Molly Babel's research while affiliated with University of British Columbia - Vancouver and other places

Publications (94)

Article
Full-text available
Listeners entertain hypotheses about how social characteristics affect a speaker’s pronunciation. While some of these hypotheses may be representative of a demographic, thus facilitating spoken language processing, others may be erroneous stereotypes that impede comprehension. As a case in point, listeners’ stereotypes of language and ethnicity pai...
Article
This paper examines two plausible mechanisms supporting sound category adaptation: directional shifts towards the novel pronunciation or a general category relaxation of criteria. Focusing on asymmetries in adaptation to the voicing patterns of English coronal fricatives, we suggest that typology or synchronic experience affect adaptation. A corpus...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT With the growth of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) and voice user interface software, it is important to test for efficacy across different language varieties and identify sources of bias. Recent work assessing ASR efficacy and bias implicates factors like race, gender, dialect, and age as leading to different efficacy...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT Listeners use lexical knowledge to guide the perception of phonetically ambiguous speech sounds and for retuning phonetic category boundaries. While phonetic ambiguity has many sources, diachronic sound changes represent a more systematic form of phonetic variation. Sound changes may neutralize the phonetic and phonologica...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT Sound contrasts are redundantly cued in the speech stream by acoustic features spanning various time scales. Listeners are presented with evidence for a particular category at various temporal intervals, and must coalesce this information into a coherent percept to accurately achieve recognition. Previous work on tone lang...
Preprint
This study examines whether social evaluation and intelligibility affect judgments of perceived credulity. Canadian English listeners (i) completed a speech-in-noise task, (ii) judged if sentences were true, and (iii) rated voices on social dimensions. A Bayesian analysis showed that neither social evaluation nor intelligibility substantially influ...
Preprint
In Cantonese and several other Chinese languages, /n/ is merging with /l/. The Cantonese merger appears categorical, with /n/ becoming /l/ word-initially. This project aims to describe the status of /n/ and /l/ in bilingual Cantonese and English speech to better understand individual differences at the interface of crosslinguistic influence and sou...
Preprint
A recent model of sound change posits that the direction of change is determined, at least in part, by the distribution of variation within speech communities (Harrington, Kleber, Reubold, Schiel, & Stevens, 2018; Harrington & Schiel, 2017). We explore this model in the context of bilingual speech, asking whether the less variable language constrai...
Preprint
Listeners need to accommodate pronunciations that vary widely. Lexically-guided perceptual adaptation has been well documented in the literature, but relatively little is known about its limits. Moreover, there are at least two plausible mechanisms supporting adaptation for sound categories: targeted shifts towards the novel pronunciation or a gene...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT Cantonese is typically described as having 6 lexical tones. There are reports, however, of three mergers-in-progress; the contrasts between Tone (T) 2 and T5 [Baueret al., LVC 15(2), 211–225 (2003)], T3 and T6, and T4 and T6 [Moket al., LVC 25(3), 341–370 (2013)] are becoming neutralized. Previous work examined the percept...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT Previous research has shown that implicit or explicit knowledge about a language lends itself to improved talker recognition performance. In the context of this language familiarity effect, it is apparent that bilinguals are better at generalizing voice learning across their known languages compared to monolingual listener...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT An individual's voice is determined in part by the limitations of their anatomy and physiology, in addition to language-specific phonological and phonetic structure. When a bilingual switches between languages, how much do they change their voice? Previous work using a corpus of spontaneous speech from early Cantonese-Engl...
Chapter
This chapter examines the relationship among a suite of voice evaluation metrics—vocal attractiveness, voice typicality, gender categorization fluency, intelligibility, acoustic similarity, and perceptual similarity—in a set of 60 American English voices with the goal of understanding how these evaluation metrics predict listeners’ abilities to acc...
Preprint
When a bilingual switches languages, do they switch their "voice"? Using a new conversational corpus of speech from early Cantonese-English bilinguals (N = 34), this paper examines the talker-specific acoustic signature of bilingual voices. Following prior work in voice quality variation, 24 filter and source-based acoustic measurements are estimat...
Article
ʔayʔaǰuθəm (Comox-Sliammon) is a Central Salish language spoken in British Columbia with a large fricative inventory. Previous impressionistic descriptions of ʔayʔaǰuθəm have noted perceptual ambiguity of select anterior fricatives. This paper provides an auditory-acoustic description of the four anterior fricatives /θ s ʃ ɬ/ in the Mainland dialec...
