Nancy Gard McGehee's research while affiliated with Virginia Tech (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University) and other places

Publications (62)

Article
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To avoid tourism becoming an extractive industry, communities must develop capacity to participate and assume ownership of decision-making processes for it. This article explores the connections among community-based cultural practices, individual and community capacity and sustainable tourism. Along with personal observation and review of relevant...
Article
Transformative travel is based on the sustainable approach of encouraging travelers to immerse themselves at the destination, be challenged, engage in introspection, identify their prejudices, and develop worldviews that are more inclusive of others’ beliefs, knowledge, and customs. A significant gap present in the transformative travel literature...
Article
Asian Muslim women's travel habits are sorely under-researched. In response to various calls for research in this area, this study utilizes Hofstede's five cultural dimensions to determine how Bangladeshi cultural values inhibit and/or enhance travel constraints for solo Muslim female travelers and the subsequent effects on solo travel behavior. We...
Article
Using the theoretical lens of Interaction Ritual Chains theory, the study investigates how transformative tourism narratives are symbolized by transformed tourists. Transformative tourism focuses on pushing tourists out of their comfort zone, encouraging inclusive worldviews, promoting cross-cultural understanding and social empowerment. A creative...
Article
Full-text available
With the exhibition sector becoming increasingly important for the hospitality and tourism industry, it is critical to understand what drives the success of an exhibition. Through a comprehensive literature review, we first identified two broad categories of factors, namely exhibition attributes and exhibitor perceptions, that influence exhibitor s...
Article
Transformative travel encourages tourists to self-reflect, question their assumptions, and develop a more tolerant worldview. While this form of travel is gaining attention, there is unmet demand for a scale that measures the complex transformative travel experience and potential outcomes. This study focuses on developing the Transformative Travel...
Article
The tourism industry has long been concerned with gaining political influence to ensure supportive policies and governance. Tourism advocates are leaders who seek political influence by creating a unified industry voice and setting a prioritized legislative agenda. This requires tourism advocates to have strong relationships with members of the tou...
Article
This paper investigates how self-described transformative tourism practitioners engage with tourists and local stakeholders to provide what they perceive as a transformative experience for tourists via the use of glocalization strategies. Transformative tourism practitioners are constantly in search of nimble and sophisticated processes that acknow...
Article
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This article focuses on the role of built capital as a catalyst for the development of other forms of capital in collective community-based tourism projects. As part of a regional initiative, modest built capital projects were implemented in six small towns in the Appalachian region of North Carolina. To discover how each community was affected, th...
Article
Tourism researchers have recently begun to examine in detail the connections between tourism development and destination community well-being. To date though there has been only limited research that critically examines the links between different aspects of tourism and the nature of social capital in a destination community. The literature review...
Conference Paper
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Glocalization aims at 1) adapting organizational structures to the cultural specificities of a given location, 2) developing services that are customized to the residents' expectations, and 3) encouraging residents to appropriate and transform global services to fit their tastes and preferences. The present study will explore how Non-Governmental O...
Poster
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Glocalization aims at 1) adapting organizational structures to the cultural specificities of a given location, 2) developing services that are customized to the residents’ expectations, and 3) encouraging residents to appropriate and transform global services to fit their tastes and preferences. The present study will explore how Non-Governmental O...
Article
Full-text available
While importance-performance analysis (IPA) is one of the most ubiquitous methodological tools utilized in tourism research, its supply-side application to residents has been lacking. Additionally, little research has examined residents' perceptions of sustainable tourism initiatives (STIs) or their community's performance on these STIs. Given this...
Article
The zero-fare tour is a common phenomenon in China that receives a great deal of attention from the popular press but little attention in the tourism literature. This qualitative study illuminates the previously unheard voice of the zero-fare group tour guides, examining their work attitudes and relationships with tourists, tour operators, and tour...
Chapter
This chapter explores the nature of volunteer tourism and travel volunteering as part of the larger section of this book on the purposive types of volunteers and volunteering. This new type of volunteering now constitutes a burgeoning segment of the alternative tourism industry that goes far beyond both the traditional notion of volunteering and tr...
