Mihail C. Roco's research while affiliated with National Science Foundation and other places

Publications (128)

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Knowledge, technology, and society as well as natural systems are increasingly coherent and complex, and new systems are continuously formed at their interfaces. Convergence is a problem-solving strategy to holistically understand, create, and transform a system for reaching a common goal, such as advancing an emerging technology in society. The sy...
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The United States (US) and the People’s Republic of China (China) have the most patents in nanotechnology in their own depositories and overall in the international depositories. This paper compares nanotechnology landscapes between 2001 and 2017 as reflected in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and China National Intellectual P...
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This paper presents the development of nanotechnology between 2000 and 2016 as reflected in the Web of Science papers, United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), World International Property Organization (WIPO) patents, and National Science Foundation (NSF) awards, with a special reference to the United States (US), European Union (EU27), P...
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The progression of nanoscale science and technology development may be separated in three main stages: Nano 1 (~2000-2010) focused on uncovering phenomena at the nanoscale and semi-empirical synthesis of nanocomponents; Nano 2 (~2010-2020) on science-based nanosystem integration for fundamentally new products; and Nano 3 (~2020-2030) on creating ne...
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Convergence offers a new universe of discovery, innovation, and application opportunities through specific theories, principles, and methods to be implemented in research, education, production, and other societal activities. Using a holistic approach with shared goals, convergence seeks to transcend existing human limitations to achieve improved c...
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Scientific discovery and technological innovation in various areas evolve in coherence but in a nonuniform manner. This process leads to domains of scientific convergence, technology integration, and divergence of knowledge and applications into new fields. This cycle brings about synergism, which stimulates further discovery and innovation. The co...
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For more than a decade, hundreds of scientists and engineers debated in conferences and contributed to books exploring the need and value of convergence across their fields and with society. Convergence advances an integrative approach across human dimensions, is based on the material unity of nature, and is best facilitated by a holistic approach...
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The main benefits of science and technology convergence are increasing creativity, innovation, and productivity. Various methods to improve and expedite convergence aim at adding value in the convergence process and enabling people to more readily use new convergence-enabled competencies. These methods are based on applying five general principles...
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Knowledge is a crucial asset in organizations and its diffusion and recombination processes can be affected by numerous factors. This study examines the influence of the status of individual researchers in social networks on the knowledge diffusion and recombination process. We contend that knowledge diversity, random diffusion, and parallel duplic...
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For more than a decade, hundreds of scientists and engineers debated in conferences and contributed to books exploring the need and value of convergence across their fields and with society. Convergence advances an integrative approach across human dimensions, is based on the material unity of nature, and is best facilitated by a holistic approach...
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Given the global increase in public funding for nanotechnology research and development, it is even more important to support projects with promising return on investment. A main return is the benefit to other researchers and to the entire field through knowledge diffusion, invention, and innovation. The social network of researchers is one of the...
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Understanding the knowledge-diffusion networks of patent inventors can help governments and businesses effectively use their investment to stimulate commercial science and technology development. Such inventor networks are usually large and complex. This study proposes a multidimensional network analysis framework that utilizes Exponential Random G...
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Since 1999, the mission of the Journal of Nanoparticle Research has been to disseminate research on the physical, chemical and biological phenomena, and processes at work in nanoscale structures, i.e., where at least one dimension is in the range from atomic size and approximately 100 nm. The focus of contributions has been toward improved or novel...
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Systematic convergence in knowledge and technology promises to increase the rate of scientific breakthroughs, lead to the establishment of new S&T domains and support growing expectations for human progress, including improved productivity, education, and quality of life. A virtual spiral of creativity and innovation will have a significant effect...
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Whereas the R&D process of convergence of knowledge and technology has been largely reactive or coincidental in the past, there is a growing realization among the world’s scientific communities that to take best advantage of scientific innovation trends and govern them appropriately, there must be a more proactive, focused effort to support converg...
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Convergence of knowledge and technology for the benefit of society (CKTS) is the core opportunity for progress in the twenty-first century. CKTS is defined as the escalating and transformative interactions among seemingly different disciplines, technologies, communities, and domains of human activity to achieve mutual compatibility, synergism, and...
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Scientists are building the next generation of atomic-scale devices
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Convergence of knowledge and technology for the benefit of society (CKTS) is the core opportunity for progress in the 21st century, based on five principles: (1) the interdependence of all components of nature and society, (2) enhancement of creativity and innovation through evolutionary processes of convergence that combine existing principles, an...
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In the last 10 years, the state of the art in nanoelectronics, including nanomagnetics, has rapidly gone from devices at or above 100 nm in size to the realm of 30 nm and below, with a well-defined pathway to devices (including transistors for logic and memory) of about 15 nm. In the process of reaching this size, the thickness of the critical laye...
