Milton Mueller's research while affiliated with Georgia Institute of Technology and other places

Publications (72)

Article
Purpose The data communications protocol supporting the internet protocol version 4 (IPv4) is almost 40 years old, and its 32-bit address space is too small for the internet. A “next-generation” internet protocol version 6 (IPv6), has a much larger, 128-bit address space. However, IPv6 is not backward compatible with the existing internet. For 20 y...
Chapter
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A multidisciplinary book that takes internet governance research as a research subject in its own right, discussing methods and conceptual approaches. The design and governance of the internet has become one of the most pressing geopolitical issues of our era. The stability of the economy, democracy, and the public sphere depend on the stability an...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to analyze the direction and balance of transnational information flows and look at how nonpriced digital information exchanges related to international trade in goods and services. Design/methodology/approach The authors obtained quantitative data about Web-related data flows between countries and regions using Telegeograp...
Article
A growing number of scholars and policymakers are calling attention to the relationship between technology standards, protocols, human rights, ethics, and values—also claiming that human rights can be secured (or violated) via the Internet's standards and architecture. However, this assertion of governance through Internet architecture can oversimp...
Article
Purpose This paper has two goals: 1) to clarify the relationship between cybersecurity governance and internet governance and 2) to explore the effects of the current tendency for cybersecurity-related discourse to dominate and change the way we approach the established problems of Internet governance. Design/methodology/approach The paper demon...
Article
Routing is fundamental to the workings of the internet, yet the basic routing protocol, Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), is known to be insecure. This paper uses institutional economics to examine internet routing registries, which are used by network operators to mitigate the security flaws in BGP. Secure routing of internet traffic is characterised...
Article
The concept of convergence has been bandied about for at least 25 years. Initially, concepts of convergence conflated technological integration of print, telecommunications and broadcasting systems with firm-level integration of publishers, telephone companies, cable TV operators, and broadcasters. Ithiel de Sola Pool’s (1983) concept of a single i...
Article
Using content analysis, this paper explores the policy-making trends for Internet governance in China. It examines the manner by which policy changes over time, the different policy-making agencies in the country, and the various application scopes and topical focuses of policy. This paper aims to determine the distribution of key policy decisions...
Conference Paper
This ongoing dissertation research examines the institutionalization of new cybersecurity norms and practices that are emerging from current controversies around markets for software vulnerabilities and exploits. A market has developed for the production and distribution of software exploits, with buyers sometimes paying over USD 100,000 for exploi...
Article
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The governance of the Internet provides one of the most important arenas in which new ideas regarding Internet studies can be applied and tested. This paper critiques the prevailing conceptualization of Internet governance. The label is routinely applied to the study of a few formal global institutions with limited or no impact on governance, but n...
Article
The emergence of a new international regime that is being organized around the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is traced; the regime has developed in response to the commercialization of the Internet and to the global debate over the management of domain names.The property rights conflicts that arose following the growth...
Article
Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) has been the subject of heated policy debates. This paper examines theoretically and empirically patterns of DPI adoption during the past five years. A range of uses can drive ISPs to deploy DPI in their networks. What is less understood is the extent to which government policies encourage or discourage DPI adoption by...
Article
Objective: Prior work by the authors empirically describes the secondary market for IPv4 address resources (Mueller, Kuerbis and Asghari 2012). Initial results indicated that the Regional Internet Registries’ (RIRs’) needs assessment policies introduce significant friction in the IPv4 secondary market and may be inconsistent with organizations’ dem...
Article
Objective: The objective of this research is to understand how organizations and policies were altered by a new information security technology, namely intrusion detection and intrusion prevention systems (IDS/IPS). The paper tracks the progress of the U.S. federal government’s Einstein program between 2003 and 2013, which implemented first IDS and...
Article
This paper asks whether the Internet's heavy reliance on nonhierarchical, networked forms of governance is compatible with growing concerns about cyber-security from traditional state actors. Networked governance is defined as a semipermanent, voluntary negotiation system that allows interdependent actors to opt for collaboration or unilateral acti...
Article
Objective: The objective of this research is to understand how organizations and policies were altered by a new information security technology, namely intrusion detection and intrusion prevention systems (IDS/IPS). The paper tracks the progress of the U.S. federal government’s Einstein program between 2003 and 2013, which implemented first IDS and...
