Myriam Krutzsch's scientific contributions

Publications (9)

Article
Near-infrared reflectography and imaging X-ray fluorescence analysis reveal that carbon inks of two different compositions were used in the papyrus manuscript Berlin P 11702. In contrast with the writing ink, one of the carbon drawing inks contained a significant addition of iron. This result emphasizes the need for routine instrumental ink analysi...
Article
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In the transition from carbon to iron-gall inks, the two documents from the Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection in Berlin with shelfmarks P 13500 and P 13501 discussed in this work present an important case. Their inks appear brownish, although they date back to the fourth and third century BCE, when carbon inks are believed to have been commonl...
Article
In 2002 new "Dead Sea Scrolls" fragments began to appear on the antiquities market, most of them through the Kando family. In this article we will present evidence that nine of these Dead Sea Scrolls-like fragments are modern forgeries.
Article
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Ancient papyri are a written heritage of culture that flourished more than 3000 years ago in Egypt. One of the most significant collections in the world is housed in the Egyptian Museum and Papyrus Collection in Berlin, from where the samples for our investigation come. The papyrologists, curators and conservators of such collections search intense...
Article
This article is concerned with material aspects of the ‘Jesus’ Wife' fragment. Following an analysis of the papyrus which confirms that it is indeed of ancient manufacture, the scientific tests carried out on both the papyrus and the ink are critically assessed and shown to be of little or no value in determining the date of the writing.

Citations

... For the material characterization of ancient and modern papyri, invasive and non-invasive methods should be differentiated, and non-invasive techniques preferred whenever possible, especially if ancient samples are analyzed. Among the techniques with no or minimal sample consumption, spectroscopic techniques (Raman, Fluorescence, Infrared and UV/Vis) and techniques to study the elemental composition (XRF, SEM-EDX, PIXE) have been commonly applied [8,[16][17][18]. Techniques that elucidate the elemental composition have proven to be especially useful in the analysis of ancient inks, to distinguish iron-gall inks from carbon inks and to detect trace elements indicative of the archaeological context of the sample [19,20]. ...
... Determining the composition of papers, parchments, papyrus and inks of ancient manuscripts has been one of the goals in museums, archives and libraries housing valuable documents for some decades. The possibilities offered by this knowledge when combined with that provided by the study and the analysis of the texts themselves in terms of their contextualization and interpretation has recently started to reveal itself to the papyrological community [5][6][7][8]. ...
... Therefore, iron-gall ink presents a boundary case between solution and dispersion ink, in which a water-soluble preliminary stage oxidizes and evolves into a black, insoluble precipitate similar to the carbon pigments when the writing is exposed to air (Krekel 1999). The additional category of mixed inks, i.e. inks produced by addition of various metals to the soot inks or intentional mixing of iron-gall and soot -based inks started attracting scholarly attention only recently because their significance was established only a short while ago (Brun et al. 2016, Colini 2018, Nehring et al. 2021. We suggest that plant and mixed inks build a bridge from the carbon ink of Antiquity to the properly formulated iron-gall ink that became a standard black ink from the late Middle Ages to the 19 th century when it gave way to modern inks. ...
... fourth-eleventh centuries CE), which started in 2017 as a cooperation with the PAThs Project, based at La Sapienza University of Rome. Other publications resulting from this collaboration can be found in the list of references [14][15][16][17][18]. In parallel to this research, the BAM and CSMC developed further studies on Egyptian inks produced during the Hellenistic and Roman periods (e.g. ...
... Archaeology and archaeologists were rivals in the pursuit of material. This perceived competition between the Bedouin and archaeologists results in the discovery and subsequent sale of many famed Dead Sea Scrolls (see Davis et al. 2017;Fields 2009). ...
... Determining the composition of papers, parchments, papyrus and inks of ancient manuscripts has been one of the goals in museums, archives and libraries housing valuable documents for some decades. The possibilities offered by this knowledge when combined with that provided by the study and the analysis of the texts themselves in terms of their contextualization and interpretation has recently started to reveal itself to the papyrological community [5][6][7][8]. ...
... 22 The application of Raman spectroscopic analysis has been popularized in the field of biblical studies with the recent debate over the socalled "Gospel of Jesus' Wife" papyrus. 23 In 2016, a team from the Ancient Ink Laboratory at Columbia University published the results from their testing of 17 dated papyri (from the fourth century BC to the tenth century AD) using Raman spectroscopy, noting that "the unexpected discovery of systematic change in the Raman spectra of ancient Egyptian papyri correlated with the date of writing," possibly indicating a way to estimate the date of a papyrus manuscript with carbon ink based on the shape of its spectra.24 This model was subsequently used to evaluate the "Gospel of Jesus' Wife" fragment in a paper presented by three of the team members at the Society of Biblical Literature Annual Meeting in 2016. ...