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Increasing standards of living and rising population numbers are leading to inevitable increases in global energy consumption. Worldwide energy usage is on track to increase by roughly 40% in the next 20 years (Fig. 1) and to nearly double by 2050. This demand could be met, in principle, from fossil energy resources, particularly coal. However, the...
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Both nanophotonics and plasmonics concern investigations into building, manipulating, and characterizing optically active nanostructures with a view to creating new capabilities in instrumentation for the nanoscale, chemical and biomedical sensing, information and communications technologies, enhanced solar cells and lighting, disease treatment, en...
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The field encompassed by the term “nanomaterials” has changed dramatically over the past 10 years. While it was useful in 2000 to describe nanomaterials on the sole basis of our ability to understand and to control matter at the nanoscale where material properties possess a distinct size-dependence, the field has now grown well beyond that earlier...
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As subsequent chapters in this report will describe, theory, modeling, and simulation (TM&S) play a significant role in almost every branch of nanotechnology. TM&S consists of three distinct components. A theory can be defined as a set of scientific principles that explains phenomena—a succinct description of a class of problems. Modeling is the an...
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In 2000, the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Implementation Plan [1] recognized that nanoscale science and engineering education is vital to U.S. economic development, public welfare, and quality of life. But the Nanotechnology Research Directions report’s vision for education and physical infrastructure only addressed (a) the need for a m...
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Over the past decade, nanomedicine and nanobiology have undergone radical transformations from fantasy to real science. The days of discussing advances in this area in the context of “nanobots” are over, and systems and nanomaterials have emerged that provide major analytical or therapeutic advantages over conventional molecule-based structures and...
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The global sustainability challenges facing the world are complex and involve multiple interdependent areas. Chapter “Nanotechnology for Sustainability: Envi­ron­ment, Water, Food, Minerals, and Climate” focuses on sustainable nanotechnology solutions for a clean environment, water resources, food supply, mineral resources, green manufacturing, hab...
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The last decade has been an exciting period of discovery in the synthesis and processing of nanostructures. Many new nanomaterials have emerged, along with new fabrication processes to generate them. The last decade has seen penetration of nanotechnology into almost every area and discipline in science and engineering. Nanotechnology has been used...
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The 1999 Nanotechnology Research Directions report included nanoscale catalysis as one aspect of applications of nanotechnology to the energy and chemicals industries [1]. The vision centered on the recognition that “new properties intrinsic to nanostructures” could lead to breakthroughs in catalysis with high selectivity at high yield. An example...
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Nanoscale science and engineering continue to evolve from a scientific concept to a broad-based technology with potential to introduce significant changes in the fields of medicine, productivity, sustainability, and quality of life. It has been estimated that the global market value of products incorporating nanotechnology will increase significant...
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The paper examines the progress made in nanotechnology development since 2000, achievements at ten years, and opportunities in research, education, innovation and societal outcomes by 2020 worldwide. KeywordsNanoscale science and engineering–Research, education and innovation–Forecast–Governance–Societal implications–International perspective
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A global scientific and societal endeavor was set in motion by the ­nanotechnology vision formulated in 1999 that inspired the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) and other national and international R&D programs. Establishing foundational knowledge at the nanoscale has been the main focus of the nanotechnology research community in the first...
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Nanotechnology R&D has changed its focus, industrial relevance and governance since 2000 when was proposed in various national programs as a key science and technology development for 21st century. This presentation outlines the progress in foundational knowledge development, its current status supporting about $80 billion production incorporating...
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Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991-2008 have been examined using the "title-abstract" keyword search on esp@cenet "worldwide" database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total...
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China, Russia, and India are playing an increasingly important role in global nanotechnology research and development (R&D). This paper comparatively inspects the paper and patent publications by these three countries in the Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI) database and United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (1976-2...
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The international interrepository knowledge sharing and diffusion patterns in nanotechnology by analyzing patent publication trends from different national or regional repositories with particular focus on the most active countries and regions are presented. The data are collected from esp@cenet worldwide database, which holds more than 60 million...
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Nanotechnology research has experienced rapid growth in recent years. Advances in information technology enable efficient investigation of publications, their contents, and relationships for large sets of nanotechnology-related documents in order to assess the status of the field. This paper presents the development of a new knowledge mapping syste...
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Nanotechnology research and applications have experienced rapid growth in recent years. We assessed the status of nanotechnology research worldwide by applying bibliographic, content map, and citation network analysis to a data set of about 200,000 nanotechnology papers published in the Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded database (SCI) from 19...
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The convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable opportunities to meet and enhance human potential and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This paper focuses on the...
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An analysis of 30 years of data on patent publications from the US Patent and Trademark Office, the European Patent Office and the Japan Patent Office confirms the dominance of companies and selected academic institutions from the US, Europe and Japan in the commercialization of nanotechnology.
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The ‘White Paper on Nanotechnology Risk Governance’ is the product of a collaborate effort for which input was provided on two initial workshops in May 2005 and January 2006 and which was advised by the IRGC's Nanotechnology Working Group and a number of external experts. In addition, the results of four stakeholder surveys undertaken as part of th...
