethics approval from the University of Kent. ...
... SHK recognizes the effect of two competing worldviews, national identification versus collective narcissism, on Covid-19 policy compliance . Although national identification effects are substantial, collective narcissism has a lesser but meaningful effect (Federico et al., 2020;Van Bavel et al., 2020). An ascending solidarity-care ethics nexus entails resilience and human flourishing, and a descending nexus entails vulnerability and a distressed community. ...
... An analysis of mobility data for 15 million Americans found that voting for Trump and watching Fox News were two of the biggest predictors of not complying with social distancing regulations during the pandemic (15) Additionally, exposure to cues from party elites (e.g., Trump or Biden promoting the vaccine) can causally influence vaccination intentions (16). However, vaccination attitudes and COVID-19 prevention behaviors have not been strongly related to conservatism in most other countries (10,(17)(18)(19), indicating messages from political elites (20), rather than conservative ideology on its own, may have played a unique role in politicizing attitudes about the vaccine. ...
... Such punitive behavior observed under controlled laboratory conditions, might be attributed to the "sense of justice" present under ecological conditions, including feelings of anger and moral outrage (Wu et al., 2022), which also affects willingness to engage in altruistic third-party punishment (Ginther et al., 2022). Alternatively, costly punitive behavior has been attributed to reputation benefits of altruistic punishers (Mifune et al., 2020;Redhead et al., 2021). It has been noted, though, that while individuals can gain a great deal of reputational benefit from engaging in third party punishment, these benefits are only open to dominant individuals (Gordon et al., 2014;Gordon and Lea, 2016). ...
... Past research suggests that moral condemnation (Hok, Martin, Trail, & Shaw, 2020), moralistic punishment (Jordan & Rand, 2019), moralistic compensation (Dhaliwal, Patil, & Cushman, 2021), and moral behavior (Choshen-Hillel, Shaw, & Caruso, 2015) are seen as diagnostic signals of desirable traits like trustworthiness, impartiality, or cooperativeness. That a behavior is diagnostic is important because it should therefore be predictive of future behavior, and indeed judgments of an agent's predictability track with moral evaluations of them (Turpin et al., 2021). ...
... [12,19]); or (ii) by signalling cooperative intent, such that punishers benefit from increased access to cooperative interactions with new social partners (e.g. [11,15,17,20,21]). Here we focus on the latter possibility. ...
... For example, when observing how one person was unfair to a recipient, adults were more likely to reward a third-party helper who gave resources to the recipient rather than a third party who punished the unfair divider (Raihani & Bshary, 2015a). Similarly, further studies showed that helpers were perceived to have superior moral character (e.g., warmth) compared to punishers (Patil, Dhaliwal, & Cushman, 2018) and are more likely to be trusted as a partner in economic interactions (Jordan et al., 2016;Patil, Dhaliwal, & Cushman, 2018). These results imply that third-party helping is not only regarded as a viable, important response to unfairness but also gains an even more positive reputation than punishment. ...