Mikael Jansson's research while affiliated with University of Victoria and other places

Publications (56)

Article
Sex workers' noncommercial intimate partnerships are marginalized on two counts - they are non-monogamous and at least one partner is in sex work, an occupation with much stigma. We asked a heterogeneous sample of Canadian sex workers (N = 218) about their decisions to reveal/not reveal their sex work to intimate partners, and the resulting challen...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Research shows criminal code laws negatively affect the health and safety of sex workers and hinders their ability to access protective and other services. Less is known about sex workers’ views on how to improve their occupational and broader social rights. This paper aims to help fill in this knowledge gap. Methods In 2017, a cross-...
Chapter
In Chapter 4, accounts of street-involved youth about their separation from guardians are described. These stories show that how and why these youth separate or are separated from guardians affect their unusual experiences of self-focus, emerging adulthood, and experiences on the street. The youth’s explanations for leaving guardians included the d...
Chapter
In Chapter 7, street-involved youth are expressing a desire for what other young adults want, that is, to accept responsibility for themselves, to make independent decisions, and to be financially independent. As Arnett found, this is what young adulthood looks like to most young people. Street-involved youth described it as the experience of being...
Chapter
In Chapter 5, the early months and years in the lives of street-involved youth are examined in light of Arnett’s suggestion that emerging adults’ self-focus is associated with less influence by social institutions, including family, education, and the job market and employment. In the absence of daily life with family, attending school, and working...
Chapter
Unlike most emerging adults, for whom instability is new, for street-involved youth instability is a lifelong experience, beginning in early childhood. Chapter 3 portrays the experience of frequent changes in housing, frequent fluctuations in guardian arrangements, and adjustments related to parental mental health, addiction, and abuse and neglect....
Book
The Experience of Emerging Adulthood Among Street-Involved Youth tells the story of young people who were street-involved from their early to middle teens and into their 20s, particularly their experiences of emerging adulthood while struggling toward young adulthood and independence. These youth experienced emerging and early adulthood earlier tha...
Chapter
Chapter 2 describes the Risky Business study, which is the source of the primary data for this book, including an overview of the street-involved youth sample. This study was a panel study, with five waves of data collected over roughly 10 years. More than 200 youth in Victoria, British Columbia, between the ages of 14 and 18 were recruited, and by...
Chapter
Chapter 8 describes how identity exploration and “enduring choices” are more difficult for street-involved youth, in part because they do not receive much help from familial and societal institutions. Identity exploration is in large part the experience of disengagement from street life and engagement with something else. This process is interpreta...
Chapter
Chapter 9 illustrates the circumstances of the authors’ street-involved youth sample at the time of the last data collection point, further implications of early life trauma, and the unfairness of social policy, with suggestions for helping street-involved youth reintegrate into mainstream social institutions more easily. The youth at this point in...
Chapter
Chapter 6 describes the desire for further change shown by the street-involved youth as they grew older and more mature. They were responding to recognition that their friendships need to change if their life is to change; boredom and wanting something more meaningful; unhappiness with their own drug use; weariness with being financially vulnerable...
Article
There is increasing recognition and attention towards the patterns of police encounters with citizens. In this study, we examine the determinants of being stopped and questioned by the police among a heterogenous sample of adolescents and young adults, who were either people who use drugs and a comparison group, in three non-metropolitan areas of B...
Article
Full-text available
A growing literature advocates for using a labor perspective to study sex work. According to this approach, sex work involves many of the costs, benefits, and possibilities for exploitation that are common to many jobs. We add to the field with an examination of job attributes and mental health. Our analysis is comparative and uses data from a pane...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents descriptive findings on sex workers’ structural disadvantage and their evaluation of the quality of their work, relative to their other jobs. In-person interviews were conducted in 2013 with sex workers ( n = 218) from Canada. Participants reported they experience precarity (i.e. uncertainty and instability) in employment and...
Article
Introduction: Normalization theory posits a process where drug use is socially accommodated in society. We examine the extent of and factors related to police decision to charge young people who use drugs prior to cannabis legalization in Canada in 2018 and situate these findings within normalization theory. Methods: In the Youth Experiences with P...
Article
Full-text available
Prostitution, payment for the exchange of sexual services, is deemed a major social problem in most countries around the world today, with little to no consensus on how to address it. In this Target Article, we unpack what we discern as the two primary positions that undergird academic thinking about the relationship between inequality and prostitu...
