Milo S. P. Shaffer's research while affiliated with Imperial College London and other places

Publications (333)

Article
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Graphene-related materials are promising supports for electrocatalysts due to their stability and high surface area. Their innate surface chemistries can be controlled and tuned via functionalisation to improve the stability of both the carbon support and the metal catalyst. Functionalised graphenes were prepared using either aryl diazonium functio...
Article
Nanomaterials, such as single‐walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphenes, can be readily gelled using bi‐ or multi‐functional reagents as crosslinkers. This study reports a new reaction of monofunctional acetylenes with negatively charged SWCNTs (nanotubides), prepared by reduction. Mono‐acetylenes (e. g. phenylacetylene (PAc) and diphenyl acet...
Conference Paper
Structural power composites, a class of multifunctional materials, have significant potential to facilitate lightweighting and accelerate widespread electrification in sustainable transportation. In civil aircraft, a bank of supercapacitors can provide power to open the doors in an emergency. Structural power composite fuselage components near the...
Article
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Protein crystallization remains a major bottleneck for the determination of high resolution structures. Nucleants can accelerate the process but should ideally be compatible with high throughput robotic screening. Polyethylene glycol grafted (PEGylated) graphenes can be stabilized in water providing dispensable, nucleant systems. Two graphitic feed...
Article
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This work investigated and developed a protocol for establishing the multifunctional performance of a structural supercapacitor: a composite which can simultaneously carry mechanical load whilst storing electrical energy. The Structural Supercapacitor consisted of carbon aerogel (CAG) reinforced carbon fibre (CF) electrodes which sandwiched a woven...
Article
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Ultrasonic treatment is effective in deagglomerating and dispersing nanoparticles in various liquids. However, the exact deagglomeration mechanisms vary for different nanoparticle clusters, owing to different particle geometries and inter-particle adhesion forces. Here, the deagglomeration mechanisms and the influence of sonotrode amplitude during...
Preprint
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Uncured solid bisphenol-A epoxy resins containing up to 20 wt% carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared using melt blending in a high shear mixer. The extrudate was ground to produce fine nanocomposite (NC) powders. This simple method produced well-dispersed NC, with CNT agglomerate sizes below 1 μm. Consolidated NCs displayed improved tensile moduli...
Article
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Uncured solid bisphenol-A epoxy resins containing up to 20 wt% carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared using melt blending in a high shear mixer. The extrudate was ground to produce fine nanocomposite (NC) powders. This simple method produced well-dispersed NC, with CNT agglomerate sizes below 1 μm. Consolidated NCs displayed improved tensile moduli...
Article
Multifunctional structural power composites may transform transport electrification, and other applications, but require performance and reliability improvements. Computational modelling has the potential to accelerate their development and adoption. This work addresses the lack of predictive models for the mechanical behaviour of structural superc...
Article
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Poly (ether ether ketone) (PEEK) has a high continuous service temperature, excellent mechanical properties, and good solvent and abrasion resistance, which can be further improved through the addition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). CNT-PEEK nanocomposites are promising matrices for continuous carbon fibre composites; powder processing can mitigate th...
Article
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Structural energy storage devices (SESDs), designed to simultaneously store electrical energy and withstand mechanical loads, offer great potential to reduce the overall system weight in applications such as automotive, aircraft, spacecraft, marine and sports equipment. The greatest improvements will come from systems that implement true multifunct...
Article
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There are a range of promising applications for devices that can convert mechanical energy from their local environment into useful electrical energy. Here, mechanical energy harvesting devices have been developed...
Article
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Here, the locus of functionalisation on graphene-related materials and the progress of the reaction is shown to depend strongly on the starting feedstock. Five characteristically different graphite sources were exfoliated and functionalized using a non-destructive chemical reduction method. These archetypical examples were compared via a model reac...
Article
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Polymer electrolyte fuel cells hold great promise for a range of applications but require advances in durability for widespread commercial uptake. Corrosion of the carbon support is one of the main degradation pathways; hence, corrosion-resilient graphene has been widely suggested as an alternative to traditional carbon black. However, the performa...
Article
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The development of commercial aviation is being driven by the need to improve efficiency and thereby lower emissions. All-electric aircraft present a route to eliminating direct fuel burning emissions, but their development is stifled by the limitations of current battery energy and power densities. Multifunctional structural power composites, whic...
Article
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Structural electrolytes provide mechanical properties approaching structural resin combined with a high degree of ionic conductivity. Here, structural electrolytes based on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (EMIM-TFSI) were synthesised through reaction induced phase sepa...
Article
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In article number 2102631, Milo S. P. Shaffer, Charlotte K. Williams, and co‐workers present a direct and versatile organometallic route to carboxylate‐intercalated layered zinc hydroxide (LZH) 2D nanosheets. The functional LZHs show excellent solubility in polar solvents, including water with solubilities of up to 140 mg mL−1 and monolayer exfolia...