Article
Large and impressive data collection efforts often fail to make their data useful for answering policy questions. In this paper, we argue that this is due to a systematic gap between the ways measurement engineers think about their data, and how other disciplines typically make use of data. We recap our own efforts to use the data generated by a nu...
Article
This paper examines the use of deep packet inspection (DPI) in online advertising, and analyzes the effects public pressure, regulatory actions and judicial and policy-making proceedings had on those deployments. The research is part of a larger project on the effects of DPI on Internet governance which is funded by the U.S. National Science Founda...
Article
Purpose – This article aims to quantify the emerging transfer market for internet protocol (IPv4) numbers and provides an initial assessment of factors and policies impacting those transactions. Design/methodology/approach – The research draws on Regional Internet Registry records and conducts basic analysis of stocks, flows and proportions to ass...
Article
Two case studies explore the reciprocal influence between technological change and Internet governance. Both focus on the use by Internet service providers of a new capability known as deep packet inspection (DPI) to “throttle” or restrict the speed of BitTorrent uploads or downloads by their customers. We show that in both cases, these implementat...
Article
With the emergence of Internet based communication and collaboration, new forms of production have surfaced that are based on openness and non-proprietary resources. The paper analyses the role of open source and peer production elements in the response ...
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Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) and other network surveillance techniques have become important factors in the policy debate over online copyright infringement. These new technical capabilities reopened an old debate about the responsibility of Internet service providers (ISPs) for policing the Internet. This paper attempts to understand the extent to...
Article
This is a TPRC panel proposal developed by GigaNet, the Global Internet Governance Academic Network – a global network of scholars specializing in Internet governance issues. This panel will explore the basis for the continuing concern in the U.S. over attempts by the ITU and other United Nations entities to establish a role in global Internet gove...
Article
The use of Deep Packet Inspection technology has been the focus of a growing amount of scholarly work due to its impact on sensitive policy issues. In this paper we look at the use of DPI for throttling or blocking peer to peer protocols by 288 broadband operators over three years, and correlate this with economic and political variables. Our empir...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on China’s place in Internet politics. The quadrants of Internet politics, including denationalized liberalism, networked nationalism, global governmentality, and cyber-reactionaries, are discussed, along with its definition. The chapter explores the clash between China and Internet governance institutions including the Interne...
Chapter
The economic and political stakes in the current heated debates over “openness” and open standards in the Internet's architecture. Openness is not a given on the Internet. Technical standards—the underlying architecture that enables interoperability among hardware and software from different manufacturers—increasingly control individual freedom and...
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New security technologies are never neutral in their impact; it is known that they can alter power relations and economic dependencies among stakeholders. This article examines the attempt to introduce the Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI) to the Internet to help improve routing security, and identifies incentives various actors have toward...
Article
AZAR GAT. War in Human Civilization. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2006. Pp. xv, 822. $45.00 (us). Reviewed by William R. Thompson
Article
This paper links the analysis of IP address policy to the established vocabulary and concepts of institutional economics. Internet addressing and routing are usually discussed in technical terms, yet embedded in this highly technical discourse are a number of critical economic concepts, such as scarcity, externalities, common pool resources, traged...
Article
Advances in network equipment now allow internet service providers to monitor the content of data packets in real-time and make decisions about how to handle them. If deployed widely this technology, known as deep packet inspection (DPI), has the potential to alter basic assumptions that have underpinned Internet governance to date. The paper explo...
Article
This paper assesses the relationship between public participation and accountability in ICANN. It explains how ICANN has responded to accountability concerns by creating new opportunities for public comment, review, and participation. Is public participation an adequate means of making this global Internet governance organization accountable to the...
Article
Common measures of term importance in information retrieval (IR) rely on counts of term frequency; rare terms receive higher weight in document ranking than common terms receive. However, realistic scenarios yield additional information about terms in ...
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The Internet's Whois service allows anyone to type a domain name into a Web interface and then receive the name and contact details of whoever has registered it. Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) contracts make it mandatory to provide indiscriminate public access to this information. Data protection laws in Europe and othe...
Article
Full-text available
The Internet’s Whois service allows anyone to type a domain name into a Web interface and then receive the name and contact details of whoever has registered it. ICANN contracts make it mandatory to provide indiscriminate public access to this information. Data protection laws in Europe and other countries conflict with this ICANN policy, yet Whois...