Article
Full-text available
Prostitution stigma has been shown to negatively affect the work, personal lives, and health of sex workers. Research also shows that sex workers have much higher unmet health care needs than the general population. Less is known about how stigma obstructs their health-seeking behaviors. For our thematic analysis, we explored Canadian sex workers’...
Chapter
This chapter is based on findings from a research project entitled Risky Business. In the study, 92 street-involved participants in wave 1 (out of 189) had some kind of care experience, either temporary or permanent, and, of the 64 participants in all five waves, 38 had care experience. These youth left care early, prior to the transition to adulth...
Article
Full-text available
Stigma attached to sex workers’ occupation, sometimes disparagingly referred to as ‘prostitution’ or ‘whore’ stigma, is a fundamental challenge for people in sex work. Yet sex workers are not powerless when confronting occupational stigma. We employed thematic analysis with data from in-person interviews conducted in 2012–13 with a diverse sample o...
Article
Many studies document links between income poverty, material hardship, and mental health; however, we know less about the mental health consequences of within-person changes in income poverty and material hardship, particularly for low-income workers. The authors examine these relationships with longitudinal data from a sample of frontline service...
Article
Full-text available
Background Social marginalization and criminalization create health and safety risks for sex workers and reduce their access to health promotion and prevention services compared to the general population. Community empowerment-based interventions that prioritize the engagement of sex workers show promising results. Peer-to-peer interventions, where...
Article
Full-text available
This study assesses the impact of family instability during childhood on adult intentions to seek healthcare when depressed or in pain, adding to research on the long-term consequences of family instability and on care seeking. Logistic regression is used with survey data collected from nearly 600 service workers in Sacramento, CA and Victoria, Bri...
Article
Full-text available
Sex work is assumed to have a negative effect on self-esteem, nearly exclusively expressed as low self-worth, due to its social unacceptability and despite the diversity of persons, positions and roles within the sex industry. In this study, we asked a heterogeneous sample of 218 Canadian sex workers delivering services in various venues about how...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies suggest that street-involved youth may have more robust and diverse social networks than previously thought. However, the supports offered by their social relationships have not been studied in detail. We analyzed descriptive quantitative data and open-ended interviews with 130 street-involved youth aged 14–18 in Victoria, Canada, to...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The regulation of sex work is contentious in all countries, including for governments, the public, and sex workers themselves. Research shows sex workers’ perspectives are ignored during policy formation in most cases. This is despite the fact they have unique insider knowledge and are directly affected by the policies that are enacted....
Article
Full-text available
Entry into sex work is not typically considered as an occupational choice comparable to entry into other jobs. In the sex work literature, initiation is often thought to occur through predisposing factors deep in the structure of society, including childhood disadvantage, abuse and neglect. Some studies have also identified need for money as the ma...
Chapter
Full-text available
Weitzer (2009) notes that the sex work employment triangle involves three groups: workers, clients, and various third parties; the latter includes pimps, facilitators, brokers, managers, and others who help organize or facilitate sex work. Our research focuses on the third group, and in particular on managers who work in legal or licensed sex indus...
Article
Full-text available
Confidence in the police is fundamental to citizens' willingness to report unlawful behaviour, share intelligence about crime, seek help when victimized, and generally comply with the law. Marginalized groups overwhelmingly report a lack of confidence that police will apply the law fairly. Although sex work research reports a wide range of negative...
Article
p> OBJECTIVES: This paper examines unmet health care needs in one of Canada’s most hard-to-reach populations, adult sex workers, and investigates whether their reasons for not accessing health care are different from those of other Canadians. METHODS: Data gathered in 2012–2013 from sex workers aged 19 and over ( n = 209) in five Canadian census m...
Article
Full-text available
A large body of research shows a link between stigma and poor health; yet stigma is complex and involves several processes. This paper employs a social determinants of health perspective to shed light on the link between work and one dimension of stigma—discrimination. It examines discrimination and depression with data from a comparative study of...
Article
Full-text available
Study looks at the importance of time in giving sex workers control when negotiating transactions with clients. The authors also reflect on the likely negative outcomes of the new legal provisions in Canada for both sex workers and clients that will widen the net of criminal sanctions to include everyone who purchases or communicates in order to ob...