Article
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Intercalation of organic anions into 2D materials can enable exfoliation, improve dispersion stability, increase surface area, and provide useful functional groups. In layered metal hydroxides, intercalation of bulk structures is commonly achieved by cumbersome and typically incomplete anion exchange reactions. In contrast, here, a series of carbox...
Article
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Mass production of defect-free single-layer graphene flakes (SLGFs) by a cost-effective approach is still very challenging. Here, we report such single-layer graphene flakes (SLGFs) (>90%) prepared by a nondestructive, energy-efficient, and easy up-scalable physical approach. These high-quality graphene flakes are attributed to a novel 10 s microwa...
Article
This paper presents a theoretical investigation into the potential use of structural power composites in regional aircraft passenger cabins and the corresponding challenges to widespread use, including fire resistance, long-term cycling performance, and cost. This study focuses on adapting sandwich floor panels with structural power composite face...
Article
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Imogolite nanotubes (INTs) display a range of useful properties and provide an ideal material system to study the assembly of nanomaterials into macroscopic fibers. A method of wet spinning pure, binder-free imogolite fibers has been developed using double-walled germanium imogolite nanotubes. The nanotube aspect ratio can be controlled during the...
Article
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Intrinsically, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are excellent candidates for electrochemical double layer supercapacitor (EDLC) electrodes, owing to their high electrical conductivity, high accessible surface area, and high aspect ratio / connectivity, which provide exceptional intrinsic gravimetric energy and power densities. However, in pr...
Article
Fuel Cell are energy generation alternatives to the traditional fossil fuel dependant transport and energy sectors. A typical polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) generates power from the electrochemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen which forms water. While PEMFC have become increasingly commercialised in the last decade there nee...
Article
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Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is a powerful technique to assemble carbon nanotube (CNT) coatings and composite films with controlled architectures. This comprehensive review of the EPD of CNTs and CNT-containing composites focuses on achievements within the last 15 years and ongoing challenges. Stable CNT suspensions are a prerequisite for succe...
Article
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Sulfidation by biogenic H 2 S outcompetes dissolution of silver nanostructures, thus reducing their toxicity in airway smooth muscle cells.
Article
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Graphene has been suggested as a potential support material to replace commercial carbon black due to its carbon corrosion resistance. However, graphene-based electrodes typically perform poorly in MEA testing due to restacking of the graphitic sheets. In this study we investigate the introduction of carbon black and their effects on the porosity a...
Article
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Nanocomposite coatings were successfully prepared by electrophoretic deposition of poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK)/graphene oxide (GO) suspensions. The GO flakes developed a large-scale co-continuous morphology with the basal plane mainly aligned with the coating surface. However, the PEEK particles were also found to be wrapped by GO nanosheets when...
Article
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Chemical functionalisation is one of the most active areas of graphene research, motivated by fundamental science, the opportunities to adjust or supplement intrinsic properties, and the need to assemble materials for a broad array of applications. Historically, the primary consideration has been the degree of functionalisation but there is growing...
Article
Nano-engineered fibre/matrix interfaces can improve state-of-the-art fibre-reinforced composites. Grafting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to high temperature quartz glass fibres produces “hairy” or “fuzzy” fibres, which combine reinforcements at micrometre and nanometre length scales. Fuzzy quartz fibres were produced continuously, reel-to-reel, on whole...
Article
Doped-ZnO nanoparticles, capped with dioctylphosphinate ligands, are synthesised by the controlled hydrolysis of a mixture of organometallic precursors. Substitutional doping of the wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles with 5 mol% Mg(II), Al(III) and Cu(I) is achieved by the addition of sub-stoichiometric amounts of the appropriate dopant [(n-butyl)(sec-buty...
Article
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The development of multifunctional materials and structures is receiving increasing interest for many applications and industries; it is a promising way to increase system-wide efficiency and improve the ability to meet environmental targets. However, quantifying the advantages of a multifunctional solution over monofunctional systems can be challe...
Article
Graphite Intercalation compounds (GICs) are often used to produce exfoliated or functionalized graphene related materials in a specific solvent. The bulk of the intercalation compound is stable under ambient conditions, trapped between the graphene layers. However, heating drives a reorganization of the sodium and associated solvent molecules, lead...
Article
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The assembly of one-dimensional nanomaterials into macroscopic fibers can improve mechanical as well as multifunctional performance. Double walled aluminogermanate imogolite nanotubes are geo-inspired analogs of carbon nanotubes, synthesized at low temperature, with complementary properties. Here, continuous imogolite based fibers are wet spun with...