Article
Bilinguals are capable of retuning phonetic categories in both languages through lexically-guided perceptual learning, but recent work suggests that some bilingual speakers may lose the ability to adapt in the native language. In the study reported here, early Cantonese-English bilinguals, who are on average English-dominant, successfully retuned C...
Poster
Speech is incredibly variable, yet listeners have little difficulty adapting to new talkers. One proposed mechanism for how listeners rapidly map novel variants to established categories is perceptual learning. This study is a web replication of our previous work, which implements a version of perceptual learning that leverages lexical knowledge to...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT Cantonese is generally described as having a six tone system, composed of 3 level, 2 rising, and 1 falling tones. Researchers have observed that several of these tones have been merging; for example, Tone (T) 2 and T5 [Bauer et al., LVC 15(2), 211–225 (2003)], T3 and T6, and T4 and T6 [Mok et al., LVC 25(3), 341–370 (2013)...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT This paper explores variability in English /s/-/ʃ/ production and perception across the North American West. Although this dialect region has long been considered monolithic, recent work has begun to explore the phonetic diversity within the region. However, much of this work has investigated vocalic variation, and sibilan...
Poster
Similar sibilants in different languages can differ in their trajectories, even when other cues fail to differentiate them [Reidy, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 140, 2518 (2016)]. Whether bilinguals—whose languages influence each other in a multitude of ways—would maintain such a difference in sibilant production across their two languages remains an open qu...
Article
Background/aims: Lexically guided perceptual learning in speech is the updating of linguistic categories based on novel input disambiguated by the structure provided in a recognized lexical item. We test the range of variation that allows for perceptual learning by presenting listeners with items that vary from subtle within-category variation to...
Article
Visual primes that suggest social attributes about a talker can affect listeners' speech perception. Recent work by Babel and Russell [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137 (2015)] showed that speech intelligibility can decrease when listeners are shown a picture of the speaker when the talker is ethnically Chinese than when the talker is not. They reason that l...
Article
Full-text available
In perceiving spoken language, listeners not only recognize and comprehend the intended meaning of the speaker’s words and phrases; they also assess the social dimensions of the speaker. In the present study, we ask whether perceptual learning — a process by which listeners adapt to novel pronunciations — is modulated by listeners’ social preferenc...
Article
The Atlas of North America English distinguishes "the West" from "Western Canada" on the basis of /æ/ retraction and Canadian Raising (Labov, Ash, and Boberg 2006). Since the Atlas, scholars have provided a more detailed understanding of /æɡ/ raising, /æ/retraction, and Canadian Raising throughout the Western United States and Western Canada (Bober...
Article
Listeners are better at remembering voices speaking in familiar languages and accents, and this finding is often dubbed the language-familiarity effect (LFE). A potential mechanism behind the LFE relates to a combination of listeners’ implicit knowledge about lower level phonetic cues and higher level linguistic processes. While previous work has e...
Poster
Bilingual speakers are typically unbalanced in their vocabularies in each language, with each language’s lexicon being representative of the experiences and domains in which the bilingual uses that language. This can create a challenge in creating word lists for speech experiments, as the frequency counts from publicly available corpora do not repr...
Article
Spoken language is highly variable with phonetic variation that is attributable to multiple dimensions, including, but not limited to, differences in dialect, mood, native language, sociolinguistic dimensions, and talker-specific idiosyncrasies. Phonetic variation has documented effects on other aspects of linguistic processing. For example, Sumner...
Article
Full-text available
Phoneme recognition and speech intelligibility can be affected by purely social factors, such as beliefs about or attitudes toward speakers of varying races and ethnicities (e.g., Babel & Russell, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137 [2015]). The current study examined whether implicit and explicit attitudes about people from South Asian (SA) affect the intelli...
Article
A listeners' ability to comprehend one speaker against a background of other speech—a phenomenon dubbed the cocktail party problem—varies according to the properties of the speech streams and the listener. Although a number of factors that contribute to a listener's ability to successfully segregate two simultaneous speech signals have been identif...
Article
en Studies of ethnolinguistic variation typically begin by describing the speech production variables used to index social groups. In this study, we begin with indexical recognition – the perceptual identification of speakers’ self‐identified ethnic groups – to determine whether speakers produce ethnolinguistic variation and whether listeners are s...
