# N. Clement's research while affiliated with The University of Tokyo and other places

## Publications (86)

Preprint
Full-text available
We introduce a formalism to describe the electrochemical shot-noise of surface-attached redox molecules in liquid that is confirmed experimentally. The proposed method, carried out at equilibrium, suppresses the contribution of parasitic capacitance, drastically increases the sensitivity and allows to obtain quantitative information such as the sta...
Article
The fabrication and electrochemical interrogation of very high density single-antibody nanoarrays is reported. Gold nanodots, 15 nm in diameter, arranged in large (cm2) square arrays with a pitch of 200 nm, are used as carriers for primary antibodies (immunoglobulin G (IgG)), further recognized by secondary redox-labeled detection antibodies. Ensem...
Article
The transfer of redox-labelled bioelectrochemical sensors from proteins to cells is not straightforward because of the cell downward force issue on the surface of the sensors. In this paper, 20-nm-thick nanopillars are introduced to overcome this issue, in a well-controlled manner. We show on both molecular dynamics simulations and experiments that...
Article
The role of a single defect on the performance of transistors must be better understood to improve the design and fabrication process of nanotransistors. Capacitive networks on 18 nm long gate junctionless (JL) vertical gate-all-around nanowire transistors are studied through random telegraph signals, with amplitudes as high as 60% for a single nan...
Article
Full-text available
We show how Microwave Microscopy can be used to probe local charge transfer reactions with unprecedented sensitivity, visualizing surface reactions with only a few hundred molecules involved. While microwaves are...
Article
High frequency (GHz) signals are sent to a scanning tunneling microscope probe down to the surface of an alkylferrocene self‐assembled monolayer in liquid and allow to measure locally electrochemical charge transfer corresponding to currents on the order of attoampere. This technique, presented in article number 2101253 by Nicolas Clément, Georg Gr...
Article
Full-text available
Electrochemical microscopy techniques have extended the understanding of surface chemistry to the micrometer and even sub‐micrometer level. However, fundamental questions related to charge transport at the solid‐electrolyte interface, such as catalytic reactions or operation of individual ion channels, require improved spatial resolutions down to t...
Article
With the fast-shrinking of the transistor dimensions, the low-frequency noise level considerably increases emerging as an important parameter for the design of advanced devices for information technologies. Single-trap phenomena (STP) is a promising approach for the low-frequency noise suppression technique in nanotransistor biosensors by consideri...
Preprint
Full-text available
Local electrochemical measurements and imaging at the nanoscale are crucial for the future development of molecular devices, sensors, materials engineering, electrophysiology and various energy applications from artificial photosynthesis to batteries. The ultimate step towards single-molecule sensitivity requires the measurement of aA currents, whi...
Article
Full-text available
Transistor biosensors are mass-fabrication-compatible devices of interest for point of care diagnosis as well as molecular interaction studies. While the actual transistor gates in processors reach the sub-10 nm range for optimum integration and power consumption, studies on design rules for the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) optimization in transisto...
Article
The Cover Feature illustrates that the organic field‐effect transistor (OFET) on her left hand enables read‐out of the glucose recognition information through the connected extended‐gate electrode (i.e. the guitar pick). The fabricated microfluidic system (i.e. the Japanese traditional guitar) performs real‐time glucose monitoring in water. More in...
Article
Organic field‐effect transistors (OFETs) can be potentially employed to monitor cell activities for healthcare and medical treatment, because of their attractive properties such as ease of use, flexibility, and low‐cost manufacturing processes. Although current OFET‐based sensors are suitable for point‐of‐care testing, the establishment of real‐tim...
Conference Paper
Near-field scanning microwave microscopy (NSMM) is a scanning probe microscopy (SPM) technique that measures the local interaction of evanescent microwaves with a sample using a sharp tip probe. The traceability in NSMM is still challenging as the distribution of the electrical fields is affected by several parameters. In this effort, finite elemen...
Article
Full-text available
Despite being ubiquitous in the fields of chemistry and biology, the ion-specific effects of electrolytes pose major challenges for researchers. A lack of understanding about ion-specific surface interactions has hampered the development and application of materials for (bio-)chemical sensor applications. Here, we show that scaling a silicon nanotr...
Article
The aim of the present work is to explore the combination of atomic force electrochemical microscopy, operated in molecule touching mode (Mt/AFM-SECM), and of dense nanodot arrays, for designing an electrochemically addressable molecular nanoarray platform. A high density nanoarray of single grained gold nanodots (~15 nm-diameter nanoparticles, 100...
Article
A diode made of a self-assembly monolayer with ferrocenyl termini shows an on/off ratio of [sim]105.
Article
Nanofluidics show great promise for the control of small volumes and single molecules, especially for biological and energy applications. To build up more and more complex nanofluidics systems, a versatile and reproducible fabrication technique with nanometer precision alignment is desirable. In this article, two e-beam lithography methods to fabri...
Article
The π-π interactions between organic molecules are among the most important parameters for optimizing the transport and optical properties of organic transistors, light-emitting diodes, and (bio-)molecular devices. Despite substantial theoretical progress, direct experimental measurement of the - electronic coupling energy parameter t has remained...