Article
Hospital-acquired bacterial infections are a significant burden on healthcare systems worldwide causing increased duration of hospital stays and prolonged patient suffering. We show that polyurethane containing crystal violet (CV) and 3-4 nm zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) possesses excellent bactericidal activity against hospital-acquired patho...
Article
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Fibre composites, and especially aligned discontinuous composites (ADCs), offer enormous versatility in composition, microstructure, and performance, but are difficult to optimise, due to their inherent variability and myriad permutations of microstructural design variables. This work combines an accurate yet efficient virtual testing framework (VT...
Article
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Graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) are often used to produce exfoliated or functionalised graphene related materials (GRMs) in a specific solvent. This study explores the formation of the Na‐tetrahydrofuran (THF)‐GIC and a new ternary system based on dimethylacetamide (DMAc). Detailed comparisons of in situ temperature dependent XRD with TGA‐M...
Article
A meso-scale finite element modelling strategy was developed to investigate the effect of hybridisation on the compaction response of multilayer stacks combining glass and carbon dry woven fabrics. It is expected that the electrochemical-mechanical properties of emerging multifunctional hybrid composites are strongly dictated by the morphology of t...
Article
The discovery of phosphorene, a single layer of black phosphorus, has accelerated the investigation of pnictogen nanomaterials, leading to the recent identification of arsenene and antimonene. These two-dimensional nanomaterials display physical properties superior to those of graphene for some applications. Recently, single-wall carbon nanotubes (...
Article
Nanoparticles capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier (BBB) will greatly advance the delivery of therapies against brain disorders. Carbon nanotubes hold great potential as delivery vehicles due to their high aspect-ratio and cell-penetrating ability. Studies have shown multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) cross the BBB, however they have la...
Article
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The liquid structure of the commonly used solvents dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylacetamide (DMA)were measured using state-of-the-art state neutron diffraction augmented with isotopic substitution (NDIS) and interpreted with empirical potential structure refinement (EPSR). Both solvents are found to develop rich local ordering with similar loc...
Conference Paper
Manganese dioxide electrochemically deposited onto carbon aerogel/carbon fibres (CAG/CF) shows a great potential as an electrode material in multifunctional structural supercapacitors. MnO2 nanowires grown by a pulse potentiometric method provide a large enhancement in capacitive performance of the carbon electrodes and symmetric supercapacitor dev...
Conference Paper
The desire to reduce overall weight in devices is a key driver for perpetual material development; the ability to combine composites with energy storage functions/capabilities which simultaneously provide structural integrity has the potential to supersede monofunctional components. To achieve this ambition, the multifunctional structure must perfo...
Conference Paper
A laminate consolidation finite element model for prediction of mesoarchitecture and fibre packing in structural power composites employing a hybrid woven fabric-reinforced construction.
Preprint
The discovery of phosphorene, a single layer of black phosphorus, has kick-started tremendous research efforts investigating the pnictogen nanomaterials. Arsenene and antimonene have now also been identified and these two-dimensional nanomaterials display physical properties superior to graphene for some applications. Recently, single-wall carbon n...
Article
There are no methods sensitive enough to detect enzymes within cells, without the use of analyte labelling. Here we show that it is possible to detect protein ion signals of three different H2S-synthesizing enzymes inside microglia after pre-treatment with silver nanowires (AgNW) using time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Prot...
Article
Carbon aerogel (CAG) is a potential hierarchical reinforcement to improve the matrix-dominated mechanical properties of continuous carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites in both multifunctional and purely structural applications. When using CAG to reinforce a polyethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDGE) matrix, the interlaminar shear st...
Article
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Aligned hybrid-fibre discontinuous composites offer the ability to tailor their mechanical response through careful microstructural design. However, with tailorability comes mi-crostructural complexity, which in turn leads to many sources of variability and defects. A virtual testing framework was further extended to investigate the influence of va...
Article
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Nanowire heterostructures, combining multiple phases within a single nanowire, modify functional properties and offer a platform for novel device development. Here, ZnO/ZnMgO core-shell nanowires are grown by molecular beam epitaxy. At growth temperatures above 750 °C, Mg diffuses into ZnO making heterostructure growth impossible; at lower shell-gr...
Article
Nanocomposites are critically influenced by interfacial interactions between the reinforcement and matrix. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) of varying molecular weights were prepared and grafted-to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), to improve the interfacial interaction with a homopolymer PVOH matrix. Nanocomposite fibers were coagulation spun acros...
Article
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The mechanism of the functionalisation of reduced single walled carbon nanotubes with organobromides was monitored by open circuit voltammetry throughout the reaction and further elucidated through a series of comparative reactions. The degree of functionalisation was mapped against the reagent reduction potential, degree of electron donation of su...
