Morris B. Holbrook's research while affiliated with Columbia University and other places

Publications (205)

Article
This commentary revisits an oft-cited paper published in the Journal of Business Research, reviews the themes contained therein, speculates on why the paper garnered more than the usual attention from marketing and consumer researchers, and offers some suggestions as to where the relevant issues and ideas might lead in the future.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we document the evolution of research trends (concepts, methods, and aims) within the field of consumer behavior, from the time of its early development to the present day, as a multidisciplinary area of research within marketing. We describe current changes in retailing and real-world consumption and offer suggestions on how to us...
Chapter
Food consumption presents an opportunity more for memorable experiences than for mere physical nourishment. Almost any business report about the new trends in food includes experiences as the key drivers for the future of the industry. Everyone agrees that the food industry is witnessing a revolution as it evolves from serving utilitarian needs to...
Article
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relative impact, if any, of three main aspects of movie success (Simonton, 2009)—namely, reviewers’ ratings, opening box office, and Oscar nominations—as market cues that might influence consumers’ subsequent evaluative assessments. Based on public real‐world data, via path analysis on longitudinal ob...
Article
Purpose This essay traces the origins, development, and future of the consumption experience as a concept in marketing and consumer research. Design/methodology/approach The author relies on Subjective Personal Introspection (SPI) to describe his involvement in the introduction and elaboration of the consumption-experience concept. Findings Th...
Article
This essay pursues an approach that I call Subjective Personal Introspection (SPI) to comment on my own impressions concerning my experiences over the past fifty-plus years at one of our leading graduate schools of business. Herein, I trace my progress from MBA candidate to doctoral student to faculty member to retiree by suggesting ways in which –...
Article
Purpose In the fertile line of research on consumer value from the services literature, a gap exists between theoretical and empirical knowledge, in particular regarding Holbrook’s conceptual value framework. The present work seeks to find construct validity for a multidimensional value scale based on his proposal. Design/methodology/approach Ba...
Article
Purpose This paper describes the personal history and intellectual development of Morris B. Holbrook (MBH), a participant in the field of marketing academics in general and consumer research in particular. Design/methodology/approach The paper pursues an approach characterized by historical autoethnographic subjective personal introspection or HAS...
Article
In recent years, numerous marketing and organizational theorists have called attention to the analogy between jazz and management strategy. From the perspective of this jazz metaphor, key questions concern the implications of jazz training for marketing education. Too often—say, in motion pictures or television dramas—jazz is portrayed as an innoce...
Article
The present paper offers a new and potentially useful approach to the development of knowledge in the fields of marketing and consumer research. Specifically, it reports a dialogue between a doctoral student (Michael N. Woodward (MNW)) and a recently retired professor (Morris B. Holbrook (MBH)) in which MNW and MBH debate the meaning(s) of various...
Article
Greedy Bastards, eager to achieve success in the business world, need helpful advice on steps toward climbing to the top. Drawing on the author’s 35-plus years of experience in teaching MBAs, the present treatise offers tips in the form of a self-help tutorial intended as an inspirational guide. In that spirit, the discussion covers pertinent aspec...
Chapter
Full-text available
The concept of value has been recognized as fundamental to our understanding of marketing management (Day, 1999; Gale, 1994; Nilson, 1992) and has also influ-enced various paradigm shifts in marketing thought that have embraced the funda-mental importance of consumer value (Gallarza, Gil-Saura, & Holbrook, 2011). Among these new paradigms, relation...
Article
Grounded on fundamental marketing principles, the concept of customer value has been revisited and refined by academicians and practitioners for the last 30 years. However, research devoted to achieving a consistent theoretical and conceptual development of value-related concepts has proceeded apace without ever reaching full closure. The present e...
Article
Various studies have built models, using aggregate box-office data, to predict the contribution of a motion picture’s features to its theatrical demand. But such an approach fails to represent the heterogeneous influence of movie features on demographic groups and is unable to assist market-segmentation decisions. We propose and illustrate a new ap...
Article
Secondary real-world data on evaluations by the general public of the 440 movies ever nominated for the Best Picture Academy Award are used to explore the role of female/male consumers' identification with the leading actress/actor in determining judgments of motion picture excellence. Beyond identification, age- and gender-based similarities with...
