Muhammad Shafiq's research while affiliated with Yeungnam University and other places

Publications (133)

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The thermoelectric generator (TEG) system has attracted extensive attention because of its applications in centralized solar heat utilization and recoverable heat energy. The operating efficiency of the TEG system is highly affected by operating conditions. In a series-parallel structure, due to diverse temperature differences, the TEG modules show...
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Alzheimer is a disease that causes the brain to deteriorate over time. It starts off mild, but over the course of time, it becomes increasingly more severe. Alzheimer’s disease causes damage to brain cells as well as the death of those cells. Memory in humans is especially susceptible to this. Memory loss is the first indication of Alzheimer’s dise...
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Massive multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) systems have become the most persuasive technology for 5G as it increased the energy efficiency gigantically as compared to other wireless communication systems. Being the most vibrant research technology in the communication sector, this research work is based on the optimal model development of en...
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Cyberattacks can trigger power outages, military equipment problems, and breaches theof con-fidential information, i.e., medical records could be stolen if they get into the wrong hands. Because ofDue to the great monetary worth of the data it holds, the banking industry is particularly at risk. As the number of digital footprints of banks grows, s...
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Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a health apprehension of significant proportions that is negatively impacting the ageing population globally. It is characterized by neuronal loss and the formation of structures such as neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques in the early as well as later stages of the disease. Neuroimaging modalities are routinely...
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The advancements made by information technology have redefined the concept, scope, and significance of communication. The barriers in the communication process have been wiped out by the recent advances in information and communication technology (ICT) backed by high-speed data connectivity. People are free to communicate without bothering about ph...
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The importance of unsupervised clustering methods is well established in the statistics and machine learning literature. Many sophisticated unsupervised classification techniques have been made available to deal with a growing number of datasets. Due to its simplicity and efficiency in clustering a large dataset, the k-means clustering algorithm is...
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This study aimed to realize Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) i.e., no poverty, zero hunger and sustainable cities and communities through the implementation of intelligent cattle monitoring system to enhance the dairy production. Livestock industries in developing countries lag in technology usage that directly impacting on meat and dairy produ...
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Biometric is the term for measuring human. If the term is divided into 2 parts: Bio means life and metric means measurement. The measurement of human through different computational methods is done to authorize a person. This measurement can be done via single Biometric or by using the combination of different biometric traits. The combination of m...
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Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) is one of the ways for transforming the acoustic speech signals into the text. Over the last few decades, an enormous amount of research work has been done in the research area of Speech Recognition (SR). Although, over the last few years, most studies have focused on building ASR systems based on Adult speech. Re...
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The versatility of IoT devices increases the probability of continuous attacks on them. The low processing power and low memory of IoT devices have made it difficult for security analysts to keep records of various attacks performed on these devices during forensic analysis. The forensic analysis estimates how much damage has been done to the devic...
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With the emergence of big data and the interest in deriving valuable insights from ever-growing and ever-changing streams of data, machine learning has appeared as an effective data analytic technique as compared to traditional methodologies. Big data has become a source of incredible business value for almost every industry. In this context, machi...
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This paper investigates the response and characteristics of the narrowband power line communication (NB-PLC) technique for the effective control of electric appliances such as smart air conditioners (SACs) for demand side management (DSM) services. The expression for temperature sensitivity by examining the influence of atmospheric temperature vari...
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Citation: Bokhari, S.A.; Saqib, Z.; Amir, S.; Naseer, S.; Shafiq, M.; Ali, A.; Zaman-ul-Haq, M.; Irshad, A.; Hamam, H. Assessing Land Cover Transformation for Urban Environmental Sustainability through Satellite Sensing.
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Rapid urbanization in Pakistan is triggering regulated and unregulated land cover changes in planned and semiplanned urban areas. The key objective of this study is to assess the spatial–temporal fluctuations in the land use/land cover (LULC) transformations in planned (Islamabad) and semiplanned (Rawalpindi) urban areas over the last forty years (...
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Deep Neural Networks have offered numerous innovative solutions to brain-related diseases including Alzheimer’s. However, there are still a few standpoints in terms of diagnosis and planning that can be transformed via quantum Machine Learning (QML). In this study, we present a hybrid classical–quantum machine learning model for the detection of Al...
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Wind energy is featured by instability due to a number of factors, such as weather, season, time of the day, climatic area and so on. Furthermore, instability in the generation of wind energy brings new challenges to electric power grids, such as reliability, flexibility, and power quality. This transition requires a plethora of advanced techniques...
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Urban ecosystem services (UES) are indispensable for life. Stakeholders are improvising strategies for a more sustainable provisioning of UES. For this purpose and for identifying orientations towards geospatial data in UES studies, the “bibliometric analysis” technique was deployed. The inclinations facilitate assessments pertaining to spatio-temp...
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The increased popularity of small-scale DER (Distributed Energy Resource) has replaced the well-established concept of central conventional generating plants around the world. In the present energy scenario, a significant share of energy production now comes from the grid integrated DERs installed at various consumer premises. These DERs are being...