Article
Full-text available
Stigma is a widely used concept in social science research and an extensive literature claims that stigmatisation contributes to numerous negative health outcomes. However, few studies compare groups that vary in the extent to which they are stigmatised and even fewer studies examine stigma's independent and mediating effects. This article addresse...
Article
A large proportion of youth who become street-involved have experience in foster care, and our sample of 92 street-involved youth, aged 14-18years, all had foster care experience. We report on (i) instability of guardians and home from birth to street involvement; (ii) the connection between perceptions about foster care and measures of well-being;...
Article
Full-text available
Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are epidemiologically important because they can form bridge groups linking high-and low-risk subpopulations. However, because male clients are hard to locate, they are not frequently studied. Recent research emphasizes searching for high-risk behavior groups in locales where new sexual partnerships form an...
Article
Full-text available
Explanations of adult involvement in sex work typically adopt one of two approaches. One perspective highlights a variety of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, including physical and sexual abuse, family instability, poverty, associations with "pimps" and other exploiters, homelessness, and drug use. An alternative account recognize...
Article
Full-text available
Canada has expressed a strong commitment to the rights of its citizens against discrimination, including those with disabilities. A question remains whether Canadians with disabilities are able to practice these rights. Our mixed-methods study sheds light on the situation of one important sub-group of people with disabilities – those who are legall...
Article
Full-text available
Research on the intimate partnerships of female sex workers (FSWs) tends to focus on the risks associated with these relationships. This paper takes as its starting point that the situation of FSWs is better understood by including knowledge of the benefits of their intimate partnerships. Specifically, we employ the conceptual framework provided by...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we examine various legal strategies used to regulate the sale and purchase of sexual services. We use three broad categories to structure our discussion: full criminalization, partial decriminalization, and full decriminalization. In each section, we discuss laws directed toward the control of sellers, buyers, and third parties. We...
Article
Full-text available
A basic ecological and epidemiological question is why some women enter into commercial sex work while other women in the same socio-economic environment never do. To address this question respondent driven sampling principles were adopted to recruit and collect data for 161 female sex workers and 159 same aged women who never engaged in commercial...
Article
Full-text available
This paper compares and contrasts number of partners and condom use behaviour for female sex workers and a sample of women working in other economic activities, with both samples drawn from the large informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi. As expected, univariate analysis revealed much higher numbers of overall sexual partners and higher levels of...
Article
Recent sexual behavior surveys in the Ariaal community of Karare, Marsabit District, northern Kenya, indicate a rapid increase in male condom use among unmarried men and women. Increased condom use stems from the Kenyan government’s expanding HIV/AIDS programs to the remote parts of northern Kenya, resulting in easier access to condoms. This paper...
Article
The Centre for Addictions Research of British Columbia (CARBC) was established as a multi-campus and multi-disciplinary research centre administered by the University of Victoria (UVic) in late 2003. Its core funding is provided from interest payments on an endowment of CAD 10.55 million dollars. It is supported by a commitment to seven faculty app...
Article
Social science and media depictions of youth living on our city streets typically focus on their “risk behaviours,” especially illicit drug use and unprotected sex, the social environmental challenges they face, in particular higher likelihood of sexual and physical assault and homicide (Tyler, Hoyt, & Whitbeck, 2000; Auerswald & Eyre, 2002; Peders...
Book
Efforts to apply ethical guidelines and regulations to vulnerable populations are often problematic. Consequently, health and social scientists sometimes shy away from the challenges of research, particularly when it means addressing value-laden social problems such as sexuality, drugs, and racism. Ethical Issues in Community-Based Research with Ch...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, the authors examine some of the benefits and challenges associated with conducting research on hard-to-reach/hidden populations: in this instance, sex workers. The population studied was female and male sex workers working in different sectors of the sex industry in a medium-size Canadian metropolitan area. The authors describe the...

Citations

... To select studies for review, all titles and abstracts identified in the performed search were read through to judge whether sex work policy was the subject of the study. Several types of studies were deemed irrelevant and therefore not selected for review, e.g., (1) studies only mentioning sex work policy as a topic, (2) studies focusing on, for example, the viewpoints of sex workers in order to improve a policy (e.g., Benoit et al., 2021), (3) book reviews and commentaries, and (4) duplicates were removed from all databases except Web of Science, as it was the first database to be searched. Studies that were deselected were recorded into a Microsoft Excel 2016 spreadsheet to calculate of the number of duplicates and irrelevant studies. ...