Article
Dialects and languages are socially meaningful signals that provide indexical and linguistic information to listeners. Are the indexical categories that are shared across languages used in cross-linguistic processing? To answer this question English (L1)-Māori (L2) bilingual New Zealanders participated in a priming experiment which included English...
Article
Speech convergence is the tendency of talkers to become more similar to someone they are listening or talking to, whether that person is a conversational partner or merely a voice heard repeating words. To elucidate the nature of the mechanisms underlying convergence, this study uses different levels of task difficulty on speech convergence within...
Article
Studies on perceptual learning are motivated by phonetic variation that listeners encounter across speakers, items, and context. In this study, the authors investigate what control the listener has over the perceptual learning of ambiguous /s/ pronunciations through inducing changes in their attentional set. Listeners' attention is manipulated duri...
Article
Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian Englis...
Article
Research has shown that processing dynamics on the perceiver's end determine aesthetic pleasure. Specifically, typical objects, which are processed more fluently, are perceived as more attractive. We extend this notion of perceptual fluency to judgments of vocal aesthetics. Vocal attractiveness has traditionally been examined with respect to sexual...
Article
Full-text available
This study reports on male and female Californians' ratings of vocal attractiveness for 30 male and 30 female voices reading isolated words. While ratings by both sexes were highly correlated, males generally rated fellow males as less attractive than females did, but both females and males had similar ratings of female voices. Detailed acoustic an...
Article
Phonetic imitation is the unintentional, spontaneous acquisition of speech characteristics of another talker. Previous work has shown that imitation is strongly moderated by social preference in adults, and that social preference affects children's speech acquisition within peer groups. Such findings have led to the suggestion that phonetic imitati...
Article
Studies of phonetic convergence using single-word auditory naming tasks offer insight into how variability in stimuli affect the translation from speech perception to speech production. In this paper, we report on an experiment which compares phonetic convergence in single-word production between high variability (mixed talker condition) or low var...
Article
Race, gender, and age have traditionally been considered the three big social categories perceivers attend to. Recent research has highlighted how perceivers, listeners in this case, use the acoustic-phonetic information from spoken language to evaluate and categorize individuals. For example, studies have shown that different dialects elicit varyi...
Article
The two branches of Western Numic are the Mono and Northern Paiute languages. We argue that this taxonomic structure did not arise as usually assumed in historical linguistics, through increased differentiation brought about by changes internal to each branch, but rather that diffusion between Western and Central Numic played a crucial role in form...
Article
The nonsibilant English fricatives /f/ and /θ / are known to be acoustically nonrobust. Using /f/ and /θ/ stimuli produced in CV, VCV, and VC syllables in /i α u/ contexts spoken by 10 talkers (5 male), we first replicate previous research suggesting that the most robust cues to this contrast are in the formant transitions in adjacent vowels. We al...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines spontaneous phonetic accommodation of a dialect with distinct categories by speakers who are in the process of merging those categories. We focus on the merger of the NEAR and SQUARE lexical sets in New Zealand English, presenting New Zealand participants with an unmerged speaker of Australian English. Mergers-in-progress are a...
Poster
Full-text available
How does similarity between individual voices affect listener judgments of imitation? • Phonetic imitation: Talkers spontaneously adopt the speech characteristics from other speakers (e.g., Goldinger 1998, Honorof et al. 2011, Namy et al. 2002). • Perceptual space: Listeners perceive relative differences between sounds and cognitively organize th...
Article
Studies of accommodation show that some talkers are perceived as accommodating more than others. One possibility is that the similarity of the shadower's voice to a model talker's can account, in part, for the amount of perceived accommodation. To determine this, we conducted an auditory naming task having eight model talker voices previously rated...
Article
We conducted an auditory naming task (n = 20) using eight model talker voices previously rated for attractiveness and prototypicality such that the most attractive, least attractive, most typical, and least typical voice for each gender served as a model talker. Female shadowers accommodated more than males, particularly to the Most Attractive Fema...
Article
This study reports on three populations' ratings of vocal attractiveness for 30 male and 30 female voices producing isolated words. Equal numbers of male and female listeners were recruited from three dialect areas: northern California, western Canada, and Minnesota. Attractiveness ratings across dialects were highly correlated, particularly for fe...