Article
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This case study of Rural Haitian University highlights the complexities and consequences that may arise from a combination of unpredictable streams of international funding, financial vulnerability of communities, and the strategies that civic leaders employ to mobilize resources. We argue that the encounter sketched here of local vulnerability fol...
Article
In the unique environment of rural tourism, leadership is often credited for the initiation and governance of sustainable development, but has received little empirical examination. Rural tourism leaders face many challenges, such as managing factions and enclaves within communities, re-assuring new entrants about risk and vulnerability, securing l...
Article
The independent travel market is not homogeneous. As smartphones and mobile navigation devices became ubiquitous, independent travellers are now allowed to explore the destination without making detailed plans. The purpose of this study is to explore tourists' preferences for the level of structure vs serendipity in their travel experience, and inv...
Article
Full-text available
Despite empowerment playing a crucial role in sustainable tourism development, there have yet to be scales developed to measure whether residents perceive themselves as being psychologically, socially, or politically empowered from tourism. To address this gap, the Resident Empowerment through Tourism Scale (RETS) was developed following Churchill'...
Article
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This study expands Perdue, Long, and Allen’s (1990) original model of resident attitudes toward tourism in two significant ways. It first proposes Weber’s theory of formal and substantive rationality (WFSR) as a way to strengthen social exchange theory. Secondly, WFSR is operationalized by using the Resident Empowerment through Tourism Scale (RETS)...
Article
Social movements often emerge as a response to oppression generated from uncertain economic conditions. This study focuses on the role of HandMade in America, a regional economic development organization, in cultivating the change-agent components of social movements (consciousness-raising, networking, and self-efficacy) in seven tourism-reliant co...
Article
This paper reviews the 30-year evolution of volunteer tourism as phenomenon, industry, and research area, charting changes in the size, breadth, definition, and the perceived positive and negative contributions of the volunteer tourism industry. Discussion then moves on to how research in volunteer tourism has reflected those changes. Studies have...
Article
Transformative learning (TL) is an important component of sustainable volunteer tourism experiences, potentially reducing unsustainable outcomes, and educating and enlightening volunteers. This paper reviews theories and issues about TL in volunteer tourism, and analyzes data from 1008 useable responses to an online survey of potential volunteer to...
Article
This paper examines the current state of ‘volunteer tourism,’ both as a field of study and modern phenomenon. The foundation of the review rests upon themes initiated over 10 years ago in Volunteer Tourism: Experiences That Make a Difference (Wearing, 2001). The review begins with a discussion of the explosive growth of volunteer tourism (research...
Article
Some of the most basic but vital data on recreation and travel behavior at tourism destinations consists of the places people visit, their travel routes, and the amount of time spent at each location. Despite that travel patterns are a fundamental aspect of the tourism phenomenon, little attention has been given to spatial and temporal tourist beha...
Article
This study examines the impact of volunteer tourism on host communities utilising a community capitals perspective. A research design that includes focus groups, interviews and website analysis targets a cluster of communities that have hosted NGO run volunteer tourism programs in the Philippines for over twenty years. Flora’s (2004) community capi...
Conference Paper
Despite considerable discussion about how tourism could or should contribute to sustainable destination development, there is little evidence that the practice of tourism planning or development has altered in any significant way in the last 30 years. This paper will report on an action research project aimed at identifying and applying new approac...
Article
Using the concepts of Ecological Systems Theory and Density of Acquaintance, this study was developed to explore the relationship between rural North Carolina residents’ characteristics and their perceptions of entrepreneurial climate (e-climate). The North Carolina Community Assessment for Tourism and Entrepreneurial Climate Study was developed to...
Article
Tourism researchers are beginning to explore the implications of the ?New Mobilities Paradigm? for improving our understanding of several aspects of tourism. This paper employs a study conducted at the intersection of this new mobilities paradigm, a consideration of destination community well-being, and the analysis of tourism sustainability throug...
Article
Traditional methods of collecting spatial and temporal use data are burdensome to both tourists and researchers, and they often lack needed accuracy. This article examines emergent GPS technology and its application to tracking nature-based tourists. Two applications of GPS presented here demonstrate the usefulness and functionality of GPS for trac...
