Nadine Ouellette's research while affiliated with Université de Montréal and other places

Publications (24)

Chapter
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The purpose of this study is twofold. Firstly, it attempts to exhaustively identify cases of French supercentenarians and semi-supercentenarians and to validate their alleged age at death. Secondly, it seeks to uncover careful patterns and trends in probabilities of death and life expectancy at very old ages in France. We use three sets of data wit...
Article
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The U.S. elderly experience shorter lifespans and greater variability in age at death than their Canadian peers. In order to gain insight on the underlying factors responsible for the Canada-U.S. old-age mortality disparities, we propose a cause-of-death analysis. Accordingly, the objective of this paper is to compare levels and trends in cause-spe...
Technical Report
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The authors would like to correct the second sentence of the abstract to read: "First, we use Lexis surfaces based on Serfling models to highlight influenza mortality patterns as well as to identify lingering effects of early-life exposure to specific influenza virus subtypes (e.g., H1N1, H3N2)."
Article
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This study examines the roles of age, period, and cohort in influenza mortality trends over the years 1959–2016 in the United States. First, we use Lexis surfaces based on Serfling models to highlight influenza mortality patterns as well as to identify lingering effects of early-life exposure to specific influenza virus subtypes (e.g., H1N1, H3N2)....
Poster
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Baby boomers’ mortality has been deteriorated or stagnated, compared to the secular trend. Recent studies claimed that the excess mortality of boomers has been due to suicides, accidental overdoses and other external causes. We found most of the boomer’s mortality disadvantage, regardless of race/ethnicity, is related to causes of death linked to...
Preprint
The decrease in the increase in death rates at old ages is a phenomenon that has repeatedly been discussed in demographic research. While mortality deceleration can be explained in the gamma-Gompertz model as an effect of selection in heterogeneous populations, this phenomenon can be difficult to assess statistically because it relates to the tail...
Article
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Recent outbreaks of H5, H7, and H9 influenza A viruses in humans have served as a vivid reminder of the potentially devastating effects that a novel pandemic could exert on the modern world. Those who have survived infections with influenza viruses in the past have been protected from subsequent antigenically similar pandemics through adaptive immu...
Article
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Background The longevity gains recorded in high-income countries since the 1960s are mainly due to a reduction in mortality from chronic degenerative diseases, which particularly affect older individuals. In recent years the adult modal age at death (M) gained increasing recognition as a lifespan indicator for monitoring improvements in old-age sur...
Article
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In the past 90 years, remarkable progress was made in substantially improving survival and longevity in Canada, establishing it as a member of today’s group of very low mortality countries. We use several demographic indicators of all-cause and cause-specific mortality to illustrate the nature of these major advances throughout the life span. Revie...
Article
The age-trajectory of mortality for French-Canadian Centenarians With the remarkable mortality decline at older ages, the number of centenarians has increased spectacularly since the second half of the 20th century in low-mortality countries. In this era of longevity extension, it is becoming increasingly important to obtain precise mortality measu...
Article
À partir des données de l’Enquête québécoise sur les limitations d’activités, les maladies chroniques et le vieillissement 2010-2011 (EQLAV), cette étude nous a permis d’analyser la prévalence de l’incapacité et des maladies chroniques selon l’âge afin que nous puissions déterminer, en utilisant une méthode non paramétrique de lissage par P-splines...
Article
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We investigate a major turning point in mortality trends at adult ages that occurred for many low-mortality countries in the late 1960s or early 1970s. We analyze patterns of total and cause-specific mortality over the past 60 years using data from the Human Mortality Database and the World Health Organization. We focus on four broad categories of...
Article
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This paper examines and demonstrates the importance of the adult modal age at death (M) in longevity research. Unlike life expectancy at birth (e0) and median age at death, M is determined solely by old-age mortality as far as mortality follows a bathtub curve. It represents the location of old-age death heap in the age distribution of deaths, and...
Article
Canada and the United States have enjoyed vigorous population growth since the early 1980s. Although mortality is slightly higher in the United States than in Canada, this is largely offset by much higher fertility, with a total fertility rate at replacement level, compared with just 1.5 children per woman in Canada. The United States is also the w...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines adult and old-age mortality differentials in Canada between 1930 and 2007 at the provincial level, using the Canadian Human Mortality Database and the flexible smoothing P-spline method in two-dimensions well-suited to the study of small populations. Our analysis reveals that provincial disparities in adult mortality in general,...
Article
La démographie du Canada et des États-Unis se caractérise par son dynamisme depuis le début des années 1980. Une mortalité un peu plus élevée aux États-Unis qu'au Canada est largement compensée par une fécondité beaucoup plus forte, dont l'indicateur conjoncturel atteint actuellement le seuil de remplacement des générations, contre seulement 1,5 en...
Article
Canada and the United States have enjoyed vigorous population growth since the early 1980s. Although mortality is slightly higher in the United States than in Canada, this is largely offset by much higher fertility, with a total fertility rate at replacement level, compared with just 1.5 children per woman in Canada. The United States is also the w...
Article
The Demography of Canada and the United States From the 1980s to the 2000s. A Summary of Changes and a Statistical Assessment Canada and the United States have enjoyed vigorous population growth since the early 1980s. Although mortality is slightly higher in the United States than in Canada, this is largely offset by much higher fertility, with a t...
Article
English Over the last ten years, the modal age at death has become a focus of research on human longevity, notably because it provides information about the most frequent adult age at death without being influenced by mortality conditions at early ages. Little is known about levels and trends in adult modal age at death in historical populations. T...
Article
The Most Frequent Adult Length of Life in the Eighteenth Century: The Experience of the French-Canadians Over the last ten years, the modal age at death has become a focus of research on human longevity, notably because it provides information about the most frequent adult age at death without being influenced by mortality conditions at early ages....
Article
Over the last ten years, the modal age at death has become a focus of research on human longevity, notably because it provides information about the most frequent adult age at death without being influenced by mortality conditions at early ages. Little is known about levels and trends in adult modal age at death in historical populations. The Regis...
Article
Full-text available
Since the beginning of the twentieth century, important transformations have occurred in the age-at-death distribution within human populations. We propose a flexible nonparametric smoothing approach based on P-splines to refine the monitoring of these changes. Using data from the Human Mortality Database for four low mortality countries, namely Ca...
Article
Full-text available
Like many industrialized countries, Canada is experiencing significant population aging and this phenomenon, inherited from the demographic transition, will intensify in the coming years. Mortality changes, especially at older ages, will contribute greatly to this phenomenon, hence the importance to be aware of the latest and forthcoming developmen...