Article
Since the mid-1990s, efforts have been under way to construct an international regime for global Internet governance. Beginning with the formation of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, efforts at regime construction were a main focus of the 2001–2005 UN World Summit on the Information Society. However, little progress was made...
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This paper is a case study of the role of transnational advocacy networks (TANs) and multi-stakeholder governance processes in the formation of international communication-information policy. It analyzes the Campaign for Communication Rights in the Information Society (CRIS) during the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS). The paper combi...
Article
This paper examines online identifiers from an economic perspective. It uses conjoint analysis survey techniques to develop empirical data on how users value the attributes of online identifiers. It is concerned in particular with three issues: (1) the degree to which identified subjects value increasing the scope of an identifier, i.e., the abilit...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this article is to broaden our understanding of internet governance policy options by reviewing and assessing proposals for reforming the institutional mechanisms used to allocate and assign IPv6 addresses. Design/methodology/approach – The paper begins by identifying the two main economic and technical constraints on IP a...
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Who should control the Internet? A dozen years after the Internet became a mass medium, this issue has continued to grow in urgency, becoming white hot in fall 2005. At the September 2005 preparatory meeting for the UN World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), a coalition of countries criticized the United States' unilateral control of the In...
Article
This paper has three goals. The first is to salvage the rationality of the debate over the nature of property institutions in information and communications, by critically examining the metaphors and parallels to old-line communism. The second goal is identify and call attention to a deep-seated tension within the information left that contributes...
Article
This monograph is a long-term analysis of citizens' collective action to influence public policy toward communication and information. We define and defend a vision of communication and information policy (CIP) as a comprehensive and integrated policy domain. We also define and describe the three primary modes of advocacy around CIP issues. We draw...
Article
This article makes the case for using regular and objective procedures to assign new Internet top-level domain names (TLDs) instead of the unscheduled, irregular, discretionary and ad hoc processes and criteria currently used by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). The paper shows that ICANNs current approach to TLD addi...
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This article initiates exploratory empirical research on how civil society collective action has reacted to and affected communi- cation-information policy (CIP), a policy domain that has been reshaped by technological and industrial change. It reviews the relevant theory on social movements, citizens groups, and inter- est groups from political sc...
Book
In Ruling the Root, Milton Mueller uses the theoretical framework of institutional economics to analyze the global policy and governance problems created by the assignment of Internet domain names and addresses. "The root" is the top of the domain name hierarchy and the Internet address space. It is the only point of centralized control in what is...
Article
China's telecommunication services sector was closed to foreign direct investment (FDI) during the 1990s. The official ban on FDI persisted despite China's enormous demand for capital to build out its telecommunication infrastructure. It remained in place despite statements from Western analysts that it was not sustainable and repeated predictions...
Article
In creating the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) the Clinton administration made "industry self-regulation" its guiding principle. In a historical and conceptual assessment of that policy, this article argues that the rhetoric of "industry self-regulation" and "self-governance" only served to obscure the real policy and l...
Article
This article, which offers a critical reassessment of the underlying rationale for universal service policies, argues that public policies designed to promote universal telecommunications access are simply a form of wealth redistribution. By reconceptualizing universal service subsidies in this way, one can obtain a more realistic assessment of the...
Article
This paper is an empirical study of trademark-based challenges to Internet domain name registrations. It gathered facts about 121 known cases of domain name-trademark conflicts and concludes that domain name registry policies and court decisions had, as of mid-1998, combined to give trademark owners stronger rights over domain names than they had u...
Article
The global internetworking simply would not work without formal and informal procedures to coordinate domain-name assignments, Internet Protocol addresses, and root-server management. Remarkably few Internet users are aware of the profound changes under way in this invisible infrastructure. The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (I...
Article
The paper examines the global controversy over Internet domain names, specifically the choice between top-level domain (TLD) names based on country codes and top-level domain names based on generic terms. The paper describes the historical background of the existing TLD naming scheme and the breakdown in the principles and procedures used to ration...