Article
This study investigates whether socio-indexical labelling operates under a shared or a separate system across the two languages of a bilingual talker-listener. We argue for a shared system, showing that L1 indexical labels interact with L2 indexical labels during speech perception. In particular, we investigate the effect of ethnic dialect on bilin...
Article
Previous research on vowel realizations within the formant space has found effects for lexical factors such as word frequency in both laboratory settings (Wright, 2004; Munson & Solomon, 2004; and others) and in spontaneous speech (Gahl, Yao, & Johnson, 2012). In addition to lexical factors, semantic context has also been found to influence vowel r...
Article
Northern Paiute is a member of the Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. It is spoken across the Great Basin in the western United States - from Mono Lake in California, on the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada, through western Nevada and into southeastern Oregon and southwestern Idaho, as well as in a discontinuous region in southeast...
Article
Previous research has argued that fundamental frequency is a critical component of phonetic accommodation. We tested this hypothesis in an auditory naming task with two conditions. Participants in an unfiltered condition completed an auditory naming task with a single male model talker. A second group of participants was assigned to a filtered cond...
Article
Spontaneous phonetic imitation is the process by which a talker comes to be more similar-sounding to a model talker as the result of exposure. The current experiment investigates this phenomenon, examining whether vowel spectra are automatically imitated in a lexical shadowing task and how social liking affects imitation. Participants were assigned...
Article
While the role of auditory saliency is well accepted as providing insight into the shaping of phonological systems, the influence of visual saliency on such systems has been neglected. This paper provides evidence for the importance of visual information in historical phonological change and synchronic variation through a series of audio-visual exp...
Article
Sound symbolism is the non-arbitrary association of sound and meaning. Experiment 1 demonstrates that sound symbolic associations facilitate the online processing of male and female voices when the target words contain the vowels /A/ and /i/ for male and female voices, respectively, when listeners are engaged in a speeded gender identification task...
Conference Paper
Research suggests that phonetic imitation is an automatic and subconscious process, but it is clearly a behavior that is variable across participants and conditions. This experiment explores how a participant's amount and type of attention to the speech signal moderates their amount and type of imitation. Six paired conditions varied the activities...
Article
There is a clear link between the discourse status of a word and the degree of reduction. For instance, Gregory [Dissertation (2002)] provided evidence that hearer knowledge affected reduction in production for discourse-old items. Lexical information, such as word frequency, also plays a crucial role in the degree of reduction [Fosler-Lussier and...
Article
This study reports data from four experiments exploring the interplay of meta‐linguistic analyzes and lower level tasks with the goal of understanding how judgments of vocal aesthetics and voice typicality affect voice and phoneme processing. In the first, speakers of west coast North American English rated the attractiveness of 60 American English...
Conference Paper
Research suggests that phonetic imitation is an automatic and subconscious process, but it is clearly a behavior that is variable across participants and conditions. The purpose of this experiment is to explore how a participant’s level of attention to the speech signal moderates their degree of imitation. To this end, six conditions were prepared...
Article
Structural change in a language are considered nearly inevitable consequences of language death (Campbell and Muntzel 1989; Wolfram 2002). The literature on sound change in endangered languages has focused on whether the changes are internally or externally motivated, and, therefore, the difference between categorical sound shifts and gradient phon...
Article
Both frication noise and formant transitions have been argued to be important cues in sibilant perception. Additionally, the availability of coarticulatory cues to adjacent segments in vowel transitions has been argued to be asymmetric; more coarticulatory information is available in vowel onsets. Less research has examined how the use of cues may...
Article
We report the results from experiments aimed at measuring linguistic influences on speaker discrimination. In experiment 1, listeners heard two speakers in each trial (10 total speakers balanced within and across gender), each saying a single English word with a 100 ms ISI. Listeners were asked to determine whether the two words were spoken by the...
Article
This study explores fine-grained phonetic vocal characteristics that underpin vocal attractiveness. In general, while it is well known that F0 plays a major role in such judgments [see, e.g., Riding et al. (2006)] there is a distinct lack of more detailed examinations of the phenomenon [see Zuta (2007) for a notable exception]. Moreover, the term "...