Citations

... We intentionally chose lethal doses of the influenza viruses tested in vivo because they represent an appropriate animal model for those, mainly immunocompromised, human patients who are hospitalized or even die following influenza infection worldwide. While influenza infections leading to death or admittance to the hospital make up only a minor portion of the total influenza cases, they represent the clinically most severe symptoms and need effective treatment options the most (44)(45)(46)(47). Most of our outcomes in this study support the combined hypothesis, which declares that for any type of susceptible or resistant circulating influenza virus, at least two, and in some combinations all three, compounds in combined treatment will be effective. ...
... Such changes can have important consequences, as they can contribute to individuals with different exposure histories having different susceptibilities to viral mutants [46,47]. Although the changes in immunodominance we have observed here are relatively modest, they could become larger as the virus continues to evolve and different individuals accumulate increasingly disparate exposure histories through infection and vaccination [48,49]. ...
... To validate the individual exact survival times, birth registration documents and death certificates from Quebec's parish register archives were linked. Further details on the data and the validation procedure can be found in Ouellette and Bourbeau (2014) and Ouellette (2016), who studied earlier versions of this dataset that covered only the centenarians, that is, survivors to ages 100 and above. ...
... In general, the CanCHEC datasets have been identified as an important resource to examine the effects of socioeconomic status on mortality. 30 Going forward, the CanCHECs are well suited to study the intersection of multiple dimensions of socioeconomic status and population groups across different periods. ...
... The present study is the first to conduct a Canada-U.S. comparison of patterns and trends in cause-specific modal age at death and standard deviation above the mode. We also provide the first available estimates in M and SD(M +) by leading causes of death in the U.S. (those for Canada were published in an earlier paper (Diaconu et al. 2016)). This comparative analysis aims to (1) determine whether the U.S. disadvantage with respect to old-age survival and lifespan variation holds for all six leading causes for the entire study period or only for specific causes and/or time periods and (2) examine whether the between-country difference with respect to cause-specific M and SD(M +) has narrowed or widened during the past four decades. ...
... In order to achieve this exhaustive measure of uncertainty, we first carry out a residual bootstrap procedure as in for the LC framework, and Ouellette et al. (2012) and Camarda (2019) within a smoothing context. This allows us to simulate bootstrapped matrices of death counts Y (b) . ...
... The use of AD, as expression of longevity, in the role of dependent variable in an MLR model was more rationale and promising. Incidentally, AD is presently considered a valuable metrics for the study of longevity when cohorts are close to extinction [13][14][15][16]. The two models performed in a relatively similar way in identifying the predictive power of risk factors, but for practical purposes, the MLR was more valuable. ...
... In United States, Ezzati et al. (2008) use the standard deviation of county life expectancies and show that the standard deviation for men decreased by 15 percent between 1975 and 1985 and then increased by 20 percent between 1985 and 2000. One can see also Joseph et al. (2009) for Canada, Gächter and Theurl (2011) for Austria, Barbieri and Ouellette (2012) for Canada and the United States, and Janssen et al. (2016) for the Netherlands. In the United Kingdom, Illsley and LeGrand (1993) include a further dimension with an analysis of spatial inequalities at various ages. ...
... Instead, period effects trump cohort effects, especially for older age groups in developed countries after the 1950s (Vaupel et al. 1997). Heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, smoking-related cancers, and all other cancers related to mortality declined across all adult age groups in the United States from 1940 to 2002 (Crimmins 1981;Jemal et al. 2005;Kannisto et al. 1994;Ouellette et al. 2014). These results imply that period factors (e.g., cardiovascular revolution) may have been the dominant forces driving the mortality decline since the 1950s. ...
... Az idős korosztály a leggyorsabban gyarapodó réteg a mai társadalomban. Az Egyesült Államokban 1980 és 2010 között a 65 év felettiek aránya 11%-ról 13%-ra emelkedett, és 2030-ig ez az arány előreláthatóan el fogja érni a 19-20%-ot is [1]. Hasonló változások figyelhetők meg Magyarországon is. ...