Article
In an industry plagued by high failure rates and exorbitant amounts spent on marketing, restaurants must find ways to increase the effectiveness of their advertising. The purpose of this study is to explore how verbal smell references in restaurants' radio advertisements (e.g., "You can almost smell the smoky and delicious aroma of your steak grill...
Article
Chinese tourists visiting the U.S. were interviewed to explore their shopping behaviours and to understand their shopping experiences. This study revealed that the Chinese tourists were interested in a very large variety of U.S. merchandise, ranging from antique watches and jewellery to health products and running shoes. They perceived the quality...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this article is to use expectancy theory (which suggests that a travel experience that meets or exceeds tourists’ expectations will be viewed positively) to explore the experience expectations and preferences of prospective volunteer tourists (voluntourists). Survey research is implemented to investigate the experience expectations o...
Article
This paper develops research propositions for volunteer tourism using a combination of critical theory and social movement theory as a foundation. As is often the case with emerging areas of research, a theoretical foundation has been difficult to establish in volunteer tourism. The inherent contradictions of volunteer tourism, particularly concern...
Article
This paper describes and explains an interdisciplinary and mixed-method approach to a large-scale sustainable tourism development project. The research took place in a two-county area straddling the Blue Ridge Parkway in the Appalachian mountains of Virginia, USA. It was commissioned in order to develop a sustainable tourism centerpiece to enhance...
Article
The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine tourism-related social capital and its relationship with other forms of capital. The concept of social capital has emerged from several disciplines. Social capital has been used extensively among communities exploring a variety of economic development options, including sustainable agriculture and...
Article
This exploratory study examines corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the lodging industry by measuring the contributions to communities made by lodging properties throughout the United States. This work is significant for two reasons: (a) It attempts to develop a theoretical foundation for CSR within the U.S. lodging industry; (b) it signifies...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores resident attitudes to volunteer tourism in several small communities within Tijuana, Mexico. Social exchange theory has been used to argue that the degree of personal benefit from volunteer tourism would predict residents' perceptions of the impacts of volunteer tourism and support for volunteer tourism planning and for voluntee...
Article
This book is designed to illustrate many of the issues and approaches associated with sustainable tourism development, policy and research. Included are case studies of tourism development using both quantitative and qualitative methods, analytical frameworks for managing tourism and chapters addressing critical questions about the relationship bet...
Article
This book seeks to improve an understanding of what happens when communities turn to, or are subjected to, tourism as a development strategy; use this knowledge to change the process of tourism planning and development in ways that will lead to improved outcomes for destination residents; address some of the knowledge gaps and to further develop so...
Chapter
This book explores the experiences of the volunteer tourist and the ensuing narratives between host and volunteer as it manifests in diverse and increasingly contested political international contexts. As such, this volume includes case studies conducted in 12 countries across six continents. The book is organized into three parts that explore key...
Article
Agritourism is growing as a form of agricultural diversification in rural communities in the United States, as is research targeting the impact of agritourism on its various stakeholders. This paper examines the needs and obstacles of farm families acting as agritourism providers, Destination Marketing Organisations (DMOs), and agritourists, and de...
Article
"The purpose of this study was to explore the potentially gendered nature of motivations for agri-tourism entrepreneurship among Virginia farm families. Three elements of Chaippe and Flora's [Gendered elements of the alternative agriculture paradigm. Rural Sociology, 63(3), 372–393] modification of Beus and Dunlap's [Conventional versus alternative...
Article
The tourism industry in North Carolina (USA) is recognized as an important contributor to the state's economy. Successful tourism requires cooperation between government, private, and non-profit agencies. In order to better understand legislators’ perceptions of tourism and enhance communication between legislators and tourism practitioners, this s...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine politicians' perceptions of the tourism industry, focusing specifically on (1) image and knowledge of the tourism industry, and (2) recommendations regarding lobbying techniques, in part using White's (2001) typology of lobbying techniques. To facilitate mixed method analysis, the survey instrument included...
Article
Theories of social movements were used to explore possible changes in networks and consciousness-raising among participants in volunteer tourism. Focus group research targeted three US based organizations: Mobility International, WorldPULSE, and The American Jewish World Service. Findings indicate that participation in volunteer tourism had a posit...