Article
Recent research has been concerned with whether speech accommodation is an automatic process or determined by social factors (e.g. Trudgill 2008). This paper investigates phonetic accommodation in New Zealand English when speakers of NZE are responding to an Australian talker in a speech production task. NZ participants were randomly assigned to ei...
Article
It is well established that people imitate fine phonetic detail of another talker in shadowing tasks [Goldinger, Psych. Rev. 105, 251-279 (1998)] and in interactive conversation [Pardo, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119, 2382-2393 (2006)]. That is, the acoustic characteristics of a model talker's production (MTP) are more similar to a participant's shadowed...
Article
This guide accompanies the following article: Benjamin Munson and Molly Babel, ‘Loose Lips and Silver Tongues, or, Projecting Sexual Orientation through Speech’, Language and Linguistics Compass 4/2 (2010): DOI:10.1111/j.1749-818x.2009.00028.x Although language and the male–female gender dichotomy have been topics revisited throughout the course of...
Article
Two speech perception experiments explored the auditory basis of distinctive features. Experiment 1 found that Dutch listeners rated [s] and [ʃ] as more similar to each other than American English listeners did. We attributed this to the lack of a phonemic distinction between [s] and [ʃ] in Dutch phonology in addition to their relationship via a pr...
Article
Full-text available
words were implemented in the task design: CV ( mat) 'checkmate', CjV ( mjat) 'rumpled', CjjV (su djja) 'judge', and CjijV (z mjiju) 'snake'. The stimuli were formatted as one of the four aforementioned sequences with a vowel /a u i/ and one of six possible onsets: /m v b d l r/. In the similarity rating task, a repeated measures ANOVA found main e...
Article
It is well established that people imitate fine phonetic detail of another talker in shadowing tasks [Goldinger, Psychol. Rev. 105, 251–279 (1998)] and in interactive conversation [Pardo, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119, 2382–2393 (2006)]. That is, the acoustic characteristics of a model talker’s production (MTP) are more similar to a participant’s shadowe...
Article
Structural change in a language are considered nearly inevitable consequences of language death (Campbell and Muntzel 1989; Wolfram 2002). The literature on sound change in endangered languages has focused on whether the changes are internally or externally motivated, and, therefore, the difference between categorical sound shifts and gradient phon...
Article
This paper reports on an experiment that examines the socially motivated status of phonetic convergence. This is done by comparing social and asocial conditions in a lexical shadowing task. The social condition includes a photo of the talker while the asocial condition does not. The lexical shadowing task consists of the presentation of 50 low-freq...
Article
The notion that an individual's sexual orientation can be ascertained through distinctive speech patterns abounds in popular culture. This article reviews the small but growing body of literature examining whether sexual orientation is conveyed and perceived through speech. These studies show some individuals speak in a way that conveys their sexua...
Article
This research explores listeners perception of non‐speech stimuli across languages. We will report on two experiments conducted with the same stimuli. The stimuli were synthesized from naturally produced vowel‐fricative‐vowel sequences consisting the fricatives [f, th, s, sh, x, h], and the vowel environments [i—i, a—a, u—u]. The vowels were synthe...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the difference between basic psycho-acoustic auditory perception and language-specific perception of speech sounds. This was examined in two experiments with American English and Russian listeners. Results suggest that listeners' language does not influence auditory perception, but does affect the rated perceptual similarity...
Article
This research explores language‐specific perception of speechsounds. This paper discusses two experiments: experiment 1 is a speeded forced‐choice AX discrimination task and experiment 2 is a similarity rating task. Experiment 1 was intended to investigate the basic auditory perception of the listeners. It was predicted that listeners’ native langu...
Article
This article investigated the development of phonological encoding in speech production by examining the production of reiterant two-word sequences varying in phonological similarity. Two groups of typically developing children and a group of college-aged adults participated. Both groups of children produced target words with longer durations when...
Article
Previous research [Sevald and Dell, Cognition 53, 91-127 (1994)] has found that reiterant sequences of CVC words are produced more quickly when the prime word and target word share VC sequences (i.e., sequences like sit sick) than when they are identical (sequences like sick sick). Even slower production rates are found when primes and targets shar...