Article
A vertical MOS architecture implemented on Si nanowire (NW) array with a scaled Gate-All-Around (14nm) and symmetrical diffusive S/D contacts is presented with noteworthy demonstrations in both processing (layer engineering at nanoscale), and in electrical properties (high electrostatic control, low defect level, multi-Vt platform). Furthermore, th...
Data
Supplementary Figures 1-15, Supplementary Tables 1-2, Supplementary Notes 1-4, Supplementary Methods and Supplementary References
Article
Full-text available
Molecular electronics originally proposed that small molecules sandwiched between electrodes would accomplish electronic functions and enable to reach ultimate scaling. However, so far, functional molecular devices have been only demonstrated at low frequency. Here, we demonstrate molecular diodes operating up to 17.8 GHz. DC (direct current) and R...
Conference Paper
A vertical MOS architecture implemented on Si nanowire (NW) array with a scaled Gate-All-Around (14nm) and symmetrical diffusive S/D contacts is presented with noteworthy demonstrations both in processing (layer engineering at nanoscale), in electrical properties (high electrostatic control, low defect level, multi-Vt platform) in the fabrication o...
Conference Paper
Flicker or 1/f noise in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) has been identified as the main source of noise at low frequency. It often originates from an ensemble of a huge number of charges becoming trapped and de-trapped, or from mobility fluctuation. However, for nanoscale transistors, equations based on the density of t...
Article
Full-text available
We present a quantitative exploration, combining experiment and simulation, of the mechanical and electronic properties, as well as the modifications induced by an alkylthiolated coating, at the single nanoparticle (NP) level. We determined the response of the NPs to external pressure in a controlled manner using an atomic force microscope tip. We...
Article
Full-text available
E-beam lithography has been used for reliable and versatile fabrication of sub-15 nm single-crystal gold nanoarrays and led to convincing applications in nanotechnology. However, so far this technique was either too slow for centimeter to wafer-scale writing or fast enough with the so-called dot on the fly (DOTF) technique but not optimized for sub...
Article
We present a method to characterize sub-10 nm capacitors and tunnel junctions by interferometric scanning microwave microscopy (iSMM) at 7.8 GHz. At such device scaling, the small water meniscus surrounding the iSMM tip should be reduced by proper tip tuning. Quantitative impedance characterization of attofarad range capacitors is achieved using an...
Article
This paper describes a novel simple and inexpensive assembly technique with highly accurate alignment of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer on a silicon chip for hybrid microfluidic/electronic applications. It is based on strong electrostatic adhesion of a 200 μm thick and dense layer of PDMS onto a metallic cylindrical tool mechanically fixed to...
Article
Nous présentons une façon de caractériser quantitativement des capacités sous échelle de 10 nm à l'aide d'un scanning-microwave-microscope modifié avec un interféromètre (iSMM). Des milliers de capacités à l'échelle nanométrique (nanoplots) et un kit de capacités de calibrages sont intégrés et scanné simultanément. Ceci permet la génération d'histo...
Article
Full-text available
Low-frequency noise is used to study the electronic transport in arrays of 14 nm gate length vertical silicon nanowire devices. We demonstrate that, even at such scaling, the electrostatic control of the gate-all-around is sufficient in the sub-threshold voltage region to confine charges in the heart of the wire, and the extremely low noise level i...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we demonstrate that depending on the surrounding ambient, which may be manifested by different damping conditions, a “bump” in frequency response of Electric Force Microscope (EFM) cantilevers may be observed, either in electrical amplitude or phase signals of AC gradients. This bump is present in air and at room temperature when the...
Article
We report on an adjustable interferometric set-up for Scanning Microwave Microscopy. This interferometer is designed in order to combine simplicity, a relatively flexible choice of the frequency of interference used for measurements as well as the choice of impedances range where the interference occurs. A vectorial calibration method based on a mo...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship of the gas bubble size to the size distribution critically influences the effectiveness of electrochemical processes. Several optical and acoustical techniques have been used to characterize the size and emission frequency of bubbles. Here, we used zero-dimensional (0D) ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) buried under a...
Article
n° de priorité : FR20110059606 20111024
Article
In order to produce hydrogen as a fuel source of the future, water electrolysis is one of the most promising'' green approaches. Although electrolysis efficiency can be as high as 80%, it still means that at least 20% of the energy is lost. The use of transducers to collect the energy loss in water electrolysis is attractive. Among the various tr...
Article
Low frequency 1/f noise has been a well-studied method for evaluation of materials quality for devices operation. The two main sources of 1/f noise have been identified as the mobility noise (Hooge's equation) related to defects in the channel and the trapping-detrapping noise (Mc Whorter equation) related to defects in oxide at semiconductor inter...
Article
Scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) allow scientists to image, characterize and even manipulate material structures at exceedingly small scales including features of atomic dimensions. Although most microelectronics devices operate at high frequency, SPMs have mainly been used with electrical excitation at DC (Conducting Atomic Force Microscope) or k...