Article
The purpose of this study was to reveal the motivations for agri-tourism entrepreneurship among Virginia farm families and to explore Weber’s theory of formal and substantive rationality as a possible theoretical framework for agritourism entrepreneurship motivation. Results of this study support the use of Weber’s theory of formal and substantive...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the factors predicting attitudes toward tourism of residents from a dozen communities in Arizona, generally following the model developed by Perdue, Long, and Allen, using social exchange theory as the foundation. Findings indicated that in general, personal characteristics did not predict attitudes toward tourism, but community...
Article
This study utilized an adaptation of the uni-dimensional involvement scale developed by Josiam, Smeaton, and Clements (1999) to test Havitz and Dimanche's Proposition XI, which states that "an individual's involvement profile with a recreational activity, tourist destination, or related equipment is positively related to frequency of participation,...
Article
This research tested a theoretical model drawing on components of social psychological (self-efficacy) and resource-mobilization (networks) theories to explain changes in social movement participation among Earthwatch expedition volunteers. It was hypothesized that involvement in an Earthwatch trip increases self-efficacy and facilitates the develo...
Article
This study develops and tests a theoretical model, drawing on social-psychological perspectives of social movement theory to explain changes in consciousness among Earthwatch expedition volunteers. Earthwatch expeditions are a form of alternative tourism in which volunteers participate in any of 126 different types of 10–14-day research-oriented fi...
Article
This paper reports on an on-going collaborative project between tourism and hospitality staff at one US University and two Australian Universities over a three year period. The project has focused upon the exchange of web-based travel and tourism advertising images of US and Australian destinations together with comments and explanations regarding...

Citations

... In fact, the issue of community-based tourism development can encourage the creation of sustainable tourism. Many scholars have highlighted the importance of community involvement in the sustainable tourism development (Junaid et al., 2021;Moayerian et al., 2022). One model of tourism development that empowers communities with Community Based Tourism (CBT) is the development of tourist villages (Gabriel-Campos et al., 2021;Komariah et al., 2020;Mahfud et al., 2018;Wu et al., 2022). ...
... Women traveling alone seek personal growth and development [10,14,21] by increasing self-confidence and making themselves feel empowered [8,10,12,25,26]; having sex, gaining prestige [2], or escaping their family roles [8,10,21,25] are other motivations. The motivation of escaping is especially important for Muslim women, who feel an "exciting sense of emancipation" [27] when they distance themselves from imposed norms. Women also seek freedom [10,12,21,25,26]; meet people and new cultures [8,10,12,26]; do new and authentic things [26]; experience adventures [21]; expand their visions of the world [24]; and increase their knowledge [14]. ...
... There is a belief by some that this form of tourism provides a mutually beneficial (Raymond & Hall, 2008) or transformative (Magrizos, Kostopoulos, & Powers, 2021) form of travel where both the voluntourists and the host communities gain from their experiences. A review of the academic literature on VT shows that there is significant research about the benefits VT has on the voluntourists themselves (Stoddart & Rogerson, 2004;Wearing & Neil, 2000) and growing literature of the perception of impacts of VT on the community (McGehee & Andereck, 2008;Mensah, Agyeiwaah, & Otoo, 2021;Olsen, Andereck, & Vogt, 2021;Steele & Scherrer, 2018), while the literature on the benefits of VT to NGOs is scarce (Frilund, 2018;Wearing, McDonald, & Ponting, 2005). There is emerging research in the area of resident attitudes toward VT (Lee, 2020;McGehee & Andereck, 2009), the perceptions of voluntourists regarding their impacts on the community (Aquino & Andereck, 2018;Stoddart & Rogerson, 2004) and the NGOs' agendas in tourism development (Wearing et al., 2005). ...
... The first theoretical contribution is to refine and validate the effect of transformative tourism experiences on the internal psychology and external behaviors of college students. Most of the current studies on transformative tourism experiences focused on conceptual definition and supplementation using qualitative methods, as in those of Soulard, Mcgehee, Stern, and Lamoureux [58]. Only a few empirical researchers, such as Tasci and Godovykh, found that transformative tourism experiences can affect individual attitudes, personalities, values, and behaviors internally and externally [15]. ...