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An excessive use of non-linear devices in industry results in current harmonics that degrades the power quality with an unfavorable effect on power system performance. In this research, a novel control technique-based Hybrid-Active Power-Filter (HAPF) is implemented for reactive power compensation and harmonic current component for balanced load by...
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This paper proposes a blockchain based trust management method for agents in a multi-agent system (MAS). In this work, three objectives are achieved: trust, cooperation and privacy. The trust of agents depends on the credibility of trust evaluators, which is verified using the proposed methods of trust distortion, consistency and reliability. To en...
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Power electronic circuits in modern power supplies have improved the conversion efficiency on the one hand but have also increased harmonic emissions. Harmonic currents from the operation of these units affect the voltage waveforms of the network and could compromise the reliability of the network. Load and source non-linearity can, therefore, limi...
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Photovoltaic (PV) system has been extensively used over the last few years because it is a noise-free, clean, and environmentally friendly source of energy. Maximum Power Point (MPP) from the PV energy systems is a challenging task under modules mismatching and partial shading. Up till now, various MPP tracking algorithms have been used for solar P...
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A majority of the population of developing countries is associated with agriculture directly or indirectly. The liaison of engineering technology and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) can build a bridge for farmers to enhance their skills regarding advancements through future generation agriculture trends. The next-generation trends include bett...
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Internet-of-Things (IoT) has attained a major share in embedded software development. The new era of specialized intelligent systems requires adaptation of customized software engineering approaches. Currently, software engineering has merged the development phases with the technologies provided by industrial automation. The improvements are still...
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Citations are references used by researchers to recognize the contributions of researchers in their articles. Citations can be used to discover hidden patterns in the research domain, and can also be used to perform various analyses in data mining. Citation analysis is a quantitative method to identify knowledge dissemination and influence papers i...
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Smart and interconnected devices can generate meaningful patient data and exchange it automatically without any human intervention in order to realize the Internet of Things (IoT) in healthcare (HIoT). Due to more and more online security and data hijacking attacks, the confidentiality, integrity and availability of data are considered serious issu...
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Healthcare is one of the notable areas where the integration of the Internet of Things (IoT) is highly adopted, also known as the Medical IoT (MIoT). So far, MIoT is revolutionizing healthcare because it provides many advantages for the benefit of patients and healthcare personnel. The use of MIoT is becoming a booming trend, generating a large amo...
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Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have recently attracted widespread attention in civil and commercial applications. For example, UAVs (or drone) technology is increasingly used in crowd monitoring solutions due to its wider air footprint and the ability to capture data in real time. However, due to the open atmosphere, drones can easily be lost or c...
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Breast cancer (BC) is the most widely recognized cancer in women worldwide. By 2018, 627,000 women had died of breast cancer (World Health Organization Report 2018). To diagnose BC, the evaluation of tumours is achieved by analysis of histological specimens. At present, the Nottingham Bloom Richardson framework is the least expensive approach used...
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Agriculture is the primary source of income in developing countries like India. Agriculture accounts for 17 percent of India’s total GDP, with almost 60 percent of the people directly or indirectly employed. While researchers and planters focus on a variety of elements to boost productivity, crop loss due to disease is one of the most serious issue...
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The public sector provides open data to create new opportunities, stimulate innovation, and implement new solutions that benefit academia and society. However, open data is usually available in large quantities and often lacks quality, accuracy, and completeness. It may be difficult to find the right data to analyze a target. There are many rich op...
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Recent trends in the PV industry move towards utilizing bifacial PV panels. Unlike traditional PV panels, bifacial PV panels can yield energy from both sides of the panel. Manufactures specifies that bifacial PV panels can harness up to 30% more energy than traditional PV panels. Hence bi-facial PV panels are becoming a common approach at low solar...
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Many patients have begun to use mobile applications to handle different health needs because they can better access high-speed Internet and smartphones. These devices and mobile applications are now increasingly used and integrated through the medical Internet of Things (mIoT). mIoT is an important part of the digital transformation of healthcare,...
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With the increase in local energy generation from Renewable Energy Sources (RESs), the concept of decentralized P2P Local Energy Market (LEM) is becoming popular. In this chapter, a blockchain based LEM is investigated where consumers and prosumers in a small community trade energy without the need for a third party. In the proposed model, a Home E...
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The rapid deployment of Electric Vehicles (EVs), and usage of renewable energy in day-today activities of energy consumers have contributed towards the development of a greener smart community. However, load balancing problems, security threats, privacy leakages, and lack of incentive mechanisms remain unresolved. Many approaches have been used in...
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It is imperative to find new places other than Earth for the survival of human beings. Mars could be the alternative to Earth in the future for us to live. In this context, many missions have been performed to examine the planet Mars. For such missions, planetary precision landing is a major challenge for the precise landing on Mars. Mars landing c...
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In power systems, the programmable numerical differential relays are widely used for the protection of generators, bus bars, transformers, shunt reactors, and transmission lines. Retrofitting of relays is the need of the hour because lack of proper testing techniques and misunderstanding of vital procedures may result in under performance of the ov...
