Miriam Polne-Fuller's research while affiliated with University of California, Santa Barbara and other places

Publications (32)

Article
Detergent soluble extracts of differentiated regions of the Porphyra perforata J. Ag. thallus (holdfast, rhizoidal, vegetative and reproductive cells) were fractionated on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels. Glycoproteins were identified by their lectin affinity. Extracts from all areas of the thallus contained glycoproteins, but the staini...
Article
Marine amoebae were isolated during a search for organisms which degrade cell walls of seaweed. One of the isolates, a multinucleated amoeba (referred to here as Amoeba-I-7 or Am-I-7) was isolated from live tissues of the brown seaweed Sargassum muticum. It digested a variety of brown and red seaweeds including their walls and cuticles. Axenic clon...
Article
Protoplasts isolated from thalli of four Porphyra species regenerated successfully into differentiated plantlets. The efficiency of protoplast isolation and the developmental patterns of the regenerating protoplasts depended on the type of tissues from which they were isolated. However, culture conditions greatly influenced the patterns of developm...
Article
Lithium chloride facilitates the softening of cell walls resulting in a simple, quick (2 h) method for DNA extraction from the red seaweed Porphyra perforata J. Agardh. A 5-min treatment of tissues in Lid at 55°C extracts DNA that is relatively free of the viscous polysaccharides and proteins that are usually coextracted in large amounts from cell...
Article
A semidifferentiated tissue culture consisting of linear filaments in liquid suspension was established from Acrosiphonia coalita, a cold-water green macroalga known to express pharmacologically active oxylipins deriving from lipoxygenase metabolism of linolenic acid. The tissue was vegatively propagated by blending the filaments down to 1 to 5 mm...
Article
Cell ultrastructure of the holdfast and vegetative and reproductive areas of the sexually mature blade of Porphyra perforata was studied. Cell wall thickness decreased from very thick in holdfast and non-dividing vegetative cells to thin in dividing vegetative cells. Cytoplasmic concentric membrane bodies (CMBs) contributing to abundant extracellul...
Article
The mechanical properties of various differentiated regions of thePorphyra perforata thallus and the effect of LiCl were studied by performing compression and tension tests. Among the various differentiated tissues, the holdfast area was high in its compressive modulus of elasticity and tensile modulus of elasticity, possibly related to its thick m...
Article
The ability to rapidly distinguish viable sub-populations of cells within populations of macroalgal protoplast isolations was demonstrated using flow cytometry. Viable protoplasts from Ulva sp. and Porphyra perforata J. Ag. were distinguished from non-viable protoplasts based on differential fluorescein accumulation. The identities of cortical and...
Article
Various tissue-specific markers in differentiated regions of the Porphyra perforata J. Agardh thallus were identified by comparing the differential display derived from RNA polymerase chain reaction (RNA-PCR) with arbitrary primers. Total RNA was extracted by the LiCl-guanidinium method from six regions of differentiated thallus: male tissue, femal...
Article
A rapid and economical method of DNA extraction from a red seaweedPorphyra perforata J. Agardh has been developed by the use of lithium chloride. This paper describes the optimization of extraction conditions. Heat treatment of tissues in a solution (0.8 M LiCl, 0.6% Sarkosyl, 10 mM EDTA, 0.2% PVPP, 5% -mercaptoethanol, pH 9.0) at 55 C for 10 min e...
Article
Four strains of agarolytic bacteria were isolated from a tar-ball that drifted ashore. Their gliding motility, cyclic morphological change and NaCl requirement for growth suggested that they belong to the genus Microscilla, which is the marine counterpart of Flexibacter. The growth of the isolates were generally mesophilic, moderately halophilic an...
Article
Viable protoplasts were isolated from apices of the agarophyte Gelidium robustum (Gardn.) Hollenb. & Abb. using a combination of commercial cell-wall degrading enzymes and extracellular wall-degrading enzymes isolated from a marine bacterium. The protoplasts were approximately 8–15 m in diameter, liberated mainly from the surface cell layers and fr...
Article
Full-text available
Enhanced growth of macroalgae was observed on High Purity Agar, a product of Coast Biologicals Limited of Auckland New Zealand. Increases in rates of cell divisions and tissue differentiation occurred in green and red seaweeds. Protoplasts, spores, and vegetative thalli were all affected. The enhancement of growth and differentiation was concentrat...