Article
This essay argues that our grasp of marketing theory benefits from an awareness of the rags-to-riches ethos that characterizes the paradigmatic American Dream. In this connection, the essay presents a cinemusicaliterary analysis of how this -success-story ideal has shaped some artistic manifestations of the consumer culture in ways that have appear...
Article
Recent research has suggested that the personality trait of self-monitoring affects how people perceive the symbolic meanings of such products as clothes, furni ture, and other self-presentational props or possessions. In particular, Thompson and Davis (1988) found that high versus low self-monitors judged traditional fur niture styles as more aest...
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Marketing both reduces and contributes to consumer vulnerability. In this essay, the authors explore this paradoxical relationship. Complexities and nuances captured in existing definitions are revisited. The authors then share a more expansive perspective; they offer a new typology with hopes of drawing attention to multifaceted and conflicting ch...
Article
Consumer value has been widely recognised as a key factor in organisational management, marketing strategy and consumer behaviour. However, because of the scattered and non-conclusive pattern of research on this concept, no single conceptualisation or measurement has won universal acceptance. The present paper develops an approach to understanding...
Article
This paper explores the role of film music in creating meanings of concern to those with an interest in consumption, markets, and culture. Specifically, the paper examines ways in which the significance of ambi‐diegetic cinemusical moments – that is, music performed on‐screen (diegetic) in a manner that advances the dramatic development of plot, ch...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to discuss issues concerning the desirability of finding ways to close the gap between academic research and management practice – especially in the case of marketing and consumer research. Design/methodology/approach The issues are addressed by means of a personal essay. Findings The discussion adopts the extreme viewpoin...
Article
Full-text available
This introduction lays the groundwork for a special issue of the Journal of Business Research devoted to "Animal Companions, Consumption Experiences, and the Marketing of Pets." After some preliminary comments on the relevant background, the editors develop a conceptual scheme - based on a typology of consumer value - for organizing the contributio...
Article
This essay presents a personalized account that reflects some well-documented aspects of pets as animal companions — especially as they relate to the case of Rocky the Cat. The narrative begins with some oft-mentioned ramifications of viewing pets as friends and family. The common ingredient — namely, love — opens doors to various market-related op...
Article
This essay probes the critical dimensions of consumer‐culture theory (CCT) by investigating managerial tendencies toward integrating consumers from above or even imposing culture from on high, rather than viewing consumer culture as something that arises from the consumers themselves. Illustrations based on the use of background music or Muzak supp...
Article
Previous studies of the movie industry have raised questions concerning the problematic relationship between the success-related aspects of artistic excellence and commercial appeal. The present article proposes that—when the former is measured by industry recognition (Oscars and other awards) and the latter by market performance (box office and vi...
Article
Consumer value has been widely recognised as a key factor in organisational management, marketing strategy and consumer behaviour. However, because of the scattered and non-conclusive pattern of research on this concept, no single conceptualisation or measurement has won universal acceptance. The present paper develops in approach to understanding...
Article
Previous literature has inadequately facilitated the systematic selection of motion pictures for promotional actions. By contrast, in the present illustrative application, single-source data on movie attendance and on consumption in Spain permit the examination of a film's suitability for promoting a product by considering the match between attendi...
Article
Contrary to the beliefs of many managers, their companies' product and corporate brands cannot truly be managed, much less owned. That much has become clear in recent years as many well-known brands have seemed to take on lives of their own, changing in the minds of many even though management may think of them as immutable. In this article, the au...
Article
The theme of art-versus-commerce has surfaced in many motion pictures but serves here to juxtapose three otherwise disparate films that draw upon the power of jazz as a force toward the dramatic development of character, plot, central themes, and other cinemusical meanings. Specifically, via the significance of its ambi-diegetic music, New York, Ne...
Article
The use of ratings-based data in the branding of business schools raises familiar questions about the relationships between objective characteristics, subjective evaluations, and possible distortions where subjective impressions do not adequately reflect objective features. Such issues escalate when the relevant product category is education and wh...