... In the context of an exhibition, the role of satisfaction greatly attracts scholars' attention as level of satisfaction helps the destination to organize the exhibition, thus increase the exposure of the destination's brand. Many scholars have identified the antecedents of attendants' satisfaction at an exhibition, such as service quality (Chen & Mo, 2012), knowledge transfer (Wong & Lai, 2018), exhibitor perception and attributes (Liu et al., 2020). ...
... Wellbeing outcomes from all types of tourism, including both hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing [4][5][6][7][8] Vacation duration Duration of pre-and post-vacation wellbeing fade-in and fade-out of wellbeing effects [9,10] Arts + shops tourism Wellbeing outcomes from arts, music, and shopping tourism in urban settings [11][12][13] Transformative Transformative phenomenology of adventure tourism, outdoor sport and recreation [14,15] Vocational Positive psychology, charity challenges [16] Restorational Tourism as a stress recovery mechanism [17][18][19][20][21] Healthy ageing Tourism can maintain health of elderly [22] Recently, links between tourism and mental health have been explored through a series of sequential approaches, each with slightly different theoretical frameworks (Table 2). These focus on mental health as a component of clinical medicine and public health, rather than lifestyle health and wellbeing. ...
... In response to this tension, destination branding has evolved beyond an early focus on the dyadic relationship between potential visitors and destination management organisations (DMOs), to consider places more holistically and a wider range of stakeholders within them (Hanna & Rowley, 2015;Warren & Dinnie, 2018;Zenker et al., 2017). Prescriptions for effective place branding (inclusive of the branding of destinations) focus on the need for a participatory branding process (Kavaratzis, 2012) involving a range of stakeholders including tourism providers (Warren & Dinnie, 2018), tourism advocates (Knollenberg et al., 2021), destination businesses and entrepreneurs (García et al., 2012;Halme, 2021), visitors (Filieri et al., 2021), investors (Jacobsen, 2012), tourism lobbyists (Knollenberg et al., 2021), and community and resident groups (Braun et al., 2013;Campelo et al., 2014;Zenker et al., 2017). These developments are also reflected in place branding being defined as "a demanding governance process involving many stakeholders and characterised by cognitive complexity, with stakeholders holding different views of the brand and emphasising different aspects of a place" (Braun et al., 2018, p. 27). ...
... Current tourism research suggests that travelers appreciate the social status that comes from travel experiences posted on social media (Boley et al., 2018), revealing that travel experience can play into both one's social reward for travel as well as an incentive for additional trips to brag about. Further, travel expands one's world view, leading to more liberal views on diversity and intercultural exchange (Soulard, McGehee, & Stern, 2019). Relatedly, in line with previous studies (Baloglu and McCleary, 1999;DeCrop 2010), the travel experience variables within this study supported the premise that more seasoned travelers were likely to support ending the Trade Embargo as well as to support travel to Cuba. ...
... Community empowerment means giving power to locals, centered on cooperative work by involving all the members of the community (Ahmad & Talib, 2015). Communitybased tourism is one initiative that promotes community self-sufficiency, financial independence, and empowerment (Di Castri, 2004;Kline et al., 2019). However, many community-based tourism programs fall short of providing communities with the optimum economic benefits. ...
... These include improved health and longevity (SDG 3), quality education (SDG 4), balanced gender relations (SDG 5), workplace productivity and economic performance (SDG 8), neighbourhood vitality, public safety and mutual support (SDG 11), greater social resilience to natural hazards, formation of pro-social and proenvironmental norms and values (SDG 12,13,14,15), civic-mindedness and tolerance of diversity (SDG 16) and effective governance (SDG 17). Various tourism-related studies have highlighted the importance of networking, trust, cooperation, information sharing, volunteerism, stakeholder collaboration in destination management, community attachment and sense of place, pride in local culture, heritage and environment, pro-social behaviour in influencing community support for tourism and gender parity in destination politics in guiding appropriate paths for tourism development (Nunkoo, 2017;Moscardo et al, 2017;Soulard, Knollenberg, Boley, Perdue and McGehee, 2018). Table 2 lists a set of well-being indicators associated with social capital and tourism. ...