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To assess worldwide development of nanotechnology, this paper compares the numbers and contents of nanotechnology patents in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), European Patent Office (EPO), and Japan Patent Office (JPO). It uses the patent databases as indicators of nanotechnology trends via bibliographic analysis, content map a...
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Academic nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) research provides a foundation for nanotechnology innovation reflected in patents. About 60% or about 50,000 of the NSE-related patents identified by “full-text” keyword searching between 1976 and 2004 at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) have an average of approximately 18 academ...
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The patent citation networks are described using critical node, core network, and network topological analysis. The main objective is understanding of the knowledge transfer processes between technical fields, institutions and countries. This includes identifying key influential players and subfields, the knowledge transfer patterns among them, and...
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A major series of conferences, workshops, and research projects has established the crucial importance of convergence across all fields of science and technology. Central to this unification at the present time are the NBIC fields: nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and new technologies based on cognitive science. This book provi...
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It is expected that convergence of nanotechnology, modern biology, the digital revolution, and cognitive sciences will bring about tremendous improvements in transformative tools, generate new products and services, enable human personal abilities and social achievements, and in time reshape societal relationships. This article focuses on the progr...
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This paper presents the genesis of the National Nanotechnology Initiative, its long-term view (2000-2020), its current status, and its likely evolution.
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After a brief overview of the general implications of converging new technologies, this chapter focuses on its effects on research and development (R&D) policies and business models as part of changing social relationships. These R&D policies will have implications on investments in research and industry, with the main goal of taking advantage of t...
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Abstract After identifying the main characteristics and prospects of nanotechnology as an emerging technology, the paper presents the general risks associated with nanotechnology applications and the deficits of the risk governance process today, concluding with recommendations to governments, industry, international organizations and other stakeho...
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Nanotechnology research has experienced growth rapid in knowledge and innovations; it also attracted significant public funding in recent years. Several countries have recognized nanotechnology as a critical research domain that promises to revolutionize a wide range of fields of applications. In this paper, we present an analysis of the funding fo...
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Advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology promise to have major impacts on human health, wealth, and peace in the coming decades. Among the expected breakthroughs are `designer' materials created from directed assembly of atoms and molecules, and the emergence of entirely new phenomena in chemistry and physics. This book includes a collection of e...
Book
Advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology promise to have major impacts on human health, wealth, and peace in the coming decades. Among the expected breakthroughs are `designer' materials created from directed assembly of atoms and molecules, and the emergence of entirely new phenomena in chemistry and physics. This book includes a collection of e...
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Tremendous human progress is becoming possible through the development of converging technologies stimulated by advances in four core fields: Nanotechnology, Biotechnology Information technology, and new technologies based in Cognitive science (NBIC). This book provides a unique review of technical developments related to the unification that is ra...
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MotivationGovernment InvestmentTransforming StrategyClosing RemarksAcknowledgementsReferences
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The balance between the potential benefits and risks of nanotechnology is discussed based on judgments expressed by leading industry, academe and government experts at a U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) sponsored meeting. The results are summarized in various themes related to: economic impacts and commercialization; social scenarios;...
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Nanotechnology holds the promise to revolutionize a wide range of products, processes and applications. It is recognized by over sixty countries as critical for their development at the beginning of the 21st century. A significant public investment of over $1billion annually is devoted to nanotechnology research in the United States. This paper pro...
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Science based on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale provides a new foundation for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration. Convergent new technologies refers to the synergistic combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences (NBIC), each of which is currently progressing at...
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Nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) have seen rapid growth and expansion in new areas in recent years. This paper provides an international patent analysis using the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) data searched by keywords of the entire text: title, abstract, claims, and specifications. A fraction of these patents fully satisfy the Na...
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Unifying science based on the material unity of nature at the nanoscale provides a new foundation for knowledge, innovation, and integration of technology. Revolutionary and synergistic advances at the interfaces between previously separated fields of science, engineering and areas of relevance are ready to create nano-bio-info-cogno (NBIC) transfo...
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Nanoscale science and engineering activities are flourishing in the U.S. The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) transforming plan proposed in 1999 led to a synergistic, accelerated and interdisciplinary development of the field, and motivated not only academic researchers but also industry and government organizations. This article presents t...
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Research and education results after the first 3 years of National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) investment are outlined. The history of NNI and several potential outcomes by 2015 are discussed. The views expressed here are based on the interview given for the website www.nano.gov on November 2003. What is the National Nanotechnology Initiative?...
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Nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) and related areas have seen rapid growth in recent years. The speed and scope of development in the field have made it essential for researchers to be informed on the progress across different laboratories, companies, industries and countries. In this project, we experimented with several analysis and visuali...
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Reversing the pyramid of learning could expedite the development of a US nanotechnology workforce.