Article
From the viewpoint of marketing theory and the potential blurring of the distinction between production and consumption in the sphere of arts, entertainment, and culture, we explore the lived tragedy and mythology of Chet Baker as an epiphenomenon of the market's thirst for self-destructing artists that has plagued jazz for much of the past century...
Article
The author's major disagreement with Gaski's commentary hinges on its tendency to ignore the broader context of the debate about managerial relevance. The author reviews this larger set of issues, with admittedly self-reflective attention to his own participation in this debate over the past quarter century.
Article
Earlier work has shown how jazz can deepen the meanings of a cinematic experience; can enrich the development of plot, character, or other dramatic themes in a motion picture; and can contribute to various aspects of a film’s significance. Conversely, the present essay focuses on how this cinemusical process can break down—leading to unsatisfactory...
Article
Previous studies of cultural consumption have found a significant but weak relationship between expert judgment (EJ) and popular appeal (PA) and have suggested that this "little taste" phenomenon reflects a mediating role played by ordinary evaluation (OE) in diluting the association between EJ and PA. However, various weaknesses in this work have...
Article
A metaphor based on the nature of jazz as a musical genre in general and on the sociopsychological process of jazz improvisation in particular has frequently surfaced in recent accounts of product innovation, brand positioning, team coordination, and organizational leadership from various areas of research on management and marketing strategy. As t...
Article
Previous research on the arts, entertainment, and other cultural objects has found, at most, a weak link between expert judgments of aesthetic excellence and audience appeal to nonexpert consumers. However, this tendency for audience appeal only weakly to reflect expert judgments of excellence raises the question of how this fragile relationship mi...
Article
One hundred and forty-nine verbal descriptions of consumption experiences were analyzed for important emotion-related terms. Similarity judgments on the resulting twenty-eight words were used to cluster the adjectives and to create a pictorial representation using multidimensional scaling. The results of the analyses support the eight basic emotion...
Article
In commenting on the art-versus-commerce theme, Bradshaw, McDonagh, and Marshall refer to its treatment in jazz-related films as “hackneyed” and “pedestrian.” In its place, they recommend various alternative perspectives—especially those devoted to empirical studies of everyday working musicians. But, in this, they obscure the tragic aspects of a g...
Article
This study illustrates the applicability of subjective personal introspection via a photographic essay that draws on written memoirs as a path to insights concerning the role of customer value in the consumption experience. Extending earlier work in this direction, the present research explores a set of sixty-year-old Kodachrome slides taken by the...
Article
Using the definitional framework developed by Frankfurt (2005) in his provocative philosophical treatise On Bullshit, this article explores the appropriateness and wisdom of allowing students and administrators to determine the content of business courses in higher education. The prevalence of Harvard case studies, the use of executive guest lectur...
Article
One key element in the product design of a motion picture, ambi-diegetic music – that is, cinemusical material that appears on-screen (like “diegetic” music) that advances the dramatic development of plot, character, or other important cinematic themes (like “non-diegetic” music) – helps to shape the meanings conveyed to a film's viewing audience....
Article
Readers interested in macro marketing likely surpass traditional marketers in their concern for aspects of art for art’s sake as opposed to art for mart’s sake. Macromarketers also likely are keen to expand their influence and to make broader contributions. In this spirit, this article examines the theme of art versus commerce via a semiotic analys...
Article
What Do We Produce in the “Knowledge Factory”and for Whom? A Review Essay of The Knowledge Factory by Stanley Aronowitz
Article
This essay applies the method of Subjective Personal Introspection (SPI) to a presentation of three vignettes that bear upon the dangers of educational and cultural populism. The story of Father White illustrates the problem of aesthetic insensitivity. Revisiting Mr. Holland indicates how this fictional music teacher panders to his students in a wa...
Article
This paper applies the method of subjective personal introspection (SPI or autoethnography) to the analysis of a photograph collection from the viewpoint of implications concerning the nature and types of customer value. Borrowing from the branch of philosophy known as axiology, this focus emphasizes the centrality of customer or consumer value to...