Article
The binding characteristics of 7 different FITC-conjugated lectins with 7 species and 1 strain of marine amoebae were examined. This survey identified 8 different binding compartments in the cell. Although there was little congruity in binding action, even within a single genus, the survey did highlight cases where lectin binding has diagnostic app...
Article
A long-chain chloroalkane, 1-chlorooctadecane, was biotransformed by a marine amoeba, Trichosphaerium I-7, and utilized by this organism as a carbon source. Haloalkane metabolism was accompanied by marked cell darkening which may represent xenobiotic-induced melanin biosynthesis. Radiolabelled carbon atoms derived from 1-chloro[1-14C]octadecane wer...
Article
The marine amoeba Trichosphaerium Am-I-7 was used as a tool for preparing unialgal axenic cultures of nondigestible Symbiodinium and Porphyridium species. The resistance of these unicellular algae to the amoebal digestive enzymes, and the differential digestion of bacteria, protozoans, and other algae, resulted in cleansed cells of Symbiodinium and...
Article
We have been studying animal/plant symbiosis using a model system of a single cell plant, the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium. We have cultured the two partners as a consortium as well as independently. We have been describing the life history of the newly isolated and poorly known amoeba, and investigating its interactions, with several spec...
Article
A marine amoeba, Trichosphaerium I-7, originally found feeding on macroalgae in a region of natural oil seepage, was maintained in the laboratory for prolonged periods on hexadecane, octadecane, 1-chlorooctadecane, or 1-bromooctadecane as a carbon source. The cells attached readily and eroded holes in thin layers of these compounds. Crystalline and...
Article
A crude enzyme preparation from the marine amoeba Trichosphaerium was used to produce protoplasts from Sargassum muticum, Macrocystis pyrifera Porphyra perforata, and other red and brown marcroalgae. Cortical and medullary protoplasts of Sargassum, which were impossible to obtain using mixtures of previously available enzymes have now been prepared...
Article
Photosynthetic rates measured in protoplasts isolated from the brown alga Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) Ag. were compared to those for intact tissue. Both ¹⁴C incorporation and Oâ evolution gave similar rates of light-saturated protoplast photosynthesis (approximately 0.4 mmol{center dot}g chl a⁻¹{center dot}min⁻¹). Light saturated photosynthe...
Article
Various abalones and sea-hares from California and Brittany (France) were surveyed for their cellulase, fucanase, protease and alginate lyase activities. The crude digestive juices contained significant amounts of cellulase, fucanase and alginate lyase but very low levels of protease. The alginate lyases from both the sea hare Aplysia depilans and...
Article
Pathogenic fungi have been selected over the years as sources of cell-wall-degrading enzymes and used for production of protoplasts from a variety of land plants (Cocking, 1972; Ruesink & Thimann, 1965; Albersheim & Anderson-Prouty, 1975; Fitter & Krikorian, 1984). Cellulases, chitinases and pectinases, extracted from fungi such as Trichoderma, Asp...
Chapter
Calluses of plants are masses of unorganized tissues formed as a result of injury. Some callus masses are soft, others are of harder consistency, and all are lumps of undifferentiated cells, an abnormal growth-form of the plant. This paper describes seaweed calluses, and similar abnormal growth-forms of seaweeds which produce mounds of undifferenti...
Article
We are developing techniques for tissue, cell, and protoplast culture to be used in the conversion of wild seaweeds into cultivated crop plants with desirable properties. Seaweeds have complex life histories and do not have the equivalent of “seeds” capable of extended survival in storage. Our efforts concentrate on three major aspects: (1) develop...
Article
Four areas containing different cell morphologies were mapped on Porphyra blades and five different cell types (i.e. tapered with long extensions, large and vacuolated, vegetative and dividing, and reproductive: males and females) were identified in them. Tissues from these areas were dissociated, and protoplasts and single cells were isolated from...
Article
Porphyra cultivation is a major aquacultural enterprise in the Orient. The common practice for cultivation of this crop plant necessitates the propagation of two phases of the life cycle of the plants. The conchocelis phase of Porphyra is grown on shells maintained in running seawater under subdued light in special warehouses. In the fall the conch...