Conference Paper
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Grading, i.e. the spatial variations of properties, of composites has a great potential for improving mechanical performance in critical locations. Advantages of grading have been exploited in many materials as it allows for release in stress concentration, reduced thermal stresses and optimising load flow. For example, a theoretical study on spati...
Conference Paper
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The injection of reduced single-walled carbon nanotubes into a coagulation bath of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) solution leads to the formation of nanocomposite fibres with polymer covalently bound to the nanotubes. The influence of PVC concentration and molecular weight, and the extrusion diameter on the nanocomposite fibre tensile properties and comp...
Article
Polyimides (PI) generally have high affinity for single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), but suffer from poor solubility in most low boiling point organic solvents and low compatibility with common resins...
Article
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In semiconductor nanowires understanding both the sources of luminescence (excitonic recombination, defects etc.) and the distribution of luminescent centres (be they uniformly distributed or concentrated at structural defects or at the surface) are important for synthesis and applications. Here we develop scanning transmission-electron-microscopy...
Article
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Grafting polymers onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) usefully alters properties but does not typically yield stable, solvated species directly. Despite the expectation of steric stabilization, a damaging (re)dispersion step is usually necessary. Here, poly(vinyl acetate)s (PVAc) of varying molecular weights are grafted to individualised,...
Poster
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This research demonstrates the feasibility of mapping composite properties to improve the structural performance and functionality of composites. The composite morphology is controlled by combination of high-precision liquid resin printing and consolidation programmes. This localised deposition enables higher additive loading and decreases the manu...
Article
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This paper studies the feasibility of improving structural performance of composites in the presence of stress concentrators. Matrix grading through local deposition of additive-enhanced matrices and fibre steering by varying fibrous architecture are examined independently and in combination on a glass-fibre triaxial braided composite subjected to...
Article
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N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone (NMP) is an exceptional solvent, widely used in industry and for nanomaterials processing. Yet despite its ubiquity, its liquid structure, which ultimately dictates its solvent properties, is not fully known. Here, neutron scattering is used to determine NMP's structure in unprecedented detail. Two dominant nearest-neighbor a...
Article
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Since the discovery of buckminsterfullerene over 30 years ago, sp²-hybridised carbon nanomaterials (including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene) have stimulated new science and technology across a huge range of fields. Despite the impressive intrinsic properties, challenges in processing and chemical modification continue to hinder applica...
Article
2D layered graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets offer tunable electronic and chemical properties. However, exfoliation and functionalisation of gCN for specific applications remains challenging. We report a scalable one‐pot reductive method to produce solutions of single and few layer 2D gCN nanosheets with excellent stability in a high mass yield (...
Article
2D layered graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets offer tunable electronic and chemical properties. However, exfoliation and functionalisation of gCN for specific applications remains challenging. We report a scalable one‐pot reductive method to produce solutions of single and few layer 2D gCN nanosheets with excellent stability in a high mass yield (...
Article
The pnictogen nanomaterials, including phosphorene and arsenene, display remarkable electronic and chemical properties. Yet, the structural diversity that these main group elements are capable of is still poorly explored. Here we fill single‐wall carbon nanotubes with elemental arsenic from the vapor phase. Using electron microscopy, we find chains...
Article
The pnictogen nanomaterials, including phosphorene and arsenene, display remarkable electronic and chemical properties. Yet, the structural diversity that these main group elements are capable of is still poorly explored. Here we fill single‐wall carbon nanotubes with elemental arsenic from the vapor phase. Using electron microscopy, we find chains...
Conference Paper
Pre-cut unidirectional carbon fibre prepreg composites, with an overlapped finger-joint architecture, were modified through the addition of polyethersulfone (PES) interleaves. The properties arising from these finger-jointed configurations were strongly dependent on the interply overlap region. When the tough thermoplastic interleaves spanned only...
Article
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A donor-acceptor system, 4-thiophenyl-azafulleroid (4TPA-C60), is investigated at the point of HOMO/LUMO resonance and beyond to understand how negative differential resistance (NDR) features may be observed in such systems. Our previous investigation showed that charge transfer between the occupied and unoccupied states at resonance hindered cross...
Article
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) has the extraordinary ability to adapt to the administration of antibiotics through the development of resistance mechanisms. By rapidly exporting drugs from within the cytosol, these pathogenic bacteria diminish antibiotic potency and drive the presentation of drug tolerant tuberculosis (TB). The membrane integrit...
Article
Carbon nanotube grafted carbon fibers (CNT-g-CFs) were prepared continuously, spool to spool, via thermal CVD. The application of an in-situ potential difference (300 V), between the fibers and a cylindrical graphite foil counter electrode, enhanced the growth, producing a uniform coverage of carbon nanotubes with diameter ca. 10 nm and length ca....