Article
If we define “good taste” as that prescribed by professional experts in a particular cultural field and ask whether ordinary consumers (non-experts or members of the mass audience) have “good taste,” the evidence from previous studies suggests that the relationship between expert judgments and popular appeal to ordinary consumers is significantly b...
Article
As the strategic commitment to customer orientation has penetrated all aspects of corporate life, including business education, various publications (e.g., Business Week) increasingly have been conducting polls that rank schools on criteria that include evaluations by their former students. These student evaluations reflect certain objective charac...
Article
As an important element in the product design of motion pictures, ambidiegetic music in films – appearing on-screen (diegetically) but helping to advance a film’s dramatic development (non-diegetically) – plays a key role in shaping the consumption experience of a movie audience. Further, ambi-diegetic music in films is a kind of product placement...
Article
Previous studies by Bourdieu and others have shown a tendency for cultural tastes to serve as status markers that distinguish members of social classes differing in economic capital (money, income, wealth) and cultural capital (family background, education, training). However, questions remain concerning the extent to which such findings—especially...
Article
The meaning of a brands is no longer the result of a dialogue between buyer and seller. The article proposes the dimension of abstraction and enactment, which we believe provide a broad and useful perspective on the novel developments taking place in branding today
Article
The recently awakened awareness of the past has produced a flurry of research directed towards understanding the nostalgic aspects of the human condition, towards investigating the role of nostalgia in the lives of consumers, and towards the application of such knowledge to the design of marketing strategies. With rare exceptions, however, such res...
Article
Studies of music, motion pictures, movie stars, and fashion products have shown that styles popular during a consumer's youth can influence the consumer's lifelong preferences. The authors present an integrative model of this phenomenon and propose that these nostalgic effects are not limited to products that relate to the arts and entertainment or...
Article
Recent studies of cultural activities in America have stressed the importance of three sorts of phenomena: (1) a boundary-effacement effect in which members of different classes are to some degree homogeneous in their preferences (colloquially, some things are liked or disliked by everybody); (2) an omnivore effect in which upscale people tend more...
Article
The authors extend the study of relational exchanges to consumer markets using brands as the units of analysis. They propose certain product-class determinants (perceived differences between brands, hedonic and utilitarian values, brand-choice risk) as determinants of brand commitment and brand outcomes (market share, advertising-to-sales ratio). W...
Article
The authors extend the study of relational exchanges to consumer markets using brands as the units of analysis. They propose certain product-class determinants (perceived differences between brands, hedonic and utilitarian values, brand-choice risk) as determinants of brand commitment and brand outcomes (market share, advertising-to-sales ratio). W...
Article
Considers the past, present and future of marketing. Whimsically but not without seriousness, concludes that marketing faces something of a Y2K problem. Indeed, as the next millennium begins, concludes that, though the marketing concept may survive, the marketing function itself is dead. Nonetheless, cautions against the concomitant extermination o...
Article
Two decades ago, (macro)marketing researchers awoke to the hedonic and experiential aspects of consumption—sometimes known as fantasies, feelings, and fun or the “three Fs.” More recent literature has further extended our view toward a broadened recognition of “four Es”—experience, entertainment, exhibitionism, and evangelizing. This essay presents...
Article
Marketing managers currently face an explosion of subjectivity. A glance at the business world reveals new solutions developed to offer customised products. Mass customisation is stressed by academicians in different ways. For example, relationship marketing emphasises the role of the relationship between a vendor and its customer, with particular...
Article
Two decades ago, (macro)marketing researchers awoke to the hedonic and experiential aspects of consumption—sometimes known as fantasies, feelings, or fun or the “three Fs.” More recent literature has further extended our view toward a broadened recognition of “four Es”—experience, entertainment, exhibitionism, and evangelizing. This essay presents...
Article
This paper reviews some recent contributions to the study of commercialism in popular culture in general and to our understanding of the role played by the Disney Corporation in particular. From the viewpoint of marketing theory, the paper examines the critique based on the hegemonic influence of Disney and the impact of the entertainment economy i...
Article
In an empirical study using five real-world creative teams from an advertising agency, participants were given a strategic brief for a new beverage product and asked to design the layout for a print ad. Think-aloud concurrent protocols obtained from each team's copywriter, art director, and the two working together were analyzed to examine the crea...