Citations

... In brown algae, protoplast isolation has been reported in 25 species (Polne-Fuller et al. 1986;Chen and Shyu 1994;Reddy et al. 2008), mainly commercial and anatomically complex species such as Undaria pinnatifida (Xiaoke et al. 2003) and Saccharina japonica (Inoue et al. 2011). In these studies, the complex cell walls were digested using alginate lyases or crude extracts from either marine bacteria or the digestive systems of herbivorous marine invertebrates together with commercial cellulases (Reddy et al. 1994(Reddy et al. , 2008. ...
... Callus is a mass of unorganized tissue composed of undifferentiated cell lumps. It develops as part of the wound response in plants [23]. Callus culture is commonly used in tissue culture engineering of terrestrial plants for producing homogenous cells and useful products under controlled conditions. ...
... Suggestive images of thylakoid formation from unraveling of concentric lamellar bodies (CLBs) were found in Cryptopleura like those meticulously described in Faucheocolax attenuata Setch. ( Kugrens, 1984, 1985) and depicted in Porphyra perforata J. Agardh (Delivopoulos et al. 1999) and Osmundea spectabilis (Postels & Ruprecht) K.W. Nam var. spectabilis (Delivopoulos 2002). ...
... The most commonly used are spores and fragments (e.g., Ávila et al. 1996;Alveal et al. 1997;Buschmann et al. 2001;Le Gall et al. 2004;Bulboa et al. 2005;Titlyanov et al. 2006). Nevertheless, inocula could potentially be produced by other means (see García-Reina et al. 1991), like protoplasts (Polne-Fuller et al. 1984;Chen 1989), differentiation of new individuals from calluses (Ask and Azanza 2002;Yokoya et al. 2014), or production of plantlets from fragments or cell aggregates (Titlyanov et al. 2006), and could be used in aquaculture. The preference for any of these inocula in repopulation practices must be coupled with appropriate mechanisms to hold the tissue fragments while they become permanently attached on the natural environment. ...
... Protoplasts represent the homogenous cell population devoid of cell walls and are capable of regenerating into de novo plants [41]. There has been significant progress made in isolation and regeneration of protoplasts from diverse seaweeds [42]. ...
... Agriculture Bioconversion products of alginate (aka alginate oligosaccharides) have potentials as biofertilizer, enhanced seed germination and shoot elongation, plant growth stimulator and protoplast preparation ( Boyen et al., 1990 ;Tomoda et al., 1994 ;Cao et al., 2007 ;Gimmestad et al., 2009 ;Inoue et al., 2011 ;Wang et al., 2016 ). Biorefinery ...
... JAMB-A33 (Ohta and Hatada, 2006), Alteromonas sp. E-l (Kirimura et al., 1999), Microscilla (Naganuma et al., 1993), Streptomyces coelicolor A3 (Buttner et al., 1987), Pseudoalteromonas sp. BL-3 (Lee et al., 2005), Vibrio sp. ...
... It has been suggested that psychrophilic amoebae may optimize metabolic functions for existence at low environmental temperatures (Mayes et al. 1997). It appears that some of these optimizations may occur within cosmopolitan genera, such as Neoparamoeba, Platyamoeba, and Vannella (Mayes et al. 1997;Rogerson, Polne-Fuller, and Gibor 1992). The Antarctic marine environment also appears to be a source for novel amoebae, such as V. antarctica. ...
... For the RNA extraction, pollutant-treated and control tissues were processed by the LiCl-guanidinium method (Hong et al., 1995). Briefly, 0.6 g of wet tissues was powdered in liquid nitrogen and heated in 4 ml of RNA extraction solution at 55 • C for 10 min. ...
... Protoplasts have been used in a number of physiological studies in algae. These include the mechanism of inorganic carbon uptake in various species (Smith and Bidwell 1989;Bjork et al. 1992;Haglund et al. 1992), the oxygen evolution rate in comparison to intact plant tissue (Millner et al. 1979;Davison and Polne-Fuller 1990;Bjork et al. 1992;Benet et al. 1994;Beer and Bjork 1994) and the production of various compounds (Fujimura and Kajiwara 1990;Zablackis et al. 1993;Hagen Rødde and Larsen 1997;Kim et al. 2005). The use of protoplasts for somatic hybridization as a method for genetic improvement of seaweed crops has not, however, been well studied and plant regeneration of only a limited number of fusion species has been reported in some algae (Cheney 1990). ...