Citations

... The quality of the evidence is mixed, however, with some finding support for expectations exerting influence in both intelligibility and accentedness (e.g., [19]), only accentedness (e.g., [22]), or a mixed bag (e.g., [24]) when intelligibility and accentedness are investigated in tandem. Whether adaptation to accent and ethnicity associations is targeted or global is also mixed [26,27]; recent evidence in support of both targeted and global adaptation mechanisms at work in lexically-guided perceptual adaptation is presented in Babel et al. [30]. The conflicting results within this body of literature may be expected due to the uniqueness of the subject population-rarely are the social and linguistic experiences of the listener population described at length-and the specific social associations and demographic facts of a speech community. ...
... The use of differentiated training procedures allowed for the isolation of different encoding strategies: the focus of attention during speech encoding -being directed towards linguistic or talker-related information -increases the salience of specific features of the speech signal's representation. Depending on which kind of information is encoded, the application of such strategies results in enhanced behavioural performances in tasks where the encoded information is needed (McAuliffe & Babel, 2016;McGuire & Babel, 2020;Theodore, Blumstein, & Luthra, 2015). ...
... Refer to Chapter 4 (AXB-2) for analysis and discussion of the effect of wordhood on perception. Babel 2007). Of particular interest, Shadle et al. (1996, cited in Tabain 1998 showed that the quality of non-strident fricatives is affected by the backness/roundness of the following vowel. ...
... However, building mental models of individual voice spaces requires substantial experience with specific talkers. Lacking wide familiarity with how a person's voice varies across changing contexts, it is challenging to recognize that two voice samples come from the same talker ("telling voices together"; Johnson et al., 2020;Lavan et al., 2019b). Consistent with this view, recent evoked potential data (Plant-H ebert et al., 2021) showed that responses to familiar and unfamiliar voices vary with time window as well as familiarity status, implying a two-step process beginning with the evaluation of shared features, and moving on to incorporation of idiosyncratic features as needed for familiar voices. ...
... There is one article on the Panoan language Ch acobo (Elias-Ulloa and Tallman, 2020). There is one article on ?ay?a uh@m (Comox-Sliammon, Mellesmoen and Babel, 2020) which is a Salishan language. There is one article on Nungon (Sarvasy et al., 2020) which from the Trans-New Guinea language family. ...
... These results held across two different talkers' idiosyncratic productions, suggesting that these experiments indexed general properties of adaptation and learning in speech perception. English was the language examined here, and future research is needed in order to examine whether these patterns will generalize to other languages (e.g., Burchfield et al., 2017;Chan et al., 2020;Norris et al., 2003). Across experiments, perceptual learning was dependent on cumulative and consistent exposure to ambiguous tokens in lexically biasing contexts. ...
... When faced with a stimulus containing an ambiguous speech sound, for example, listeners are thought to take advantage of the lexical information present in the stimulus to adjust their internal boundaries of category representation to include the ambiguous phoneme (Eisner and McQueen, 2005). Lexically guided learning is more robust for more ambiguous stimuli, with learning reduced for maximally or minimally altered stimuli (Babel et al., 2019). ...
... Zellou and Pycha's (2018) study is about the acoustic information in a vowel for both a following labial consonant and the physical height of the talker. Babel, Senior, and Bishop (2019) analyzed whether listeners' adaptation to a new spoken accent was influenced by the pleasantness of a speaker's voice. Bradlow, Blasingame, and Lee (2018) conducted a sentence recognition experiment in order to determine how first and second language processing are affected by speaker intelligibility. ...
... Crucially, just as words are not all equal in speech processing (see review in [30]), not all voices are equally memorable and a wide-range of talker-and listener-based factors affect voice recognition performance. For example, listeners are more accurate at identifying and recognizing voices of native or familiar languages (e.g., [31,32,33,34,35]. Within an accent or dialect, distinctiveness is predictive of voice recognition, such that more distinctive voices are recalled with higher accuracy [36,37,38,39,40]. ...
... This effect was not found for speakers identifying as White Canadians, suggesting that listeners associate Chinese faces with less intelligible, non-native accents. On-going projects are further examining the extent to which intelligibility is influenced by listeners' attitudes towards the perceived ethnicity of the speakers (Vasandani, Babel, & Munson, 2018). In the current study, the potential effect of listeners' attitudes was kept to a minimum by not informing listeners on the language background of the child they were listening to (bilingual Turkish-Dutch or monolingual Dutch) and by presenting only auditory stimuli rather than video recordings (see Section 4 for details on the method). ...