Article
The authors examine two aspects of brand loyalty, purchase loyalty and attitudinal loyalty, as linking variables in the chain of effects from brand trust and brand affect to brand performance (market share and relative price). The model includes product-level, category-related controls (hedonic value and utilitarian value) and brand-level controls...
Article
Parts 1 and 2 of this book‐review essay explore the symbiotic connection between exhibitionism and voyeurism in the lives of consumers. The two‐part essay (to be continued in the next issue of CM&C) places this exhibitionistic‐voyeuristic symbiosis (EVS) within the context of an emerging recognition of the “Four E's"‐experience, entertainment, exhi...
Article
mbh3@columbia.edu). Debra Lynn Stephens is a Visiting Associate Professor of Marketing, School of Business Administration, University of Portland, Portland, OR 97203 (503-283-7275; dlsinsight@aol.com). Ellen Day is Professor of Marketing, Terry College of Business, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (706-542-3769; eday@terry.uga.edu). Sarah M....
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In this article, the author reviews three works by the geodemographer Michael J. Weiss, concluding that his trilogy provides material of considerable value to marketing or consumer researchers concerned with understanding patterns of consumption or with the formulation of marketing strategy. A partial reservation involves the difficulty of comprehe...
Article
Two decades ago, (macro)marketing researchers awoke to the hedonic and experiential aspects of consumption—sometimes known as fantasies, feelings, and fun or the “three Fs.” More recent literature has further extended our view toward a broadened recognition of “four Es”—experience, entertainment, exhibitionism, and evangelizing. This essay reviews...
Article
The authors develop a comprehensive conceptualization of market evolution. Toward this end, they take an information-processing perspective on the problem, integrating this outlook with an evolutionary view of market development. Four stages of product-market development are identified in a parsimonious conceptual framework that subsumes a number o...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has examined mood as an antecedent of various consumption-related outcomes and has explored how consumers react to their moods via attempts at self-regulated consumption-based mood management. However, little attention has addressed mood as an affective outcome that reflects the dynamic unfolding of consumer experiences over time....
Article
Previous research has examined mood as an antecedent of various consumption-related outcomes and has explored how consumers react to their moods via attempts at self-regulated consumption-based mood management. However, little attention has addressed mood as an affective outcome that reflects the dynamic unfolding of consumer experiences over time....
Article
The author responds to a recent article in which Stephen Brown compares the work of Ted Levitt and Morris Holbrook, casts the two into a precursor-ephebe relationship, and concludes that they are "father and son, one and the same." Although honored by this comparison, the author mentions certain ways in which Brown's interpretations appear to disto...
Article
The authors contend that solutions to the most pressing environmental challenges will result from understanding and solving social traps such as the commons dilemma. They propose a synthesis for analysis and action to suggest that marketing's stakeholders can cooperate to contribute solutions and ultimately develop programs that help ameliorate the...
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This essay reviews some recent (macro)marketing literature on the subject of where we are and where we are going in our discipline as we approach the year 2000. It addresses some perplexing questions concerning the fate of contemporary consumers at the hands of the businesses that claim to serve them and raises some worrisome issues regarding the p...
Article
Cultural commentators addressing the differences between high art and mere entertainment have suggested that the standards of popular appeal governing the tastes of ordinary consumers differ from the criteria for excellence employed by professional critics in rendering expert judgments. These concerns appear in discussions of the cultural hierarchy...
Article
In marketing and consumer research, the application of subjective personal introspection, or SPI, to the understanding of one’s own consumption experiences benefits from the representation of such self-reflective insights in the most vivid and compelling manner possible. Toward the latter end, stereographic three-dimensional images may deepen the m...

Citations

... » (Rivière, 2020, p.25). Holbrook et Hirschman, 1982 ;Aurier et al., 2004 ;Gallarza et Gil-Saura, 2006Sanchez-Fernandez et Iniesta-Bonillo, 2006 ;Sanchez-Fernandez et Iniesta-Bonillo, 2007 ;Sanchez-Fernandez et al., 2009 ;Gallarza et al., 2011 ;Rivière et Mencarelli, 2012 ;Filser, 2013 ;Gummerus, 2013 ;Leroi-Werelds, Streukens, Brady et Swinnen, 2014 ;Guguen-Gicquel et Castéran, 2020 ;Holbrook, Sanchez-Fernandez et Gallarza, 2020. ...