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This article presents an optimized microwave sensor for the non-contact measurement of complex permittivity and material thickness. The layout of the proposed sensor comprises the parallel combination of an interdigital capacitor (IDC) loaded at the center of the symmetrical differential bridge-type inductor fabricated on an RF-35 substrate (#r = 3...
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Crops are very important to the financial needs of a country. Due to various diseases caused by different pathogens, a large number of crops have been destroyed. As humanoids, our basic need is food for survival, and the most basic foundation of our food is agriculture. For many developing countries, it is mainly an important source of income. Bact...
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The generation of energy by conventional systems leads to several environmental issues. Fuel Cell (FC), being a new renewable energy source, has emerged as one of the promising alternatives to obtain clean and efficient energy generation. This paper highlights the power quality enhancement of the grid connected FC through a boost converter and 25 l...
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Gas-solid flow is used in the chemical industry, food industry, pharmaceuticals, vehicles, and power generation. The calculation of flow has aroused great interest in contemporary industry. In recent decades, researchers have been seeking to build an effective system to monitor and calculate gas-solid flow. Attempts have been extended from computat...
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Play Store reviews play an important role in demonstrating that decisions are made from the user's perspective, and contain a wealth of knowledge that can be used to understand quality issues and help developers build higher-quality mobile applications. Even for very important information, it can ensure the authenticity of user-generated content. I...
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Electrical power consumption and distribution and ensuring its quality are important for industries as the power sector mandates a clean and green process with the least possible carbon footprint and to avoid damage of expensive electrical components. The harmonics elimination has emerged as a topic of prime importance for researchers and industry...
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The device-to-device (D2D) technology performs explicit communication between the terminal and the base station (BS) terminal, so there is no need to transmit data through the BS system. The establishment of a short-distance D2D communication link can greatly reduce the burden on the BS server. At present, D2D is one of the key technologies in 5G t...
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Social networks have become an important venue to express the feelings of their users on a large scale. People are intuitive to use social networks to express their feelings, discuss ideas, and invite folks to take suggestions. Every social media user has a circle of friends. The suggestions of these friends are considered important contributions....
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Relational databases are still important in modern times due to their many advantages, such as ease of interaction, simplicity and data integrity. In this regard, structured query language (SQL) and technical knowledge about database schemas are the basic building blocks for retrieving information from relational databases. Generally, non-expert us...
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Controlling feedback control systems in continuous action spaces has always been a challenging problem. Nevertheless, reinforcement learning is mainly an area of artificial intelligence (AI) because it has been used in process control for more than a decade. However, the existing algorithms are unable to provide satisfactory results. Therefore, thi...
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The modern paradigm of the Internet of Things (IoT) has led to a significant increase in demand for latency-sensitive applications in Fog-based cloud computing. However, such applications cannot meet strict quality of service (QoS) requirements. The large-scale deployment of IoT requires more effective use of network infrastructure to ensure QoS wh...
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5G technology can greatly improve spectral efficiency (SE) and throughput of wireless communications. In this regard, multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technology has become the most influential technology using huge antennas and user equipment (UE). However, the use of MIMO in 5G wireless technology will increase circuit power consumption and...
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In a smart city, a large number of smart sensors are operating and creating a large amount of data for a large number of applications. Collecting data from these sensors poses some challenges, such as the connectivity of the sensors to the data center through the communication network, which in turn requires expensive infrastructure. The delay-tole...
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Accurate electricity consumption forecasting in the power grids ensures efficient generation and distribution of electricity. Keeping this in mind, the paper introduces a novel deep learning model, termed Gated-FCN, for short-term load forecasting. The key idea is to introduce an automated feature selection and deep learning model for forecasting....
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Electricity theft has emerged as one of the major reasons of Non-Technical Losses (NTLs) in the power distribution systems and has become a global issue. Therefore, power utilities are concerned about resolving the issue of electricity theft. In this regard, the data collected by Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) can be used to devise data-dri...
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Nowadays, sensors inserted in mobile applications are used for gathering data for an explicit assignment that can effectively save cost and time in crowd sensing networks (CSNs). The true value and essence of gathered statistics depend on the participation level from all the members of a CSN, i.e., service providers, data collectors, and service co...
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In this article, we investigate the wireless power transfer and energy-efficiency (EE) optimization problem for nano-empowered vehicular networks operating over the terahertz band. The nano-sensors in air can harvest energy from a power station and then can transmit the trace information to the micro-device under reconnaissance vehicular scenarios....
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Object detection plays a vital role in the fields of computer vision, machine learning, and artificial intelligence applications (such as FUSE-AI (E-healthcare MRI scan), face detection, people counting, and vehicle detection) to identify good and defective food products. In the field of artificial intelligence, target detection has been at its pea...
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Object detection plays a vital role in the fields of computer vision, machine learning and artificial intelligence applications (such as Fuse AI (E-Healthcare MRI Scan), face detection, people counting and vehicle detection) to identify good and defective food products. In the field of artificial intelligence, target detection has been at its peak,...