Citations

... Une brève histoire de la gouvernance d'Internet 7 La GI est apparue simultanément « comme un label, un domaine de recherche et d'étude universitaire, et une arène du monde réel où les parties prenantes et les groupes d'intérêt s'affrontent et coopèrent » (Mueller et Badiei, 2020). Si certains affirment que des embryons d'au moins un de ces trois aspects étaient déjà présents dans les discussions sur les premiers principes de l'internetworking, ou dans la convergence de l'informatique et des TIC, il a sans doute fallu attendre jusqu'au début/ milieu des années 1990 pour qu'il devienne clair qu'Internet pose des problèmes de gouvernance singuliers, à la fois en raison des protocoles qui le sous-tendent et de ses organismes et institutions de normalisation. ...
... It is such uneven, invisible power to shape the environment that makes cyber security such a difficult policy topic. In the last chapter, Brenden Kuerbis, Farzaneh Badiei, Karl Grindal, and Milton Mueller offer a view on how the strategic use of cyberspace could be made more governable by examining some of the current practice of cyber attribution, scientific developments in the field, and possibilities for its transnational institutionalization (Kuerbis et al. 2022). Looking at cases from 2016 to 2018, the authors find that new technical approaches reliant on observable artifacts occurring in private networks and behavioral differences of states are upping the need for institutionalizing neutral, transnational attribution where evidence can be assessed and independently reviewed. ...
... The traditional Cobb-Douglas function includes the conventional inputs of physical capital, labor, and technology. However, with the rapid development of big data, information communication, and AI, the data or information has gradually become an important new productive factor (Mueller and Grindal, 2019). The Chinese government has identified data as one of the factors of production alongside land, labor, technology, and capital (XINHUANET, 2020). ...
... However, its early-mover advantage and broad membership base enable the PAI to establish itself as a cornerstone in the emerging AI governance landscape. Since AIID is developed as an open-source project collectively governed by the PAI, it reminds us of the origins of Internet governance [57]. Whether the AI community will continue in this collaborative path remains to be seen. ...
... There is also a steadily growing branch of literature that suggests the translation of human rights into technical requirements, essentially proposing the hardwiring of human rights into technical standards, both in terms of AI and more broadly in digital technologies at large (Krishnamurthy, 2019; Yeung et al., 2019;Zalnieriute & Milan, 2019). Whereas promising, this ambitious suggestion that builds upon the strong normativity of code (Hildebrandt, 2008), and the normative effects of standardisation and technical decision-making, is challenging and may be difficult to be fully implemented soon (Mueller & Badiei, 2019). Although the embodiment of law and human rights into design has numerous significant merits (Hildebrandt, 2011a(Hildebrandt, , 2015, as we have seen for example regarding privacy and data protection, it may also lead to rather inflexible results that may even have reverse effects in practice (Hildebrandt, 2011b;Koops & Leenes, 2014). ...
... Spearheaded by Netscape as a forerunner in 1995 [13], bugbounty programs-which are also known as vulnerability reward programs-have emerged as a key element of many organizations' security culture [18,25,35]. Bug-bounty programs are a form of crowdsourced vulnerability discovery, which enables harnessing the diverse expertise of a large group of external bug hunters [13]. ...
... The second task is to expand and 'market' new top level domains (tlds). This distinction leads Mueller and Kuerbis (2014) to draw an important conclusion: political interference in the first task should be kept to an absolute minimum, since it basically consists of technical and operational work. The second task is much more 'political' in nature. ...
... 24 In the words of internet governance scholar, Milton Mueller 'cybersecurity is eating internet governance' and is pushing out alternative framings. 25 The security frame has progressively extended to all the digital technologies that could be weaponised in the context of digital warfare, including AI, and drives international competition over digital technologies. This competition is both embodied and increasingly shaped by the fierce competition between the United States and China over the production, control, use and governance of digital technologies. ...
... In addition to governments, internet service providers (ISPs), businesses, users, advertising, social media and personal devices all introduce and perform forms of surveillance (Asghari et al., 2012;Bendrath and Mueller, 2011;Trottier and Lyon, 2012;Trottier, 2012;Fuchs and Trottier, 2017). This study also explores whether people differentiate between types of surveillancewhether they feel differently about privacy and effectiveness with government surveillance versus commercial surveillance versus individuals' surveillance using mobile devices. ...
... Geolocation refers to the process of identifying the location of a device connected to the internet and involves mapping the IP address to a real-world geographic location for the host (Mueller & Chango, 2008). The end result is an address in the form of city/state/country and/or a longitude/latitude pair. ...