NL PITTMAN's research while affiliated with Loyola University Maryland and other places

Publications (2)

Article
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• Based on C. B. Wortman and J. W. Brehm's (1975) integration of reactance theory with M. E. Seligman's (1972, 1975) model of learned helplessness, the present study examined the effects of amount of helplessness training and internal–external locus of control on subsequent task performance and on self-ratings of mood. 90 undergraduates were divide...

Citations

... Like attributions, individual differences in sense of control have been the subject of a good deal of study (Phares et al., 1971;Pittman and Pittman, 1980). Generally speaking, the sense of control one has is the degree to which an individual believes one's actions to be caused by oneself and not by outside factors. ...
... Helpless individuals usually do not feel capable of changing an unpleasant situation . Reactant individuals, in contrast, feel capable of changing the current situation, that is, the freedom threat (Mikulincer, 1988; Pittman & Pittman, 1979; Wortman & Brehm, 1975). Consistent with these analyses, in Kray et al.'s (2004) study of ''stereotype reactance,'' such reactance occurred only if women had sufficient power to act, which supports the idea that reactance develops only if people feel capable of restoring their freedom. ...