... The single-dimensional approach describes customer value as the customer's general evaluation of a product or service (Yi et al., 2014), while the multidimensional approach explains customer value as the customer's evaluation of a product or service based on selected dimensions (Shen, 2016). A considerable number of studies have criticized the single-dimensional approach of describing customer value for being too simplistic or narrow (Sánchez-Fernández et al., 2009;Zauner et al., 2015) and not sufficient to gain competitive advantage (Lien et al., 2018). Based on the aforementioned critics, numerous researchers have proposed a multidimensional approach to examine customer value (P.-T. ...
... In their review of the present, past, and future of consumer research, Malter et al. (2020) highlight that technological changes significantly impact today's customer journey due to the major challenges and social trends associated with new technologies. Therefore, they urge researchers to connect previous research with new observations to deepen existing knowledge of consumer behavior. ...
... First question was "whether the participant had visited a luxury fine dining restaurant in Delhi in the past six months." The period of six months is suggested as participants can recall their engrossments and experiences (Addis & Holbrook, 2019;Gupta & Duggal, 2020;Keaveney, 1995). The next filter question was to mention the name of the luxury fine dining restaurants they visited (a list of top fifteen luxury fine dining restaurants as per Trip Advisor ratings of year 2019 along with their settings was provided to the respondents for selection). ...
... More importantly it enriches economic studies of the film market. Empirical studies have struggled to consistently find determinants of success in the creative industries, and in particular the film industry (Addis and Holbrook, 2018;Bielby and Bielby, 1994;Elliott and Simmons, 2008;Hofmann et al., 2017;Simonton, 2011). We believe this is a result of the fact that underlying quality conventions are dynamic. ...
... Holbrook and Hirschman observe that 'sensations, imagery, feelings, pleasures, and other symbolic or hedonic components, which are frequently paired together in experience tend to become mutually evocative ' (1982: 138). They lay out the foundations for an experiential approach, exposing the wide range of unconscious images, emotions and acts involved in the overall consumption experience (Holbrook, 2018). Holbrook and Hirschman (1982) also prompt the use of phenomenological, introspective, narrative-based research methods, marking a renewed interest in interpretive consumer research methods once originated in motivation research but by then largely forgotten (Tadajewski, 2006). ...
... However, on closer inspection, it is clear that there are some differences in each year. First, research in "Business education and training" received more attention in 2018 (Holbrook, 2018;D. Nguyen, 2018). ...
... To study the customer experience, online and offline, we chose the notion of perceived value as conceived by Holbrook (1999). It is particularly adequate for products with high emotional value (Gallarza et al. 2017). Indeed, it allows us to understand the consumer experience and its characteristics (Holbrook 1999;Rivière and Mencarelli 2012); it places the researcher at the core of the experience, to provide a holistic vision (Mencarelli 2008). ...
... Also known as autoethnography, me-search and SPI (Brown and Patterson 2021), introspection has been burgeoning since the beginning of the millennium, not least on account of its close affinity to netnography in general and auto-netnography in particular (Kozinets 2020;Shankar 2000;Wohlfeil 2018). Increasingly embraced by adjacent academic disciplines including geography, sociology and gender studies, "autoethnographic introspection" (Holbrook 2017) is now an established tool of the consumer research trade (Hackley 2016(Hackley , 2020Patterson 2010;Villegas 2018). ...
... These perspectives also offer the opportunity to engage secondary school students as co-experts, a data collection procedure used to enhance adolescents' views, without being contaminated by adult contexts. Moreover, the concept of a great teacher (Benekos, 2016;Holbrook, 2016;Robertson-kraft and Zhang, 2018) is used to maintain neutrality in the data collection process. This concept also makes it easier for the knowledge of students, compared to the use of more normative and professional techniques, as well as class bias (Sachs, 2016). ...