Article
Full-text available
We present a quantitative exploration, combining experiment and simulation, of the mechanical and electronic properties, as well as the modifications induced by an alkylthiolated coating, at the single nano-particle (NP) level. We determined the response of the NPs to external pressure in a controlled manner using an atomic force microscope tip. We...
Article
Electrical impedance characterization at the nanoscale is a challenge for beyond CMOS investigations and for understanding the electronic properties of nanomaterials. Among the various scanning probe microscopes, Scanning Microwave Microscope (SMM) is of particular interest because it combines nanometric lateral resolution of atomic force microscop...
Article
Molecular electronics is a fascinating area of research with the ability to tune device properties by a chemical tailoring of organic molecules. However, molecular electronics devices often suffer from dispersion and lack of reproducibility of their electrical performances. Here, we show that water molecules introduced during the fabrication proces...
Article
Devices made of few molecules constitute the miniaturization limit that both inorganic and organic-based electronics aspire to reach. However, integration of millions of molecular junctions with less than 100 molecules each has been a long technological challenge requiring well controlled nanometric electrodes. Here we report molecular junctions fa...
Article
Investigation of low-frequency noise in nanoscale Schottky-barrier (SB)-based field-effect transistors (SB-FETs) is of prime importance due to its large amplitude in emerging bottom-up devices. In addition, noise can give additional information on charge transport mechanisms. In this paper, we study the $\hbox{1}/f$ noise in nanoscale silicon-on-in...
Article
Full-text available
An evaluation of the gate capacitance of a field-effect transitor (FET), whose channel length and width are several ten nanometer, is a key point for sensors applications. However, experimental and precise evaluation of capacitance in the attofarad range or less has been extremely difficult. Here, we report an extraction of the capacitance down to...
Article
A uniform array of single-grain Au nanodots, as small as 5-8 nm, can be formed on silicon using e-beam lithography. The as-fabricated nanodots are amorphous, and thermal annealing converts them to pure Au single crystals covered with a thin SiO(2) layer. These findings are based on physical measurements, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), atomi...
Article
We investigate the mechanisms responsible for the low-frequency noise in liquid-gated nano-scale silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (SiNW-FETs) and show that the charge-noise level is lower than elementary charge. Our measurements also show that ionic strength of the surrounding electrolyte has a minimal effect on the overall noise. Dielectr...
Article
Full-text available
Flicker or 1/f noise in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) has been identified as the main source of noise at low frequency. It often originates from an ensemble of a huge number of charges becoming trapped and de-trapped. However, as a deviation from the well-known model of 1/f noise is observed for nanoscale MOSFETs, a n...
Article
The complex admittance of various molecular junctions based on long alkyl chains (C18) has been measured and resolved into different components. The dipolar contribution of the response function has been analyzed in terms of the generalized Langevin equation. This formalism allows us to extract from experimental data the spectral density of polariz...
Article
Full-text available
We study the dynamic electrical response of a silicon-molecular monolayer-metal junctions and we observe two contributions in the admittance spectroscopy data. These contributions are related to dipolar relaxation and molecular organization in the monolayer in one hand, and the presence of defects at the silicon/molecule interface in the other hand...
Article
Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) arrayed in parallel were fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. Since the nanoscale wire channels of the ISFETs are bridged with a floating gate on which molecules are preferably immobilized, signals originating from charged materials only on the floating gate can appear and can therefore be...
Article
Monolayers of organic molecules present one of the main systems studied in molecular electronics. We report the observation and study of a low frequency noise and Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) in self-assembled alkyl chain junctions on silicon. The 2 levels of current can be clearly distinguished. With a sufficiently long recording time (> 500 even...
Article
Full-text available
We report low frequency tunnel current noise characteristics of an organic monolayer tunnel junction. The measured devices, n-Si/alkyl chain (C(18)H(37))/Al junctions, exhibit a clear 1/f(gamma) power spectrum noise with 1 <gamma < 1.2. We observe a slight bias-dependent background of the normalized current noise power spectrum (S(I)/I(2)). However...

## Citations

... The underlying challenges rise from the presence of parasitic capacitances and from the fact that under typical measurements conditions, the current scales with the sensor area, leading to difficulties in retrieving the signal with micro-and nanoscale electrodes. Several approaches have been explored to tackle the challenge, using redox cycling [1][2][3][4][5], high frequency measurements [6] and fluorescence [7][8][9]. We propose here to exploit and formalize the shot-noise induced by reversible single electron transfers of electroactive molecules attached to an electrode. ...
... Keysight also began advertising the new bio-capabilities for their instrument in their application notes [106]. Most recently, the emphasis has been on ultra-fine capacitance and current measurements that can probe dipole strength and ion motion in protein membranes [107], and differences in the electron distribution in molecular assemblies at the few electrons/second (attoampere) level [108]! Other groups were beginning to take advantage of both commercial and customized AFM-based SMM instruments, to focus on biological imaging and spectroscopy in the microwave regime. ...
Citing article