... There is a wide breadth of research highlighting the barriers that these street-involved youth face in obtaining their education (Ferguson & Xie, 2012;Jones et al., 2018;Klodawsky et al., 2006;Magnuson et al., 2021;Solomon, 2013). Young people who are able to remain in school while being street-involved contend with frequent absences and lack the space to complete homework (Dhillon, 2011;Jones et al., 2018;Tierney & Hallett, 2012). ...
... Our findings add to the literature on police discretion in drug law enforcement. Studies show that police discretion often diverges along racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic lines, indicating that police discretion is subject to discrimination ( Beckett et al., 2005( Beckett et al., , 2006Card et al., 2020 ;Cooper, 2015 ;Friedman et al., 2021 ;Greer et al., 2021 ;Mitchell & Caudy, 2015 ;Owusu-Bempah & Luscombe, 2020 ). Discriminatory policing is reflected in Canada, where simple possession arrests are disproportionately high among Black and Indigenous groups ( Card et al., 2020 ;Owusu-Bempah & Luscombe, 2020 ). ...
... Population studies are not the only research affected by sampling methodology. Many Canadian qualitative studies of sex workers use non-random samples [14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]. It is an open question whether non-random samples typically used in this research accurately reflect the demographic composition of the populations they intend to represent. ...
... On the other hand, the subjective nature of discretion can lead to confusion amongst police officers and can result in inequitable, inconsistent, unpredictable, and discriminatory application ( Greer & Ritter, 2019 ;Greer et al., 2022 ). For example, studies show that police exercise less discretion and can deliver harsher penalties for people who are experiencing homelessness and for racial minorities ( Card et al., 2020 ;Greer et al., 2020 ;Khenti, 2014 ;Owusu-Bempah & Luscombe, 2020 ;Samuels-Wortley, 2019 ). ...
... However, this migration for sex work by Romanians and other national groups from underdeveloped economies has contributed to a reshuffling of prostitution policies in developed countries in Europe and beyond. The governments of these countries have often tended to mistakenly equate prostitution with sex trafficking and, in an attempt to eradicate the latter, have moved toward stricter governance and even at times the criminalization of sex work (Benoit et al., 2019;Crowhurst, 2012;Outshoorn, 2012;Vanwesenbeeck, 2017). Research evidence from outside of Europe documents the contrasting policy outcomes in relation to anti-trafficking in the United States and Australia as a result of these countries' diverging feminist views (radical versus liberal) and political attitudes (criminalization versus legalization) with respect to sex work. ...
... Extensive research from Canada and around the globe has captured the ways that sex work stigma is exacerbated by laws that criminalize sex workers, third parties or any facet of the industry [17,35,[42][43][44]. Results from our current study describe the impacts of stigma on sex workers' access to sexual heath assessments, as well their experiences within various healthcare settings. ...
... There are two main perspectives that underpin the relationship between sex work and inequality: (1) gender equality and (2) social inequality (for a review, see Benoit et al., 2019). The gender inequality perspective views sex work as an institution of hierarchical gender inequality, in which women's bodies are exploited by men in exchange for money (Anderson, 2002;Farley, 2004;Kesler, 2002;Pateman, 1988). ...
... Sex workers in our study experiencing intersecting forms of oppression, such as precarious im/migration status and/or language barriers described obstacles to health assessments and PPE, some of which were mitigated by supportive third parties, as well as gaps in sexual health education and health assessment services offered in languages other than English. The unique realities of im/migrant sex workers, as described in our study and previous research, underscore how intersecting social locations and structural factors determine the relevancy and effectiveness of sex work OHS guidelines [17,22,26]. Therefore, it is essential that an evaluation of sex workers' uptake of best practices, as described in the Guide or otherwise, considers the compounding impacts of im/migration policy and ongoing criminalization. ...
... But findings are mixed regarding the relative effects of changes in material hardship, versus the effects of chronic hardship, on emotional wellbeing. Some studies have found that changes in material hardship lead to changes in mental health (Elo, 2009;Heflin & Iceland, 2009;Heflin et al., 2005;McCarthy et al., 2018;Mirowsky & Ross, 2001), whereas others have emphasized the detrimental effects of long-term, chronic material hardship on the mental health (Bierman et al., 2021;Galea, 2019;Keily et al., 2015;Skapinkis, 2007;Weich & Lewis, 1998). Some studies address the issue directly, and distinguish persistent hardship from changes in hardship. ...